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any allowance for stoppages, or hindrance from other causes, and have spun 61,287 1bs. yarn No. 30-seven skeins to the spindle-per day. They invite all practical men and others that feel an interest in improvements, to call at their manufactory in Dodgeville, and examine the same.
IRON FURNACES IN OHIO AND KENTUCKY.
There are in Ohio and Kentucky thirty-three iron furnaces, which yield an aggregate of 56,000 tons of pig metal each year. In addition to these furnaces in Ohio, there are a number in Tennessee and Illinois, which yield a considerable amount of metal; and, with the increase of population in the West, this business in steadily advancing.
Much the largest portion of the Ohio and Kentucky metal is disposed of in the Cincinnati market, and it is very seldom that the supply is more than adequate to the demand, or that the former is not about equal to the latter. In consequence of this, and of the article not being one of speculation, prices fluctuate but little, and the ruling rates have been about $26 for cold blast, Tennessee and Illinois, $28 for cold blast, Ohio and Kentucky, and $27 for hot blast, Ohio and Kentucky.
Of the 56,000 tons of metal produced in Ohio and Kentucky, the Cincinnati Price Current estimates that 22,000 tons is consumed in Cincinnati, for which $600,000, or thereabouts, is paid annually. From this statement some idea may be formed of the extent of the foundry business in Cincinnati.
We find in Cist's Advertiser a list of the Ohio and Kentucky furnaces in 1849, which we append :
IMPROVED MACHINE FOR SEWING.
In regard to this invention, the Tribune observes:-We have witnessed the operation of a new sewing machine-Newell's improvement of Maury & Johnson's patentwhich has just been put in operation at the sewing factory in Platt-street, New York. On turning a crank with one hand, the machine sews seems of any length, and any desired curve. The stitches are perfectly even and tight, and may be taken of any length. The work to be sewed is fastened into a sliding frame, and guaged so that the needle shall strike the point of commencing the seam. The eye of the needle is near the point, and as it pierces the material, the thread is carried through and caught by a hook, which holds it till the second stitch is made. It then drops the first, taking up the second and bringing it throngh it, so that each stitch is looped upon the one behind it, the whole forming an interlinked chain. At the factory there are several machines, most of them employed in making salt bags. About 15,000 are manufactured daily for the salt works in this State. One machine will make from 800 to 1,000 bags per day.
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW STRAW CUTTER.
The Scientific American describes a new straw cutter invented by Mr. Lewis Tupper, of Auburn, N. Y. The knife is arranged in a different manner from any other that we recollect to have seen, and the feeding rollers are turned by the reciprocating motion of the cutter. The knife is a single blade bevelled downwards on both sides from the middle. (This is like some others.) It is secured to a vibrating horizontal rod or lever, (one on each side of the box,) and it has fork ends with screws on them, which pass through the knife and secure it firmly, while it can easily be de tached when required. These rods have a reciprocating motion by being attached to the knife at one end, and secured by pivot axis to the side of the feed box at the other end. One rod passes through a small groove on the end of a vibrating arm, which works two clicks that mesh into a ratchet wheel on the end of the upper feed roller; therefore, every cut of the knife moves the feed roller one notch round, giving it an intermittent rotary motion to coincide with the motion of the knife. This arrangement saves some gear wheels, and is a good method of feeding an intermittent cutting motion.
The following eloquent passage is taken from a late address of Edward Everett to a Committee of the Massachusetts Legislature:
"We hear much at present of veins of gold recently discovered in Mexico, California, and elsewhere. In fact, we hear of nothing else. But I care not what mines may be found in the North or in the South-in the wastes of Siberia or in the Sierras of California. Wherever the fountain of the golden tide may gush forth, its streams will flow to the region where educated intellect has woven the boundless net-work of the useful and the ornamental arts. If the State of Massachusetts adheres to the same policy which has for the most part directed her legislation, a generous wave of the golden tide will reach her distant shore.
"For me, may poor old rocky, sandy Massachusetts exclaim
"For me, the balm shall bleed and amber flow
The coral redden and the ruby glow
The pearly shell its liquid glave infold,
And Pacebus warm the ripening ore to gold.'”
METHOD OF SOLDERING CAST IRON WITH WROUGHT.
We find the following process for soldering cast iron with wrought iron in a late English paper:
First melt filings of soft cast iron with calcined borax in a crucible; then pulverise the black vitreous substance which is thereby produced, and sprinkle it over the parts which are intended to be united; after which, heat the pieces of cast and wrought iron and weld them together on an anvil, using only gentle blows. This method is peculiarly applicable for the manufacture of iron articles which are intended to be made red hot, and are required to be impervious to fluids or liquids, as such a result cannot be obtained by simple fastening.
RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
GREAT RUSSIAN RAILWAY FROM ST. PETERSBURG TO MOSCOW.
The greatest work of modern times, undertaken as a public improvement and not directly as a war measure, was the project by the Emperor Nicholas of Russia, for a line of railway to connect the great capitols of the empire. The distance was generally stated at 500 miles, but the location of the railway has been effected in a distance of only 420 miles.
The plan adopted, contemplated the construction of a road perfect in all its parts, and equipped to its utmost necessity, regardless of expense or of the time requisite to its completion. The estimates were on a scale of imperial grandeur, and contemplated the expenditure of thirty-eight millions of dollars. The work was entrusted to Colonel George W. Whistler, with unlimited authority, and forty millions of dollars set aside for the work.
Seven years was the shortest estimate made for the time of its completion, and all parts of the work were so distributed as to give time for everything to take its appropriate position when required.
These advantages were fully appreciated by Colonel Whistler, and all his plans were matured upon a scale of comprehensive economy suited to so important an undertaking. The line selected for the route had no reference to intermediate localities, and is the shortest one attainable without sacrificing more valuable requirements for the road. It is nearly straight, and passes over so level a country as to encounter no obstacles requiring a grade exceeding twenty feet to the mile, and most of the distance upon a level. The roadway taken is four hundred feet in width throughout the entire length, the road bed elevated from six to ten feet above the ordinary level of the country, and is thirty feet wide on the top. The road is laid with a double track, a five feet guage, and a rail of sixty-nine pounds to the lineal yard, on a ballasting of gravel two feet in depth. The bridges have no spans exceeding two hundred feet, and are of wood, built after the plan of " Howe's Improved Patent," so well known on the New England roads, with a truss twenty-four feet in depth.
The work had so far advanced at the time of Colonel Whistler's death, that a large portion of it will be in use the present year, unless this event shall delay the prosecution of the work. Under these circumstances, the death of Col. Whistler was received in this country with an universal expression of sympathy and sorrow. It is fortunate, however, that the enterprise is so far completed that his fame and his works are safe from the accidents of time or of change. His successor will share largely in the same American spirit that he possessed, and will see no reason to change or modify anything that had been attempted by a man who united to the rarest mechanical genius, the most eminent practical ability.
Mr. William L. Winans of Baltimore, recently arrived from Russia by the way of Paris, left St. Petersburg a few days only before Colonel Whistler's death. He has in conversation with us given information such as has not been before detailed in this country, and we feel more than ordinary pleasure in giving some account of the road to our readers. Mr. Winans is of the firm of Harrison, Winans & Eastwick, who are so well known in this country as the contractors for furnishing the equipment of this road. They have already supplied it with
162 locomotive engines, averaging twenty-five tons weight.
72 passenger cars.
2,580 freight cars.
2 imperial saloon carriages, capable each of carrying the Imperial Court of
This equipment has been built in Russia in shops prepared by the contractors, and supplied by them with Russian labor. The whole contract with Messrs. Harrison, Winans & Eastwick has amounted to between four and five millions of dollars. They engaged to construct a suitable number of Russian mechanics to take charge of engines when completed.
The engines are of two classes, sixty-two are eight-wheel engines for passenger travel, and one hundred eight-wheel engines for freight. The passenger engines are of one uniform pattern throughout, so that any part of a machine will fit the same position on any other. They have each four driving wheels coupled six feet in diameter,
and trucks in front similar to the modern engines on the New England and New York roads. Their general dimensions are as follows:
The freight engines have the same capacity of boiler, the same number and length of tubes, with three pair of driving wheels and a pair of small wheels in front. The driving wheels are only four and a half feet diameter, with eighteen inch cylinders, and twenty-two inch stroke, all uniform throughout in workmanship and finish.
The passenger cars have the same uniformity. They are all fifty-six feet in length, by nine and a half feet in width, and divided into three classes. The first class carrying thirty-three passengers, the second class fifty-four, and the third class eighty passengers each. They are all provided with eight truck wheels each, with eliptic steel springs. The freight cars are all of them thirty by nine and a half feet, made in an uniform manner, having eight wheel trucks under each.
The imperial saloon carriages are of 80 feet in length and nine and a half feet width, having double trucks with sixteen wheels under each. They are finished into five different compartments, the imperial mansion in the center, twenty-five feet in length, fitted up with every luxury for sitting or reclining, and with every comfort in every part of it that the most ingenious mind can devise, or the most refined taste can desire. Spacious platforms are provided in front and rear. The whole cost of them exceeds fifteen thousand dollars each.
The depots at each terminus, and the station houses and engine houses along the line are on a plan uniform throughout, and on a scale equally imposing. Fuel and water stations are placed at suitable points. Engine houses are provided at the distance of fifty miles apart, built of the most substantial masonry, of circular form, one hundred and eighty feet in diameter, surmounted with a dome, containing stalls for twenty-two engines each. Engines are to run from one engine house to another only under one heat, and are run back and forth from station to station, so that they are kept constantly in charge of the same persons. Repair shops are attached to every engine house, furnished with every tool or implement that the wants of the road can require.
Engine drivers have to go through the appropriate training before they are allowed to take charge of an engine, and every arrangement provided that skill, experience or ingenuity can demand.
Colonel Whistler looked forward to the completion of this great work with the eye of a Christian and a man. The greatest work of civil engineering that the world had yet demanded was entrusted to his care. He never forgot his country or the duties he owed to his reputation. He needed only to await the consummation of his labors, and transport the Imperial Court of Russia from the banks of the Neva to the palace of the Kremlin in ten hours time, to have had a fortune at his disposal from the munificence of the Emperor. Though receiving a large salary during his engagement, this was barely enough in that country to sustain the proper dignity of his position. He resigned these rewards and all the honors of the world at the fearful summons of death, leaving the inheritance of a spotless name to his children, his profession, and his country.
It needs no other testimony to show the estimation in which he was held, than the fact that his successor is to be an American also! We confess the pride of our hearts, that our country presents so glorious a spectacle to the genius and the learning of Europe. The fact that the unobtrusive citizen of republican America could, by the force of genius and of merit, attain a rank and a position in the proudest monarchy of Europe, and a power for good beyond anything that hereditary greatness or titled nobility could command, causes a reflection that gives us far more pleasure than the recollections of any triumph of arms, or any attainment of titles, that are within the gift of power.-American Railroad Journal.
CANAL STEAM NAVIGATION.
The "Central City," an excellent daily published in Syracuse, N. Y., has seen a stout lake canal boat, bearing a load of 80 tons, and propelled by steam alone, passing through that city, going east, at good packet boat speed. It may well be supposed
that the affair excited great curiosity. It was a novelty to see a boat stepping off in that style, and "never a horse" about it at all. The works were invisible, though the puffing of the engine could be heard. The wheel was between the rudder and the boat, and not more than eighteen inches or two feet in diameter. The smoke and steam escaped through the stern of the boat, some two feet above the surface of the water. It moved like a swan upon the water, and made no commotion whatever, that any "honest man need regret," whether he had charge of the canal, or not. So far as could be observed by a looker-on, the triumph of steam canal navigation is complete. If so, comment upon the importance of the achievement would be quite superfluous.
TOLLS ON THE CANADIAN CANALS.
The Canadian authorities have established, and made proclamation of the following rates of toll, by which it will be seen that the former tolls on salt and coal passing the Welland Canal are restored.
That in lieu and stead of the canal tolls, now collected on the St. Lawrence, the following rates be charged on goods, wares, and merchandise, namely:—
Corn, corn meal, apples, onions, bran and ship-stuffs, oil cake or oil, meal
round or flatted, in vessels, boats or craft under 12 by 12 per
in rafts, under 12 by 12 passing through the canals, per thou-
Boards, planks, scantling or sawed lumber in vessels, boats or craft, per thousand cubic feet, inch measurement.
Boards, planks, scantling or sawed lumber in rafts, passing through the
Pipe staves and heading.
West India staves and heading.
..per ton £0 1 0
1 8 0 01 5 0
Rafts descending the river..
Coal and salt..
All other goods.
Steamers and other vessels, per ton measurement..
Railroad and pig iron, ores, fish, brick, lime, sand, gypsum, cement, stones, wrought or unwrought, stoneware and earthenware, furniture and baggage of settlers...
ON THE WELLAND AND CHAMBLAY CANALS.
Same rates of tolls as at present collected, and on salt and coal per ton 0 1 S
CONNECTICUT RIVER RAILROAD.
This road extends from Springfield, Mass., to the line of Vermont, 52 miles, and connects with the Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad, a short distance south of the State line. From this junction the Vermont and Massachusetts Road extends to Brattleboro.
It only requires 224 miles more of railway between Brattleboro and Bellows Falls to complete the line from Wells River, Vt., to the city of New York. New York to New Haven, 76 miles; New Haven to Springfield, 62 miles; Springfield to Brattleboro, 62 miles; Brattleboro to Bellows Falls, 224; Bellows Falls to Windsor, 26 miles;