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Roby, Henry John, b. 1830. Sec. to Schools Commissions 1864-75; M.P. 1890. Latin Grammar, 1871-74.

Roc (Rcc). See ^EPYORNIS.

Roca, Julio, b. 1843. Pres. of Argentina 1880-88. Rocafuerte, Vicente, 1783-1847. Pres. of Ecuador 183539; publicist.

Rocccllln. C,0H„NaO,SNa. Sodium salt of the acid, formed by action of the diazo compound of naphthionic acid upon or-naphtholsulphonic acid; brown powder. It dyes wool red in an acid bath.

Roccui. See Acanthopteri and Bass.

Rochambeaii, Jean Baptiste Donatien De Vimeur, Comte DE, 1725-1807. French general; sent with 6,000 soldiers to America, where he rendered valuable help, especially at Yorktown; Marshal 1791; imprisoned by Robespierre 1793, when he narrowly escaped the guillotine. Memoires, 1809. tr. 1838.—His son, Donatien Marie, 1750-1813, became Lieut.-gen. 1792, was Gov. of St. Domingo 1796 and 1802-3, and long in prison in France and England.

Rocha Pitta, Sebastiao Da, 1660-1738. Historian of Brazil 1730.

Rochdale. Manufacturing borough of Lancashire, Eng., on the Roche, 11 m. n.e. of Manchester. Its leading product is woolen goods. Pop., 1891, 71,458.

Rochdale Pioneers. Group of workingmen who opened a little store on a co-operative basis in 1846, and, achieving great success, have become the classical example and model for co-operative distribution.

Rochcfort, Henri (victor Henri, Marquis De RocheFort-lucay). b. 1832. Parisian journalist, founder of La Lanteme, 1868, and other radical papers; Deputy 1869; repeatedly condemned; deported 1871 to New Caledonia, whence tie escaped 1874; in exile till 1880; supporter of Boulanger 1888. Mes Avert tares, 1896.

Rochcfort-sur-Mer. French seaport, on the Charente, 9 m. from the Atlantic; founded 1665 as a naval station; fortified by Vauban. Pop., 1891, 33,3:34.

Rochefoucauld. See La Rochefoucauld.

Rochefoucauld-Llancourt d'F.strlssa£, Francois Alexandre Frederic. Due De La, 1747-1827. French Lieut.gen. 1790; in U. S. 1794-97; Peer 1815; founder of the first savings-bank in Paris; noted for benevolence. Voyage, 8 vols., 1795-97.

Rochejacquclein. See La Rochejacquelein.

Roclielle, La. Seaport of w. France, on the Atlantic. As a Huguenot stronghold of the Calvinist party, vainly besieged by Anjou 1573; taken by Richelieu 1628, after a 14

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months' siege. The fortifications are 3i m. round, with seven gates and three towers, the oldest dating from 1834, and the lantern tower having seven stories. Vauban constructed the present fortifications. Pop., 1891. 26,800.

Rochelle Salt. COONa.CHOH.CHOH.COOK. Sodium potassium tartrate; white crystalline solid, soluble in water; prepared by neutralizing cream of tartar with soda; used in dyeing and in pharmacy.

Roches Moulonn^es. Name given by Swiss peasants to the rounded, smooth, hummock}' bosses and undulating surfaces of rock, occurring in glacial regions. When seen from above they resemble a flock of sheep lying down.

Rochester. City of Kent, on the Med way, 29 in. e.s.e. of London; seat of a bishopric since 604. Pop., 1891, 36,170.

Rochester. City of Monroe so., N. Y.. on both banks of the Genesee; settled 1812; chartered 1817 and 1834. It has communications by means of 8 railroads, and has a large trade and extensive manufactures, especially of clothing and shoes. Pop., 1890, 133,896.

Rochester, John Wilmot, Earl Of, 1648-1680. English lyric poet, noted for wickedness and wit, but chiefly through Bp. Burnet's account of his late repentance.

Rochester (N. Y.), University Of. Founded 1850. It has four courses of study, 15 instructors, 185 students, and an endowment of ab. $1,200,000.

Rochester (N.Y.) Theological Seminary. Baptist; established 1850. It has 10 professors and ab. 100 students.

Rochet. Surplice without sleeves, worn by bishops.

Rochet, Louis, 1813-1878. French sculptor.

Rock Breaker. Machine in which blocks of rock or ore are reduced in size by being subjected to a crushing action between powerful movable jaws, or between a movable jaw and a fixed surface.

Rock-Rutter. Butter-like alum efflorescence oozing from alum shale. See Alunite.

Rock Crystal. Transparent, glassy quartz, free from color or nearly so, whether distinctly crystallized or not; used largely in jewelry and in the manufacture of ornaments.

Rock Drill. Mechanical contrivance of some kind, adapted for boring holes in rock in any desired direction, whether for blasting or for prospecting purposes, and driven by some power other than hand-power. The two prominent types are distinguished as percussion drills and rotary drills; of each many different styles and patterns have been used.

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In underground mining compressed air has been the principal motive power employed, though the application of electricity has increased in recent years. The first American percussion drill (Couch's) was patented 1849; the earliest European drill (Cave's) dates from 1851; and the extensive use of diamonds in rotary drills began with Leschot's invention of 1863. See Diamond Drill and Electric Drill.

Rocker. Piece of apparatus used in washing gold-bearing sands, the material to be washed being treated in small quantities at a time, and subjected to an oscillatory shaking, while a current of water carries away the light and worthless portions; a cradle.

Rocket. Cylindrical paper or metal case containing a slow burning gunpowder composition, conically bored around the axis, so that when ignited a great volume of gas escapes through suitably arranged vents at the base, and by its reaction against the head of the rocket sets it in motion. Congreve's rocket has a stick attached to give steadiness of flight. Hale's rocket is maintained in its flight by imparting a rotary motion about its axis: this is accomplished by three or more subsidiaryvents placed obliquely to the axis. Hale's war rockets were adopted in the U. S. Service ab.1855, but are now discarded.

Rock Fill Dam. Dam formed by dumping rocks of all 1301


sizes so as to make an embankment across a stream. It has the advantage of cheap construction where rock is abundant, and usually its strength and tightness increases with age.

Rockford. Capital of Winnebagoco., 111., on Rock River; founded 1836, chartered 1852. enlarged 1890. Pop., 1890, 23.584.

Rockingham, Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis OF, 1730-1782. Whig leader; Prime Minister 1765-6(5 and 1782; repealer of the Stamp Act 1766.

Rocking Stones, or Logans. Druidical stone, often of an immense size, so placed and accurately adjusted on another

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stone as to rock at the slightest touch. They are common in Brittany, France, and Cornwall, England.

Rock Island. Capital of R. I. co., 111., on the Mississippi. Pop., 1890, 13,634. The adjoining island has a U. S. arsenal and armory.

Rock Oil. See Petroleum.

Rock River. Branch of the Mississippi in s. Wis. and n. 111. Length 386 m., drainage area 9,792 sq. m., average flow 9,944 cu. ft. per second.

Rock Roue. Widely distributed shrubs of the genus Helianthemum, natural family Cistacece, many of them bearing very showy yellow flowers and cultivated for ornament.

Rock Salt. Common Salt (q.v.) as found in nature. See Sodium Chloride and Haute.

Rock Soap. Mineral substances of a clay-like aspect and consistency, which soften in water and have an unctuous feel; product of the alteration and decomposition of older feldspathic rocks.

Rock Temple. Temples cut in rocks in w. India and in Missouri and Ohio in the U. S. See Elephanta and Ellora.

Rockwced. Common dark-green Algae growing attached to rocks and other solid objects between tide marks, especially Fuctis vesiculosus. Also known as Bladder Wrack, from its bladder-like floats.

Rocky Mountain Goat (haplocerus Montanus). Species of antelope found in the mountains of Colorado and Idaho and British Columbia. It has short legs, long, white, woolly hair, horns curved backward, and a short beard. Its flesh is of no value. This and the Prong Buck (q.v.) are the only species of antelope found in the New World.

Rocky Mountains. System on the e. border of the summit of the Cordilleran plateau of N. America. It extends from the s. U. S. n. with a w. trend into Canada, as far at least as Peace River. It forms the e. member of what may be called the Cordilleras of N. America. It is composed of numerous individual ranges, arranged for the most part era echelon, as they have a more westerly trend than the system itself. It traverses New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana. Idaho, and Canada. The plateau upon which it stands has its greatest elevation in Colorado, where at the e. base of the mountains it has an elevation of 6,000 ft. Thence it diminishes s. and n., and at Peace River is not higher than 2,000 ft. The mountain ranges conform roughly to this, being in Colorado 13,000 to 15,000 ft. high, in Montana 10,000 to 11,000 ft., and in Canada gradually diminishing.

Rocky Mountain Sheep (Ovis Montana). Grayishbrown sheep inhabiting the higher mountains of the w. U. S. It is also called Bighorn, from the immense size of its horns, which curve backward. It stands ab.8$ ft. high and is stoutly built. Its flesh is excellent mutton.

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Rococo Ornament.

ments abound; sometimes birds and fishes are combined with enormous flowers, and all meaning is sacrificed to a profuse effect.

Rocroi. Village of n.e. France, 24 m. n.w. of Sedan. Here Conde routed a Spanish army May 19, 1643. Pop. ab. 1,800.

Rodbertus, Johann Karl, 1805-1875. German statesman, economist, and Socialist, in the Prussian state service 1827-36; prominent in the events of 1848; in retirement through most of his life. His works have laid the foundation of modern scientific socialism.

Rode, Jacques Pierre Joseph. 1774-1830. French violinist, pupil of Viotti, first prof, of violin playing at Paris Conservatory 1794; solo violinist to Alexander I. of Russia 1803-8. Beethoven finished his sonata for pianoforte and violin Op. 96. A set of variations composed by him achieved great celebrity, and is still heard at times in a transcription for voice.

Rodentia (glires). Order of placental, deciduate Mammals, which with the Bunotheria are known as Pro-Ungulata. They are characterized by having two large chisel-like and curved mesial incisors, growing from permanent pulps. Canines are absent, and a wide diastema exists in front of the flat-crowned molars. The latter have transverse ridges. The movement of the mandible is longitudinal or in the axis of the skull. To effect this the lower jaw is short and the glenoid cavity is laterally compressed. The feet are usually live-toed and unguiculate. The uterus is completely divided. The placenta is deciduate and discoidal. Rodents are small, active, and prolific animals, having several litters each year. The brain is smooth. They are widelv distributed, but naturally absent from the Pacific Islands, {n cold regions they usually hibernate. The food is principally vegetable (roots, nuts, or seeds). The chisel shape of the incisors is due to the wearing away of the softer posterior part of the teeth, the front face being strongly enameled. Most have but two incisors in each jaw, and they constitute the section Simplicidentata, arranged into three groups: Sciuromorpha, Myomorpha, and Hystricomorpha. The families Leporid<e (Rabbits) and Lagomyrfce have a small second pair of incisors behind the first, and constitute the section Duplicidentata.

Roderick, d. 711. "Last of the Goths," King or the Visigoths in Spain 709; killed in the battle of Xeres de laFrontera, by which the Saracens routed a great Gothic army and gained possession of most of Spain.

Rodger*. John, U.S.N., 1771-1838. Captain 1799; distinguished in the war with Tripoli and that of 1812.—His son, John, U.S.N.. 1812-1882. Captain 1862, Commodore 1863, Rear-admiral 1869, was active in the Civil War.—His cousin. Christopher Raymond Perry, U.S.N., 1819-1892, Commander 1861, Rear-admiral 1874. won distinction on the Atlantic coast. —His brother. George Washington, U.S.N., 1822-1863, Commander 1862, was killed at Fort Wagner.

Rodiger, Emil. 1801-1874. Prof. Halle 1835, Berlin 1860; Orientalist. Chrestomathia Syriaca. 1838.

Rodin, AUGUSTE, b. 1840. French sculptor.

Rodman, Isaac Peace, 1822-1862. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862; killed at Antietam.

Rodman, Thomas Jefferson, U.S.A., 1815-1871. Inventor of hollow casting for cannons.

Rodman Gun. Captain Rodman, U. S. Ordnance De

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partment, devised a method by which heavy guns could be cast hollow and cooled from the interior by a stream of water circulating in the hollow core. By his method the unequal and uncertain strains arising in solid castings by unequal cooling from the exterior were held to be obviated. His system was adopted by the Government about the time of the rebellion, and he succeeded in constructing columbiads of 15 and 20 in. caliber, guns greatly exceeding in power and dimensions the solid cast-iron guns previously constructed.

Rodney, Cjesar, 1728-1784. Delegate to Congress from Del. 1775-76; signer of the Declaration of Independence; Brig.gen. 1775-77; Pres. of Del. 1778-82.—His nephew, Cesar AuGustus, 1772-1824, was M.C. 1803-7 and 1821-22, U. S. Attv.-gen. 1807-11, U. S. Senator 1822-23, and Minister to La Plata"l823.

Rodney, George Brydges, R.N., Baron, 1718-1792. Rearadmiral 1759, Baronet 1764. Baron 1782; victorious over a Spanish fleet near Cape St. Vincent Jan. 16, 1780, and a French one off Dominica April 12. 1782.

Rodriguez. Volcanic island in Indian Ocean, 370 m. e.n.e. of Mauritius; discovered 1645: held by Britain since 1814. Pop., 1893, 2,068.

Roe, Edward Payson, 1838-1888. American novelist and horticulturist. Barriers Burned Away, 1872; My Oarden, 1873; A Chestnut Burr, 1874; A Face Illumined. 1878; Small Fruits, 1880; Nature's Serial Story, 1884; Miss Lou, 1888. His books had a large sale.

Roe, Richard. See Doe, John.

Roc, Sir Thomas, ab. 1568-1644. English ambassador to India 1615-18, Turkey 1621-28, and other countries.

Roebling, John Augustus, 1806-1869. Civil engineer, first to adapt suspension bridges to railroad traffic; builder of the Niagara and Brooklyn bridges. The latter was completed by his son, Washington Augustus, b. 1837.

Roebuck, John Arthur, 1802-1879. M.P. 1832: prominent as a Radical. Colonies, 1849.

Roe Deer (capreolus Capr.«:a). European reddish brown deer, 24 ft. high, with erect three-tined antlers in the male;


Roe Deer (Capreotus caprcea).

rare, except in parks. They love high, forest-clad regions, and range east into Syria. The rutting season is midsummer.

Roemer, Johann Jacob, 1763-1819. Prof. Zurich. MagazinfurdieBotanik, 1785-90; Archiv fur die Botanik, 1796-1805; Flora eurojxea inchoatn, 1797-1811; Caroli a Linne Equitis Systema vegetabilium, 1817-30.

Roentgen Hay*. Probable form of radiation discovered Dec. 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, b. 1856. prof. Giessen 1879 and Wurzburg 1888. The name suggested by him and adopted by the world was "x-rays," indicating the unknown. The rays are best produced by the impact of the cathode rays within a Crookes tube upon a platinum disk placed in the focus of a concave aluminium projector used as the cathode of the tube. It is supposed that at the surface of the platinum the energy transformation takes place from cathode ray energy to x-ray energy. The real nature of the x-rays is not yet known, the best authorities wavering between a radiation theory and

a material one. They are transmitted through various media with varying degrees of facility and affect silver salts. They are applicable to medical and surgical diagnosis; and silver negatives of bones, bullets, etc., which do not transmit the rays readily, in the soft tissues of the bodies, may be produced. This is called a Skotograph or Skiagraph. By interposing the substance to be examined between the Crookes' tube and a tube with a diaphragm covered with calcium tungstate, called a fluorescope, the effect is heightened, and the bullets, etc., may be readily observed.

Roeppcr, William Theodore, 1810-1880. Prof. Lehigh Univ. 1865-69; well known among mineralogists for his studies of crystalline forms.

Roepperite. 1. Mineral of the chrysolite group, containing iron, manganese, and zinc, found at Sterling Hill and Franklin Furnace, N. J. 2. Mineral carbonate containing large amounts of calcium and manganese with small quantities of magnesium and iron.

Rocstone. See Oolite.

Rogation Ways. Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, preceding Ascension Day: observed since ab. 450 as litany days.

Roger I., 1031-1101. Brother of Robert Guiscard, and his successor 1085 in Naples; conqueror 1060-90, and Count of Sicily.—His son, Roger II., 1097-1154, %vas crowned King of Sicily 1130. conquered the n. coast of Africa, and was a wise and powerful monarch.

Roger Of Wendover, d. 1237. English monk, author of a Latin chronicle 1189-1235, tr. 1849, and continued by Matthew Paris.

Rogers, Fairman, b. 1833. Prof. Univ. Pa. 1858-70; civil engineer. Magnetism, 1883.

Rogers, Henry, 1806-1877. Prof. Univ. Coll., London, 1839; pres. Lancashire Coll. 1858. Essays, 1850-55. His Eclipse of Faith, 1852, and its Defense, 1854, answered F. W. Newman's Phases of Faith, 1850-53.

Rogers, Henry Darwin. LL.D., 1808-1866. Prof. of Geology Univ. Pa. 1835—46; prof. Glasgow 1858. He made a geological survey of N. J., and pub. a report and map 1835, and a final report 1840; 1836-55 he was engaged in making a survey of Pa., giving especial attention to structural and dynamic geology.

Rogers, Henry J., 1811-1879. Inventor of the system of signals adopted by U. S. Navy 1846, modified 1861.

Rogers, Henry Wade. LL.D., b. 1853. Law Prof. Univ. Mich. 1883; pres. Northwestern Univ. 1890. Illinois Citations. 1880; Expert Testimony, 1883.

Rogers, James Edwin Thorold, 1823-1890. Prof. Political Economy at Oxford 1862-68 and 1888; M.P. 1880-86. But. Agriculture and Prices, 6 vols., 1866-88; Economic Interpretation of History, 1888; Industry and Commerce, 1892.

Rogers, John, ab. 1505-1555. Chaplain at Antwerp 1534; tr. Bible 1537; canon of St. Paul's, London, ab.1549; burned at Smithfield, first of the martyrs under Mary.

Rogers, John, b. 1829. American sculptor, many of whose statuette groups have been largely reproduced in composition.

Rogers, Randolph, 1825-1892. American sculptor, in Italy from 1855.

Rogers. Richard, ab.1550-1618. English Puritan. Seven Treatises, 1605.

Rogers, Robert, 1727-1800. Soldier of N. H., prominent in the French war, and as a Tory 1776; author of several books.

Rogers, Robert William, D.D., b. 1864. Prof. Haverford 1887, Dickinson 1890, and Drew Theol. Sem. 1893; Orientalist.

Rogers, Samuel, 1763-1855. English banker and poet. Pleasures of Memory, 1792; Italy. 1822; Table-talk, 1856.

Rogers, William Augustus. F.R.S., b. 1832. Prof. Harvard 1877, and Colby Univ. 1886; astronomer.

Rogers, William Barton. LL.D., 1804-1882. Brother of Henry D.: Prof, of Natural Philosophy and Geolog-v in Univ. Va. 1835-53; Pres. Mass. Inst. Tech. 1862-68. He "examined the region of mineral springs of Va., and organized a State Geological Survey 1835-42.—Of his brothers, James Blythe, 1802-1852, was Prof, of Chemistry at Univ. Pa. 1847, and ROBERT EMPIC, 1813-1884, at Univ. Va. 1842-52, Univ. Pa. 1852-77. and Jefferson Medical Coll. 1877.

Roget, Peter Mark. F.R.S.. 1779-1869. London physician, prof. Royal Institution 1838. Physiology, 1834; Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, 1852.

Rogue Money. Assessment formerly levied in Scotland, for defraying the expenses of apprehending criminals.

Rogue River Indians. Tribe of Indians living in Oregon and belonging to the Athapascan (q.v.) family.

Rogue's March. When a soldier was sentenced to be drummed out of the service he was escorted by a file of soldiers

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in front of the command while the drum and fife played a derisive tune, called the rogue's march: this sentence has of late years been entirely abrogated in the U. S. Service.

Rohan, Henri, Due De, 1579-1638. French soldier, leader in Huguenot revolts. Memoires, pub. 1644-1738.

Rohan, Louis Rene Edouard, Prince De, 1735-1803. Cardinal 1778; Bp. of Strassburg 1779. See Diamond NeckLace.

Rohillai. Afghan Pathans who rose in power in Rohilcund, India, ab.1750. They were subdued in 1773.

Rohlfs, Mrs. Anna Katherine (green), b. 1846, m. 1884. American writer of detective stories. The Leavenworth Case, 1878; X Y Z, 1883; Mill Mystery, 1886; Behind Closed Doors, 1888; Marked Personal, 1893.

I< oil Its. Gerhard, 1832-1896. German explorer in Africa; author of many books of travel. Morocco, 1868, tr. 1874; Abyssinia, 1869, tr. 1883.

Rojas, Juan Ramon, 1784-1824. Poet of the Argentine revolution. Poesias patrias, 1820.

Rojas J Zorilla, Francisco De, 1607-ab.l680. Spanish dramatist.

Rokitansky, Kasl, Baron Von, 1804-1878. Prof. Vienna 1834-75. His Handbook of Pathological Anatomy, 5 vols., 1842-46, tr. 1849-52, is of great importance.

Roland. Hero of legend and poetry; warden of Brittany under Charlemagne; killed 778 at Roncesvalles in Spanish Navarre.

Roland de la Piatt ere, Jean Marie. 1734-1793. French official, author of a Dictionary of Manufactures, 1785.—His wife, Manon Jeanne Phlipon, 1754-1793, a Girondist leader, was guillotined, leaving Memoirs, pub. 1864, and letters, 1867.

Rolander, Daniel, 1720-1774. Swedish naturalist, who studied and described the flora of Guiana.

Rolfe, William James, b. 1827. American editor (1870-83) and critic of Shakespeare. Shakespeare the Boy, 1896.

Roll, Alfred Philippe, b. 1847. French painter.

Rolled Sections Of Iron. The usual sections of structural iron are the I-beam (q.v.), channel-iron, angle-iron (of equal and unequal legs), tee-iron, deck-beam (or bulb-iron),'and rail rolled from iron or steel billets. The usual merchant sections are the flat, square, round, hexagon, and octagon. The usual strength per sq. in. of these sections is from 50,000 to 55,000 lbs.

Roller-Rail. Sport aiming at the propulsion of a large ball between two goals. Attempts have been made to develop this in many ingenious ways, but no great advance has been made.

Roller Mill. Form of flouring machine in which the grain is crushed by passing between two rolls either smooth or toothed and revolving in the same or opposite direction at different velocities. The rolls are made of hardened steel or porcelain. See Flour.

Rollers. Picarian Old World birds of bright colors, common in the Ethiopic-Indian region. They, like the Tumbler

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with cinnamon color on the wings. Eurystomus of India and Australia includes the Broad-billed Rollers.

Rolleston, George, F.R.S., 1829-1881. Prof. Oxford 1860. Forms of Animal Life, 1870.

Rollin, Charles. 1661-1741. French historian, prof. Paris 1688, and Beauvais 1699-1711 and 1720. His Ancient History, 13 vols., 1730-38, was widely used. Traite des Etudes, 4 vols., 1726-31; Roman History, 16 vols., 1738-48.

Rolling Mill. See Roll Train.

Rolltn L.edru. See Ledru-rollin.

Rollins, Edward Henrt, 1824-1889. M.C. from N. H. 1861-67; U. S. Senator 1877-83.

Rollo, or Rolf, ab.850-930. Chief of the Northmen, who headed piratical expeditions against Scotland. England, and Flanders, and in 912 established himself on the Seine, acknowledged Charles III. as his overlord, and founded the duchy of Normandy.

Rolls, or Cornish Rolls. Machine used in mining districts, in which rock or ore is reduced in size by passing between revolving cylinders, either smooth or corrugated, lying side bv side, the fine material produced dropping between the cylinders into proper receptacles below.

Roll Sulphur. See Sulphur.

Roll-Train. Machine by which spongy and porous masses of weld-metal are compacted and welded, and market shapes produced from rectangular billets, blooms, or ingots by pressure. A roll consists of a body smooth and cylindrical for plate metal, but with grooves and fillets of various profile for shapes. At the ends of the body are the two necks, which are the journals on which the roll turns, and beyond the necks are the pods by which rolls are coupled by junction-rods and boxes. These junction-rods permit vertical adjustment of one set of rolls without distress to the next set, and the junctionboxes are calculated so as to break under undue strain, before accident to the rolls. The rolls are carried in a housing at each end, and are two-high or three-high. Where but two rolls are used, the rolling engine must be reversed, or the work passed back over the top roll, so as always to be entered from the same side. The three-high train involves the use of a table for heavy work, where rolls are large for stiffness. The opening part in one roll and part in the other is called a pass. Passes are classified according to function, as welding, shaping, drawing, edging, flatting, and polishing passes; according to shape, as flat, box, gothic, square, round, pol3'gonal and shape passes; according to construction, as open or closed, eccentric, spiral and intermittent. The first set of rolls for operating on hottest and roughest work is called the roughing or breaking down rolls, and in England the cogging rolls. For perfecting the profiles, the train is called the finishing train. For adjusting the spaces between rolls, the brasses under the necks of the rolls are adjusted by screws in the housings. The middle roll of three may be screwed up and down, or the upper and lower roll may move together toward the middle roll. The weight of the roll or rolls is largely borne by counterweights below the floor level. Reversing trains are driven by a double engine without fly-wheel and with cranks at 90°, the valve-gear link-motion being operated by a hydraulic cylinder. Similarly the feeding tables of three-high trains are raised and lowered by hydraulic power, and the feeding rolls in them nre driven by a smaller engine with link-motion. Turning of the piece is done by sets of fingers coming up between the rolls as the table is lowered. The largest roll-trains in this country are those of Carnegie, Phipps & Co., which are 32 in. by 115 in. long. Krupp's large rolls, at Essen, Prussia, are 34 in. diam. by 120 in. long.

Romagna. N. part of Papal States till 1861; now provinces of Bologna, Ravenna. Ferrara. and Forli.

Romagnosi, Gian Domenico, 1761-1835. Law prof, at Parma 1802, and Milan 1807; legal and philosophical writer. Works, 19 vols., 1832-35.

Romaic. Modern Greek, descendant of classical Hellenic speech.

Romaine, William.1714-1795. London divine, prominent in the Evangelical party. His Lift, Walk, and Triumph of Faith, 1763-71-94, were long popular-. Works, 8 vols., 1796.

Roman and Romanesque Architecture. Roman building employed the arch, but the decorative elements of Roman architecture were those of the Grecian construction, | of which the structural elements were the post and lintel. The Roman temples were imitations of those of Greece and the Greek colonies, and resembled them in all essentials, although they substituted for the simplicity and lucidity of the Grecian examples a method of decoration at once more ornate and less refined. The Doric and Ionic orders were thus only mixed in their Roman use. Only in the Corinthian order can it be maintained that the Roman examples will bear a comparison with those of Greece. In other works than temples the Romans undertook to combine the Greek architecture with an arched construction. This was done both on exteriors and in interiors, and in both cases with awkwardness and want of success. On the exterior they employed a system of columns and entablatures to decorate a wall pierced with arched openings. Sometimes, as in the temple at Baalbec, the order extended through several stories or stages, and sometimes, as in the Colosseum at Rome, it was repeated with or without variations at every stage. In the interiors, the entablature was retained and the arches opening from it. In the case of a detached column a fragment of entablature was interposed under the springing of the arch or vault. The omission of this undermost fragment, and the imposition of the arch directly upon the column, was the beginning of Romanesque Architecture, the architecture of the column and round arch. This was derived from classical Roman architecture, and obtained in w. Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. The earliest building to which this innovation has been traced is the palace of Diocletian at


Courtyard of Diocletian's Palace at Spalato, Dalmatia.

Spalato, which is accordingly regarded as the beginning of Romanesque architecture. From Italy the Romanesque spread until it prevailed in Spain, France, Germany, and England. The local variations were numerous and so important that many of them are treated as separate styles, under the names of Italian, Provencal, Rhenish, and Norman. But all the variations had in common the use of the.Roman features of construction, the column and the round arch, with a divergency from the forms of classical Roman, increasing with the distance, in space and time, from the Roman examples. For nearly a thousand years the influence of Roman architecture is more or less distinctly perceptible in all the ambitious and important buildings of w. Europe. The modifications in it produced in the 13th century, beginning in France, by the development of groined vaulting, were so great as to deserve and obtain the name of a new style, the Gothic; but this was nevertheless the product as well as the successor of Romanesque, and the transition from the style of the round arch to that of the pointed arch affords one of the most interesting chapters in the history of architecture. See Architecture.

Roman Archaeology. See Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Therms. Triumphal Arch, Caracalla, Forum, AmPhitheater, Colosseum, Pantheon, etc.; also Baths. Roman.

Roman Aqueducts. See Aqueduct.

Roman Hath*. See Baths, Roman.

Roman Catholic Church. Aggregate of those churches, forming about half of Christendom, which, under their bishops, acknowledge the Pope as having by divine right, as defined 1870, "ordinary and immediate" episcopal authority. Most of these follow the Latin rite. The number of Roman Catholics in the world in 1892 was estimated to be as follows: Europe, 160,165,000; America, 58,393,882; Oceanica, 6,574,481; Africa, 2,655,920; Asia, 3,007,250; total, 230.866,533. Total number of Christians in the world was estimated to be 477,080,158. In U. S. 1895 there were 7,474,850 members of R. C. Ch. out of a total of 23,231.490 members of all denominations.

Romance Languages. Made up of Italian. French, Provengal, Spanish, Portuguese. Rhasto-Romanic, Wallachian or Roumanian, and other dialects, all descended from the lingua rustica or vulgar tongue of the Romans. Rhasto-Romanic and Roumanian play but a small part, and have few monuments. French, with its enormous literature and linguistic influences, is reckoned from the Strassburg Oaths 842. Italian begins ab.1200. Spanish and Portuguese begin as independent and literary tongues ab. 1200. The Romance Languages are receiving increased attention at universities everywhere, and form a prominent part of philological investigation.

Roman Cement. Hydraulic cement made from volcanic rock by the Romans. See Puzzolana.

Romances of Arthur. Originating with Nennius, a Breton monk of 9th century, these were enlarged by Geoffrey of Monmouth 1140. and completed by Sir T. Malory, whose Morte oV Arthur, 1470, was the source of Tennyson's "idylls of the King.

Romances of Chivalry. Third form of Spanish writings in order of development. They were the literature of the knightly classes, as the ballads were of the people. During the 16th century the passion for them was intense.

Roman Colonies. See Colonies, Roman.

Roman de la Rose. Allegorical French poem begun ab.1237 by Guillaume de Lorris, and finished by Jean de Meuag ab.1277, in a coarse and satirical vein; tr. by Chaucer.

Roman Empire. See Holy Roman Empire.

Romanes, George John, LL.D., F.R.S., 1848-1894. B. in Canada; prof. Roval Institution, 1888-91, and at Oxford. Tlieism, 1878; Animal Intelligence, 1881; Mental Evolution, 1883-88; Danciti, 1896.

Roman Games. See Circus, Gladiators, < \f.sits. etc.

Roman Law. System of jurisprudence developed by the Roman Republic and Empire. Its earliest records are contained in the Twelve Tables, adopted ab.450 B.C.; its final reduction into systematic form occurred under Justinian ab.527534, when the Institutes, Digest, and Code were published. This body of rules forms the basis of the modern law of every countrj' in Europe except England; it has also affected the English common law both in Britain and the U. S.

Romano, Giulio. See Giulio Romano.

Romanoff, House Of. Descended from Andrew Kobyla, who came from Prussia to Moscow 1341. Fifth in descent from him was Roman Juricvitch, d. 1543. whose daughter married Ivan the Terrible, and whose son, Nikita Jurief, also allied himself by marriage with the royal house of Rurik. His grandson, Michael Romanoff, was chosen Czar 1612. after the false Dmitri. The succeeding names are: Alexei. 1648-76; Feodor, 1676-82; Peter the Great, 1682-1725. After the death of Catharine I., Peter II., 1727-30, last of the male line: Anna Ivanovna, daughter of Ivan, brother of Peter I., 1730-40; Ivan IV., 1740-41; Elizabeth, daughter of Peter I. and Catharine, 1741-61; Peter III., 1761-62, assassinated. After Catharine II., Paul I., 1796-1801; Alexander I., 1801-25; Nicholas I., 1825-55; Alexander II., 1855-81; Alexander III., 1881-94; Nicholas II., 1894.

Roman Roads. These were stone pavements from 3 to 16 ft. in width, built on a foundation of masonry laid in cement. Twenty-nine roads centered at the Forum in Rome, and the length of these, with their branches, was 52,964 Roman miles. They were laid out for long distances in straight lines with little regard to grade, were built by soldiers and slaves, and under present conditions would be uneconomical.

Romans, Epistle To The. Sixth N. T. book, written by St. Paul ab.58, developing the doctrine of Salvation through Faith, as engendering a more perfect, because internally prompted, obedience.

Romans, King Of THE. Title assumed by Henry II. prior to his coronation as emperor, and by his successors till Maximilian.

Romantic. In musical criticism, as in literary, the antithesis of classical; word of inexact meaning, often applied very arbitrarily. Its origin and significance are plain as applied to operas or other vocal compositions which tell stories of chivalry and knighthood, either drawn from romance liter


Roman Roads:

Example of early basalt road by the temple of Saturn on the Clivus Capitollnus. A. Travertine B. Polygonal basalt blocks. C Concrete D. Rain-water gutter. The curb shown Is taken from another part of the road.

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