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A boiler supplies steam to one or two cylinders, and the shaft of such engine is connected by tooth or chain gearing- to the driving wheels. These latter are fitted with a very broad tire, to distribute the weight and prevent rutting of soft earth, the tire having grooves to increase adhesion and to avoid difficulties from small inequalities of surface. The front end or truck is pivoted to serve as steering apparatus. There is usually a Differential Gear (q.v.) on the drivers to enable them to turn easily. Such machines have also been applied for heavy plowing, with a number of plows abreast or en echelon, on prairie or large colonial farming. See Agriculture.

Bond Roller. Heavy cylinder driven by steam power or drawn by horses for consolidating the surfaceof aroad. The


Road Roller

heaviest weigh from 15 to 20 tons and cost ab. $6,000. A macadam road should be rolled from 50 to 100 times during the process of construction, to form a first-class pavement.

Roads. A road should be so located that the distance ma3be short and the grade low, but grade is more important than distance. Old roads were usually too steep. Toll roads were introduced in England ab. 1400. Road improvement began in France ab. 1750: the labors of McAdam and Telford ab. 18001820 did much to influence road-construction in Great Britain. Since 1880 the movement for good roads in U. S. has produced much improvement through the introduction of better methods of administration. Road construction is the simplest problem in civil engineering, and the presence of poor roads is always an indication that no engineering talent is employed upon them. The common methods of repair by scraping the mud of the gutters upon the road surface is an extravagant waste of money; a good road can never be made by this process. Broken stone coverings, well rolled, constructed under the supervision of an engineer, form a far more durable and economical surface. In N. Y. during 1893 the repair of common roads cost $2,716,000, nearly all of which was practically wasted. The appointment of road commissioners in several States has proved most advantageous in improving the condition of the public highways. See Macadam Road and PaveMents.

Roanoke. City of R. co., Va., on the R.; chartered 1884. Its rapid recent growth is due chiefly to iron industries. Pop., 1890, 16,159.

Roanoke College. At Salem, Va.; founded 1853. It has ab. 175 students.

Roanoke Island. On N. C. coast; settled by Sir Walter Raleigh unsuccessfully 1585. Gen. Wise with three forts and 2,500 men surrendered here to Gen. Burnside Feb. 8, 1862.

Roanoke River. In Va. and X. C. It heads in the Blue Ridge, flows generally s.e. to the head of Albemarle Sound, and is navigable to Weldon, N. C. Drainage area 9,237 sq. m., length 250 m.

Roaring Forties. Region of the Southern Ocean lying s. of 40° S. lat., especially s. of 45°. where there are strong w.n.w. and n.w. winds. The term is used by sailors, and is also applied to the region in the N. Atlantic.

Roasting. Consists in exposing the material to be treated to a temperature above the average red heat with access of air. It is done to render the material more friable, as in ore which contains a quartz gangue, more permeable to gases, or to drive off volatile elements as water and sulphur. When limestone is heated it is called calcination.

Robbery. At Common Law, open and violent larceny

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Robert II

Scotland was invaded bv the English 1384-85, and retaliated 1388.—His son, Robert ill., ab.1340-1406, succeeded 1390. His realm was invaded 1400, and his army overthrown at Homildon Hill 1402.

Robert II., Of Normandy, d. 1035. Duke 1028; capable and ruthless sovereign; father of William I. of England.

Robert, Louis Leopold, 1794-1835. Swiss painter.

Robert College. Founded 1863 at Constantinople by Americans; named from its benefactor, C. R. Robert. 1802-1878. It has done much for Christian education in that region.

Robert-Fleury, Joseph Nicolas, 1797-1890. French painter, as is his son Tony, b. 1838. Robert le Dlablc, See Damiens.

Robert of Brunne. Translator of French poem, Manxiel des Piches, 1303.

Robert of Gloucester. 13th century. Metrical chronicler of early British affairs. His work was" pub. 1724.

Roberts, Benjamin Stone, U.S.A., 1811-1875. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861-65; inveutor of a breech-loading rifle.

Roberts, Charles George Douglas, b. 1860. Canadian poet and novelist; prof, at Windsor, N. S., 1885-96. In Divers Tones, 1887; Songs of the Common Day, 1893; Earth's Enigmas, 1896; Forge in the Forest. 1897.

Roberts, David, 1796-1864. Scottish painter, chiefly of buildings; R.A. 1841. Spain, 1837; Holy Land, 4 vols., 1842-49; Italy, 1859.

Roberts, Edmund, 1784-1836. First U. S. diplomatic agent in Asia. Embassy to Eastern Courts, 1837.

Roberts, Ellis Henry, LL.D., b. 1827. M.C. from N. Y. 1871-75; Asst. U. S. Treas. at N. Y. 1889-93. Revenue, 1884; Empire State, 1887.

Roberts, Isaac Phillips, b. 1833. Prof. Iowa Agricultural Coll. and Cornell Univ.; director of Cornell Univ. Agricultural Experiment Station.

Roberts, Joseph Jenkins, 1809-1876. Pres. of Liberia

1849-53 and 1871-75.

Roberts, Robert Richford. 1778-1843. M. E. bishop 1816; active in western missionary work.

Roberts, Solomon White, 1811-1882. Civil engineer, active in constructing railways in Pa.

Roberts, Sir William, F.R.S., b. 1830. English physician

and medical writer.

Roberts, William Henry, D.D., LL.D., b. 1844. Prof.

Lane Sem. 1886-93; clerk Presb. Gen. Assembly from 1884. Hist. Presb. Ch. in U. S., 1888.

Roberts, William Milnor. 1810-1881. Chief engineer Northern Pacific Railway 1870; Pres. American Soc. of Civil Engineers 1879.

Roberts of Kandabar, Frederick Sleigh Roberts,

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Lord, b. 1832. Anglo-Indian general, made famous by brilliant campaigns in Afghanistan 1878-80, culminating in the relief of Kandahar; knighted 1879, Baronet 1881, Baron 1892; commander in India 1885-93, in Ireland 1895.

Robert§on, Frederick William. 1816-1853. Minister of Trinity Chapel, Brighton, Eng., from 1857; greatest preacher of his time. His fame was merely local during his life, but hisSermons, 5 vols., 1855-63, showed rare insight into spiritual truth, and his Life and Letters, 1865, revealed a character of singular manliness, purity, and beauty. These, with his Lectures and Addresses, 1858, were eagerly read, and exerted a wide and deep influence. He was a solitary figure, disdaining connection with any party: his views resembled those of F. D. Maurice, but his power was more immediately and generally felt in the English Ch., and far beyond, than that of any other leader of liberal thought. Lectures on Corinthians, 1859; Notes on Genesis, 1877.

Robertson, George Croom, 1842-1892. Prof. Univ. Coll., London, from 1866; ed. Mind. 1876-91; Hobbes, 1886; Philosophical Remains, 1893.

Robertson, James, ab.1710-1788. British general; Gov. of N. Y. 1780-83.

Robertson, James. 1742-1814. Pioneer and Indian fighter, prominent with Sevier in the settlement of Tenn.; General U.S.A. 1790-96.

Robertson, James. D.D., b. 1840. Missionary in Syria 1864-75: prof. Glasgow 1877. Early Religion of Israel, 1889; The Psalms, 1894.

Robertson, James Craigie, 1813-1882. Canon of Canterbury 1859; Prof. King's Coll., London, 1864-74. Hist. Ch. to Reformation, 8 vols.. 1853-75.

Robertson, Joseph, LL.D., 1810-1866. Scottish antiquarian.

Robertson, Thomas William, 1829-1871. English playwright. Gar-rick, 1864; Society. Ours, Caste, Play, School, Home, Dreams, M.P., 1865-70; Works, 1889.

Robertson, William. D.D., 1721-1793. Scottish historian; pastor at Edinburgh from 1759, and principal Univ. Edinburgh 1762. His Scotland, 1758-59, and Charles V., 1769, were long valued. America, 1777; India, 1791.

Robert the Rruee. See Bruce, Robert.

Roberval, Giles Personne De, 1602-1675. French mathematician, who claimed to have preceded Cavalieri in inventing the method of Indivisibles; best known for his treatment of tangents.

Robeson, George Maxwell, 1827-1897. Sec. U. S. Navy 1869-77; M.C. from N. J. 1879-83.

Robespierre, Maxtmilien Marie Isidore, 1758-1794. Leader in the French Revolution, lawyer, enthusiast and theorizer; member of the Constitutional Assembly; head of the Jacobins; member of the National Convention for Paris 1792, leader of the Radicals or Mountain; as pres. of Com

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on cedar berries. It goes s. in Nov. 2. Erythacus rubicola, English Robin, length 5i inches, belonging to the Warbler family.

Robin, Charles Philippe. 1821-1885. Prof. Paris from 1847; Senator 1875; ed. Journal de Vanatomie et de la physiologic 1864-85. Traite du microscope, 1871.

Robin, Claude, b. ab.1750. French botanist. Voyages dans La., Fla., etc., 1802-6.

Robin Ooodfcllow, or Puck. Fairy of English legends, exploited in Midsummer Night's Dream. See Puck.

Robin Hood. Legendary English outlaw, robbing the rich and helping the poor; hero of many ballads from ab. 1380.

Robins. Benjamin. 1707-1751. English engineer and physicist. His Gunnery, 1742, had g-eat effect.

Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894. Gov. of Kansas 1856 and 1858-59.

Robinson, Charles Seymour, D.D., LL.D., b. 1829. Presb. pastor in New York from 1870; compiler of several popular hymnals.

Robinson, Conway, 1805-1884. Va. jurist. Principles and Practice, 1855-75.

Robinson, Edward. D.D.. LL.D.. 1794-1863. Ed. Biblical Repository, 1831-35, and Bibliotheca Sacra, 1843; tr. Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon. 1836; prof. Union Theol. Sem., N. Y.. from 1837. Lexicon N. T., 1836. His Biblical Researches in Palestine, 1841-56, is an important work.—His wife, Therese Albertine Luise, 1797-1869, daughter of Prof. L. H. von Jacob of Halle, m. 1828, wrote several books in German and English.

Robinson, Ezekiel Gilman, D.D., LL.D., b. 1815. Prof. Rochester Theol. Sem. 1853, pres. 1860; pres. Brown Univ. 1872-90. Yale Lectures, 1883; Morality, 1888.

Robinson, George Dexter, 1834-1896. M. C. 1877-83; Gov. of Mass. 1883-86.

Robinson, Henry Crabb, 1775-1867. English lawyer, retired 1828. Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence, 1867.

Robinson, Horatio Nelson, 1806-1867. American author of a series of mathematical text-books.

Robinson, John, ab.1575-1625. English separatist 1604, pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers at Leyden 1609; author of several treatises, and of a memorable saying, "God hath yet more light to break forth out of his Holy Word." Works, 3 vols.. 1851.

Robinson, John Cleveland, U.S.A., 1817-1897. Brig.gen. U. S. Vols. 1862; distinguished in the Va. campaigns and at Gettysburg; Major-gen. 1869; Lieut.-gov. of N. Y. 1872.

Robinson, Lucius. LL.D., 1810-1891. Gov. of N. Y. 1876.

Robinson, Moncure, 1802-1889. Civil engineer; locator of the first railroads of Pa.; chief engineer Phila. and Reading R. R.

Robinson, Robert, 1735-1790. Baptist pastor at Cambridge from 1759; tr. Saurin's Sermons, 1774-84; author of "Come Thou Fount," 1758, and other hymns. Arcana, 1774; Hist. Baptism, 1790.

Robinson, Solon, 1803-1880. American journalist. Hot Corn, 1853.

Robinson, Stuart, 1814-1881. Presb. pastor and journalist in Ky.

Robinson, William Erigena ("richelieu"). 1814-1892. Irish-American journalist, M. C. from N. Y. 1867-69 and 1882-85.

Robinson, William Stevens ("warrington"), 1818-1876. Journalist, influential in Mass. Parliamentary Law, 1875; Pen Portraits, 1877.

Robinson's Anemometer. See Anemometer.

Robison, John, 1739-1805. Prof. Edinburgh 1774. Mechanical Philosophy, 1822.

Rob Roy (robert Macgregor), 1660-1734. Scottish outlaw, who joined the Pretender 1715, celebrated by Scott.

Robsart, Amy, ab.1532-1560. Wife of Dudley, afterward Earl of Leicester, by whom she is said to have been murdered.

Robson, Frederick (brownhill), 1821-1864. English actor, eminent in burlesque.

Robson, Stuart, b. 1836. American actor.

Robnrite. Flameless explosive patented by C. Roth in 1887. It is composed of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and purified chlorinated dinitrobenzene. It must be used dry and is not sensitive to shock.

Robnstl, Jacopo. See Tintoretto.

Roby, Henry John, b. 1830. Sec. to Schools Commissions 1864-75; M.P. 1890. Latin Grammar, 1871-74.

Roc (Rcc). See ^EPYORNIS.

Roca, Julio, b. 1843. Pres. of Argentina 1880-88. Rocafuerte, Vicente, 1783-1847. Pres. of Ecuador 183539; publicist.

Rocccllln. C,0H„NaO,SNa. Sodium salt of the acid, formed by action of the diazo compound of naphthionic acid upon or-naphtholsulphonic acid; brown powder. It dyes wool red in an acid bath.

Roccui. See Acanthopteri and Bass.

Rochambeaii, Jean Baptiste Donatien De Vimeur, Comte DE, 1725-1807. French general; sent with 6,000 soldiers to America, where he rendered valuable help, especially at Yorktown; Marshal 1791; imprisoned by Robespierre 1793, when he narrowly escaped the guillotine. Memoires, 1809. tr. 1838.—His son, Donatien Marie, 1750-1813, became Lieut.-gen. 1792, was Gov. of St. Domingo 1796 and 1802-3, and long in prison in France and England.

Rocha Pitta, Sebastiao Da, 1660-1738. Historian of Brazil 1730.

Rochdale. Manufacturing borough of Lancashire, Eng., on the Roche, 11 m. n.e. of Manchester. Its leading product is woolen goods. Pop., 1891, 71,458.

Rochdale Pioneers. Group of workingmen who opened a little store on a co-operative basis in 1846, and, achieving great success, have become the classical example and model for co-operative distribution.

Rochcfort, Henri (victor Henri, Marquis De RocheFort-lucay). b. 1832. Parisian journalist, founder of La Lanteme, 1868, and other radical papers; Deputy 1869; repeatedly condemned; deported 1871 to New Caledonia, whence tie escaped 1874; in exile till 1880; supporter of Boulanger 1888. Mes Avert tares, 1896.

Rochcfort-sur-Mer. French seaport, on the Charente, 9 m. from the Atlantic; founded 1665 as a naval station; fortified by Vauban. Pop., 1891, 33,3:34.

Rochefoucauld. See La Rochefoucauld.

Rochefoucauld-Llancourt d'F.strlssa£, Francois Alexandre Frederic. Due De La, 1747-1827. French Lieut.gen. 1790; in U. S. 1794-97; Peer 1815; founder of the first savings-bank in Paris; noted for benevolence. Voyage, 8 vols., 1795-97.

Rochejacquclein. See La Rochejacquelein.

Roclielle, La. Seaport of w. France, on the Atlantic. As a Huguenot stronghold of the Calvinist party, vainly besieged by Anjou 1573; taken by Richelieu 1628, after a 14

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months' siege. The fortifications are 3i m. round, with seven gates and three towers, the oldest dating from 1834, and the lantern tower having seven stories. Vauban constructed the present fortifications. Pop., 1891. 26,800.

Rochelle Salt. COONa.CHOH.CHOH.COOK. Sodium potassium tartrate; white crystalline solid, soluble in water; prepared by neutralizing cream of tartar with soda; used in dyeing and in pharmacy.

Roches Moulonn^es. Name given by Swiss peasants to the rounded, smooth, hummock}' bosses and undulating surfaces of rock, occurring in glacial regions. When seen from above they resemble a flock of sheep lying down.

Rochester. City of Kent, on the Med way, 29 in. e.s.e. of London; seat of a bishopric since 604. Pop., 1891, 36,170.

Rochester. City of Monroe so., N. Y.. on both banks of the Genesee; settled 1812; chartered 1817 and 1834. It has communications by means of 8 railroads, and has a large trade and extensive manufactures, especially of clothing and shoes. Pop., 1890, 133,896.

Rochester, John Wilmot, Earl Of, 1648-1680. English lyric poet, noted for wickedness and wit, but chiefly through Bp. Burnet's account of his late repentance.

Rochester (N. Y.), University Of. Founded 1850. It has four courses of study, 15 instructors, 185 students, and an endowment of ab. $1,200,000.

Rochester (N.Y.) Theological Seminary. Baptist; established 1850. It has 10 professors and ab. 100 students.

Rochet. Surplice without sleeves, worn by bishops.

Rochet, Louis, 1813-1878. French sculptor.

Rock Breaker. Machine in which blocks of rock or ore are reduced in size by being subjected to a crushing action between powerful movable jaws, or between a movable jaw and a fixed surface.

Rock-Rutter. Butter-like alum efflorescence oozing from alum shale. See Alunite.

Rock Crystal. Transparent, glassy quartz, free from color or nearly so, whether distinctly crystallized or not; used largely in jewelry and in the manufacture of ornaments.

Rock Drill. Mechanical contrivance of some kind, adapted for boring holes in rock in any desired direction, whether for blasting or for prospecting purposes, and driven by some power other than hand-power. The two prominent types are distinguished as percussion drills and rotary drills; of each many different styles and patterns have been used.

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In underground mining compressed air has been the principal motive power employed, though the application of electricity has increased in recent years. The first American percussion drill (Couch's) was patented 1849; the earliest European drill (Cave's) dates from 1851; and the extensive use of diamonds in rotary drills began with Leschot's invention of 1863. See Diamond Drill and Electric Drill.

Rocker. Piece of apparatus used in washing gold-bearing sands, the material to be washed being treated in small quantities at a time, and subjected to an oscillatory shaking, while a current of water carries away the light and worthless portions; a cradle.

Rocket. Cylindrical paper or metal case containing a slow burning gunpowder composition, conically bored around the axis, so that when ignited a great volume of gas escapes through suitably arranged vents at the base, and by its reaction against the head of the rocket sets it in motion. Congreve's rocket has a stick attached to give steadiness of flight. Hale's rocket is maintained in its flight by imparting a rotary motion about its axis: this is accomplished by three or more subsidiaryvents placed obliquely to the axis. Hale's war rockets were adopted in the U. S. Service ab.1855, but are now discarded.

Rock Fill Dam. Dam formed by dumping rocks of all 1301


sizes so as to make an embankment across a stream. It has the advantage of cheap construction where rock is abundant, and usually its strength and tightness increases with age.

Rockford. Capital of Winnebagoco., 111., on Rock River; founded 1836, chartered 1852. enlarged 1890. Pop., 1890, 23.584.

Rockingham, Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis OF, 1730-1782. Whig leader; Prime Minister 1765-6(5 and 1782; repealer of the Stamp Act 1766.

Rocking Stones, or Logans. Druidical stone, often of an immense size, so placed and accurately adjusted on another

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stone as to rock at the slightest touch. They are common in Brittany, France, and Cornwall, England.

Rock Island. Capital of R. I. co., 111., on the Mississippi. Pop., 1890, 13,634. The adjoining island has a U. S. arsenal and armory.

Rock Oil. See Petroleum.

Rock River. Branch of the Mississippi in s. Wis. and n. 111. Length 386 m., drainage area 9,792 sq. m., average flow 9,944 cu. ft. per second.

Rock Roue. Widely distributed shrubs of the genus Helianthemum, natural family Cistacece, many of them bearing very showy yellow flowers and cultivated for ornament.

Rock Salt. Common Salt (q.v.) as found in nature. See Sodium Chloride and Haute.

Rock Soap. Mineral substances of a clay-like aspect and consistency, which soften in water and have an unctuous feel; product of the alteration and decomposition of older feldspathic rocks.

Rock Temple. Temples cut in rocks in w. India and in Missouri and Ohio in the U. S. See Elephanta and Ellora.

Rockwced. Common dark-green Algae growing attached to rocks and other solid objects between tide marks, especially Fuctis vesiculosus. Also known as Bladder Wrack, from its bladder-like floats.

Rocky Mountain Goat (haplocerus Montanus). Species of antelope found in the mountains of Colorado and Idaho and British Columbia. It has short legs, long, white, woolly hair, horns curved backward, and a short beard. Its flesh is of no value. This and the Prong Buck (q.v.) are the only species of antelope found in the New World.

Rocky Mountains. System on the e. border of the summit of the Cordilleran plateau of N. America. It extends from the s. U. S. n. with a w. trend into Canada, as far at least as Peace River. It forms the e. member of what may be called the Cordilleras of N. America. It is composed of numerous individual ranges, arranged for the most part era echelon, as they have a more westerly trend than the system itself. It traverses New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana. Idaho, and Canada. The plateau upon which it stands has its greatest elevation in Colorado, where at the e. base of the mountains it has an elevation of 6,000 ft. Thence it diminishes s. and n., and at Peace River is not higher than 2,000 ft. The mountain ranges conform roughly to this, being in Colorado 13,000 to 15,000 ft. high, in Montana 10,000 to 11,000 ft., and in Canada gradually diminishing.

Rocky Mountain Sheep (Ovis Montana). Grayishbrown sheep inhabiting the higher mountains of the w. U. S. It is also called Bighorn, from the immense size of its horns, which curve backward. It stands ab.8$ ft. high and is stoutly built. Its flesh is excellent mutton.

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Rococo Ornament.

ments abound; sometimes birds and fishes are combined with enormous flowers, and all meaning is sacrificed to a profuse effect.

Rocroi. Village of n.e. France, 24 m. n.w. of Sedan. Here Conde routed a Spanish army May 19, 1643. Pop. ab. 1,800.

Rodbertus, Johann Karl, 1805-1875. German statesman, economist, and Socialist, in the Prussian state service 1827-36; prominent in the events of 1848; in retirement through most of his life. His works have laid the foundation of modern scientific socialism.

Rode, Jacques Pierre Joseph. 1774-1830. French violinist, pupil of Viotti, first prof, of violin playing at Paris Conservatory 1794; solo violinist to Alexander I. of Russia 1803-8. Beethoven finished his sonata for pianoforte and violin Op. 96. A set of variations composed by him achieved great celebrity, and is still heard at times in a transcription for voice.

Rodentia (glires). Order of placental, deciduate Mammals, which with the Bunotheria are known as Pro-Ungulata. They are characterized by having two large chisel-like and curved mesial incisors, growing from permanent pulps. Canines are absent, and a wide diastema exists in front of the flat-crowned molars. The latter have transverse ridges. The movement of the mandible is longitudinal or in the axis of the skull. To effect this the lower jaw is short and the glenoid cavity is laterally compressed. The feet are usually live-toed and unguiculate. The uterus is completely divided. The placenta is deciduate and discoidal. Rodents are small, active, and prolific animals, having several litters each year. The brain is smooth. They are widelv distributed, but naturally absent from the Pacific Islands, {n cold regions they usually hibernate. The food is principally vegetable (roots, nuts, or seeds). The chisel shape of the incisors is due to the wearing away of the softer posterior part of the teeth, the front face being strongly enameled. Most have but two incisors in each jaw, and they constitute the section Simplicidentata, arranged into three groups: Sciuromorpha, Myomorpha, and Hystricomorpha. The families Leporid<e (Rabbits) and Lagomyrfce have a small second pair of incisors behind the first, and constitute the section Duplicidentata.

Roderick, d. 711. "Last of the Goths," King or the Visigoths in Spain 709; killed in the battle of Xeres de laFrontera, by which the Saracens routed a great Gothic army and gained possession of most of Spain.

Rodger*. John, U.S.N., 1771-1838. Captain 1799; distinguished in the war with Tripoli and that of 1812.—His son, John, U.S.N.. 1812-1882. Captain 1862, Commodore 1863, Rear-admiral 1869, was active in the Civil War.—His cousin. Christopher Raymond Perry, U.S.N., 1819-1892, Commander 1861, Rear-admiral 1874. won distinction on the Atlantic coast. —His brother. George Washington, U.S.N., 1822-1863, Commander 1862, was killed at Fort Wagner.

Rodiger, Emil. 1801-1874. Prof. Halle 1835, Berlin 1860; Orientalist. Chrestomathia Syriaca. 1838.

Rodin, AUGUSTE, b. 1840. French sculptor.

Rodman, Isaac Peace, 1822-1862. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862; killed at Antietam.

Rodman, Thomas Jefferson, U.S.A., 1815-1871. Inventor of hollow casting for cannons.

Rodman Gun. Captain Rodman, U. S. Ordnance De

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partment, devised a method by which heavy guns could be cast hollow and cooled from the interior by a stream of water circulating in the hollow core. By his method the unequal and uncertain strains arising in solid castings by unequal cooling from the exterior were held to be obviated. His system was adopted by the Government about the time of the rebellion, and he succeeded in constructing columbiads of 15 and 20 in. caliber, guns greatly exceeding in power and dimensions the solid cast-iron guns previously constructed.

Rodney, Cjesar, 1728-1784. Delegate to Congress from Del. 1775-76; signer of the Declaration of Independence; Brig.gen. 1775-77; Pres. of Del. 1778-82.—His nephew, Cesar AuGustus, 1772-1824, was M.C. 1803-7 and 1821-22, U. S. Attv.-gen. 1807-11, U. S. Senator 1822-23, and Minister to La Plata"l823.

Rodney, George Brydges, R.N., Baron, 1718-1792. Rearadmiral 1759, Baronet 1764. Baron 1782; victorious over a Spanish fleet near Cape St. Vincent Jan. 16, 1780, and a French one off Dominica April 12. 1782.

Rodriguez. Volcanic island in Indian Ocean, 370 m. e.n.e. of Mauritius; discovered 1645: held by Britain since 1814. Pop., 1893, 2,068.

Roe, Edward Payson, 1838-1888. American novelist and horticulturist. Barriers Burned Away, 1872; My Oarden, 1873; A Chestnut Burr, 1874; A Face Illumined. 1878; Small Fruits, 1880; Nature's Serial Story, 1884; Miss Lou, 1888. His books had a large sale.

Roe, Richard. See Doe, John.

Roc, Sir Thomas, ab. 1568-1644. English ambassador to India 1615-18, Turkey 1621-28, and other countries.

Roebling, John Augustus, 1806-1869. Civil engineer, first to adapt suspension bridges to railroad traffic; builder of the Niagara and Brooklyn bridges. The latter was completed by his son, Washington Augustus, b. 1837.

Roebuck, John Arthur, 1802-1879. M.P. 1832: prominent as a Radical. Colonies, 1849.

Roe Deer (capreolus Capr.«:a). European reddish brown deer, 24 ft. high, with erect three-tined antlers in the male;


Roe Deer (Capreotus caprcea).

rare, except in parks. They love high, forest-clad regions, and range east into Syria. The rutting season is midsummer.

Roemer, Johann Jacob, 1763-1819. Prof. Zurich. MagazinfurdieBotanik, 1785-90; Archiv fur die Botanik, 1796-1805; Flora eurojxea inchoatn, 1797-1811; Caroli a Linne Equitis Systema vegetabilium, 1817-30.

Roentgen Hay*. Probable form of radiation discovered Dec. 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, b. 1856. prof. Giessen 1879 and Wurzburg 1888. The name suggested by him and adopted by the world was "x-rays," indicating the unknown. The rays are best produced by the impact of the cathode rays within a Crookes tube upon a platinum disk placed in the focus of a concave aluminium projector used as the cathode of the tube. It is supposed that at the surface of the platinum the energy transformation takes place from cathode ray energy to x-ray energy. The real nature of the x-rays is not yet known, the best authorities wavering between a radiation theory and

a material one. They are transmitted through various media with varying degrees of facility and affect silver salts. They are applicable to medical and surgical diagnosis; and silver negatives of bones, bullets, etc., which do not transmit the rays readily, in the soft tissues of the bodies, may be produced. This is called a Skotograph or Skiagraph. By interposing the substance to be examined between the Crookes' tube and a tube with a diaphragm covered with calcium tungstate, called a fluorescope, the effect is heightened, and the bullets, etc., may be readily observed.

Roeppcr, William Theodore, 1810-1880. Prof. Lehigh Univ. 1865-69; well known among mineralogists for his studies of crystalline forms.

Roepperite. 1. Mineral of the chrysolite group, containing iron, manganese, and zinc, found at Sterling Hill and Franklin Furnace, N. J. 2. Mineral carbonate containing large amounts of calcium and manganese with small quantities of magnesium and iron.

Rocstone. See Oolite.

Rogation Ways. Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, preceding Ascension Day: observed since ab. 450 as litany days.

Roger I., 1031-1101. Brother of Robert Guiscard, and his successor 1085 in Naples; conqueror 1060-90, and Count of Sicily.—His son, Roger II., 1097-1154, %vas crowned King of Sicily 1130. conquered the n. coast of Africa, and was a wise and powerful monarch.

Roger Of Wendover, d. 1237. English monk, author of a Latin chronicle 1189-1235, tr. 1849, and continued by Matthew Paris.

Rogers, Fairman, b. 1833. Prof. Univ. Pa. 1858-70; civil engineer. Magnetism, 1883.

Rogers, Henry, 1806-1877. Prof. Univ. Coll., London, 1839; pres. Lancashire Coll. 1858. Essays, 1850-55. His Eclipse of Faith, 1852, and its Defense, 1854, answered F. W. Newman's Phases of Faith, 1850-53.

Rogers, Henry Darwin. LL.D., 1808-1866. Prof. of Geology Univ. Pa. 1835—46; prof. Glasgow 1858. He made a geological survey of N. J., and pub. a report and map 1835, and a final report 1840; 1836-55 he was engaged in making a survey of Pa., giving especial attention to structural and dynamic geology.

Rogers, Henry J., 1811-1879. Inventor of the system of signals adopted by U. S. Navy 1846, modified 1861.

Rogers, Henry Wade. LL.D., b. 1853. Law Prof. Univ. Mich. 1883; pres. Northwestern Univ. 1890. Illinois Citations. 1880; Expert Testimony, 1883.

Rogers, James Edwin Thorold, 1823-1890. Prof. Political Economy at Oxford 1862-68 and 1888; M.P. 1880-86. But. Agriculture and Prices, 6 vols., 1866-88; Economic Interpretation of History, 1888; Industry and Commerce, 1892.

Rogers, John, ab. 1505-1555. Chaplain at Antwerp 1534; tr. Bible 1537; canon of St. Paul's, London, ab.1549; burned at Smithfield, first of the martyrs under Mary.

Rogers, John, b. 1829. American sculptor, many of whose statuette groups have been largely reproduced in composition.

Rogers, Randolph, 1825-1892. American sculptor, in Italy from 1855.

Rogers. Richard, ab.1550-1618. English Puritan. Seven Treatises, 1605.

Rogers, Robert, 1727-1800. Soldier of N. H., prominent in the French war, and as a Tory 1776; author of several books.

Rogers, Robert William, D.D., b. 1864. Prof. Haverford 1887, Dickinson 1890, and Drew Theol. Sem. 1893; Orientalist.

Rogers, Samuel, 1763-1855. English banker and poet. Pleasures of Memory, 1792; Italy. 1822; Table-talk, 1856.

Rogers, William Augustus. F.R.S., b. 1832. Prof. Harvard 1877, and Colby Univ. 1886; astronomer.

Rogers, William Barton. LL.D., 1804-1882. Brother of Henry D.: Prof, of Natural Philosophy and Geolog-v in Univ. Va. 1835-53; Pres. Mass. Inst. Tech. 1862-68. He "examined the region of mineral springs of Va., and organized a State Geological Survey 1835-42.—Of his brothers, James Blythe, 1802-1852, was Prof, of Chemistry at Univ. Pa. 1847, and ROBERT EMPIC, 1813-1884, at Univ. Va. 1842-52, Univ. Pa. 1852-77. and Jefferson Medical Coll. 1877.

Roget, Peter Mark. F.R.S.. 1779-1869. London physician, prof. Royal Institution 1838. Physiology, 1834; Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, 1852.

Rogue Money. Assessment formerly levied in Scotland, for defraying the expenses of apprehending criminals.

Rogue River Indians. Tribe of Indians living in Oregon and belonging to the Athapascan (q.v.) family.

Rogue's March. When a soldier was sentenced to be drummed out of the service he was escorted by a file of soldiers

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