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18. His companions, after loud peals of laughter, each took credit to himself for having suspected that the gentleman belonged to the theater; and they all knew he must be a comedian by profession, when, to their utter astonishment, he assured them that he was never on the stage, and very rarely saw the inside of a play-house, or any similar place of amusement.

19. They all now looked at one another in utter amazement. Before parting, Stuart said to his companions: "Gentlemen, you will find that all I have said of my various employments is comprised in these few words: / am a portraitpainter ! *

20. "If you will call at John Palmer's, York Buildings, London,f I shall be ready and willing to. brush you a coat or . hat, dress your hair, supply you, if in need, with a wig of any fashion or dimensions, accommodate you with boots or shoes, give you ruffles or a cravat, and make faces for you."

Questions.—What is rhetorical dialogue? How should it be read? Wherein doeg

this exercise differ from the preceding one? Who was Samuel Foote? Who nj Charles Matthews? Who was this portrait painter? What,and wherejs London?


Grammatical And Rhetorical Pauses.

Pauses are suspensions of the voice in reading or speaking. They are necessary, not only to enable the reader or speaker to take breath, but are more especially important in order to

Questions. — What are pauses? Why are they necessary?

* Stu'art (GilTwrt) was a celebrated American portrait-painter. He was bom in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1775; and he died in 1828.

t Lon'don, the metropolis of the British empire, and the largest city in the world, is situated about sixty miles from the sea, on the River Thames. Its population in 1860 was 2,500,000.

give the hearer a distinct understanding of, every thought. There are two kinds : —

1. The grammatical pauses, or those used in punctuation to mark the sense of written composition.

2. The rhetorical pause, or a suspension of voice where grammatical pauses are not required. It is employed to produce rhetorical effect, and isimarked thus: [ | ].

It is supposed that the pupil is already familiar with the characters employed in punctuation; therefore it is unnecessary to introduce them here. It may be well, however, to remark, that no pause of either kind has any uniform or definite length; and that its length must always depend upon the emotions of the reader or speaker, and his rate of utterance.

But the rhetorical pause deserves the scholar's most careful attention; for, when properly observed, it adds force and impressiveness to the thought or sentiment uttered.

The following rule embraces a few of the instances where its use is required, and is introduced for the purpose of calling the learner's attention to the subject.

Rule. The rhetorical pause is generally required, — 1st. Between a verb and its subject, or nominative. 2d. Before and after an intervening phrase. 3d. Before an adjective when it follows its noun. 4th. Before, and sometimes before and after, a word or clause specially important.


1. Truth | is the only bond of friendship.

Flattery \ sits in the parlor, while plain-dealing | is turned out of doors.

Questions. —IIow many kinds of pauses are there in prose composition? What arc they? For what are grammatical pauses used? What is a rhetorical pause? How is it marked? For what is it employed? Have the pauses of either kind any uniform or definite length, in reading or speaking? What is said of the rhetorical pause? What are the specific cases given in the rule where the rhetorical pause is generally *equired? Qive an example of each?

2. Ho listened | in mournful silence | to all I could suggest. All evils | from their very nature | are contagious.

The love | which survives the tomb | is one of the noblest attri Imtes of the soul.

3. He was a man | diligent in business; anil he possessed a character | worth;/ of imitation.

There are the hills | rock-ribbed, and ancient as the sun. 4 Hail, lone star!'

Thine uneondemning glance doth aptly teach
Of that untiring mercy which vouchsafes
Thee | light | and man | salvation.

A shrill, unconscious answer rises near,
ltcpeating, still repeating | Whijipowiil!

O, give me the lips that say
The honest words | " Good-by."

Note. — A slight rhetorical pnnse usually occurs, also, before a verb in the infinitive worfc when governed by another verb, — before an adjunct of a sentence beginning with a pre/x>sition, — before that when used as a conjunction, — before who, which, or that, when the subject of a verb, — and, sometimes, where there is an ellipsis.


[The class mny point out the places in this exercise where a rhetorical pause occurs, in accordance with either the rule or the note.]

1. There, are some wicked persons | who pretend | to be fortune-tellers; and to be able to find out, in various ways, all about what will happen to any body, for years to come. And many people | are foolish enough | to believe them.

2. These people mean | by fortune | the things which they suppose will happen to them, as if it were by chance. But there is no such thing as fortune | in this sense; and it is bet

QcRStroNS— What additional instances are given in the note, where a slight rhetor RBl pause sometimes occurs?

ter to avoid the use of the word, or at least | to avoid attaching any such idea to it.

3. The blessings | we receive | are not 'given to us by blind chance. The Bible | tells us | that "every good gift, and. every perfect gift, is from above, and cometh down from the | Father | of lights." Again, it tells us that it is | God | who gives us "life, and breath, and all ^things."

4. But you may ask, What has all this to do with telling a person's fortune? Why, it has a great deal to do with it; and let me show you how. God has commanded us to do certain things. If we do them, he has promised to bless us, and make us happy.

5. It is only the blessing of God [ that will give us a good fortune. If we fail to obtain his blessing, we shall have a bad fortune. And, hence, if you want to find out whether any person is likely to have a good fortune, you must inquire whether he is doing what God commands him to do.

6. And how can we tell this? Why, by looking at "his doings." The commands of God | refer to our "doings," — that is, they refer to "the tempers \ we indulge, and the habits | we form, and the company | we keep."

7. Now, show me a child | that is cross, and fretful, and selfish | in his temper; that is idle, and careless, and dilatory in his habits; and that keeps company with persons like himself or worse; and I will tell you that child's fortune, just as easily as I could tell you how many five and five make in addition. That child will grow up to be poor, and miserable, and good for nothing in the world.

8. But show me a child that is striving to be kind, patient, and generous in his- temper; industrious, careful, and prompt in his habits; that keeps company with those who love and fear God, and is striving to become like them, and I will tell you that child's fortune just as easily as in the other case.

9. You can tell what the farmer's fortune will be, when you see him rising early, and working late, — plowing, and sowing, and tilling his grounds with untiring care and industry.

10. You can tell what the merchant's fortune will be, when you see him always in his place, and doing every thing in his power to make his business prosper. Solomon • says, " Seest thou a man | diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings." That means, he will be sure to succeed.

11. Now I wish you to bear in mind, my young friends, that you are making your fortunes every day. You have probably read about persons "going off to seek their fortunes." You can do this just as well by staying at home, and a great deal better too. You are all busy now in making your fortunes.

12. The tempers you are indulging, the habits you are forming, and the company you are keeping, are all helping to make them. What kind of tempers, and habits, and company, are they? What an important question this is! How careful you should be to find out what is wrong in your tempers or habits, and try to correct it at once! It is very easy' to do it now. It will be very hard by and by.

Questions. — Where does the first rhetorical pause which is marked in this exercise occur? Is it in accordance with the rule or the note? Which clause of the note.' Where does the next pause occur? &c, &c. Where, the next that is marked? Is this one in accordance with the rule or the note? Which clause of the rule? Point out others which are marked. &c. Point out some which are not marked, &c. Who was Solomon? What important lesson are we taught in this exerciM?


Poetry is metrical composition. It is written in regular numbers, called poetic feet, and has two general divisions: Rhyme and Blank- Verse.

Questions.—What is poetry? IIow is it generally written? What general divisions has it?

* Sol'o-mon, the son of David, was king of the Jews from 1015 B. C. to 975 B. C, a period of 40 years. He was the wisest man that ever lived; and he wrote the Book o* Proverbs, from which this quotation is made. L

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