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Rape. Brassica napus. Herb of the Mustard family, native of Europe: extensively cultivated for its seeds, from which Rape-seed Oil is expressed. Brassica campestris, another variety, is largely grown in Europe as a forage crop and for soiling purposes. An oil is extracted from the seed and the refuse cake makes an excellent nitrogenous cattle food. Rape has only recently been introduced into the U. S., and is still comparatively little known. It is sown late in summer as a late autumn or early winter soiling crop.

Rape. Carnal knowledge of a woman forcibly and against her will: more minutely defined by modern statutes, which also prescribe various punishments.

Raphael. Archangel, celebrated in the apocrvphal book of Tobit.

Raphael (raffaelle Santi), 1483-1520. Italian painter, b. at Urbino, active at Perugia, Florence, and after 1308 at Rome. In oil paintings his manners or styles are therefore distinguished as Peruginesque, Florentine, and Roman, according to this sequence of time and local influence. His greatest works are the wall paintings in the Vatican, partly in the room known as the Stanze. and partly on the ceiling of a corridor known as the Loggie. The cartoons for tapestries, subjects from the lives of the apostles, are now in the South Kensington Museum at London. The tapestries themselvos were intended for and long hung in the Sistine Chapel. There are ten of these tapestries and seven surviving cartoons. A duplicate set of the tapestries is mainly in the Berlin Museum, where they deco


rate the upper part of the great rotunda. In the Farnesian Villa at Rome is a series of frescoes from the story of Cupid and Psyche, from designs by R , done by scholars. The Galatea of this villa is his original work. ' His oil paintings are numerous, especially the Madonnas. The greatest of these is tin- Sistine in Dresden Otherwise may he quoted especially the St. Cecilia in Bologna and the Betrothal of Mary and Josepli in Milan. All of R.'s pictures are distinguished by a symmetry of balance and arrangement in line effect in which he stands quite alone among modern painters. He was by turns, according to his age. first, ingenuous and simple, then sprightly and vivacious, finally powerful and thoughtstirring, but always industrious, successful, and happy.

Raphall, Morris Jacob. Ph.D , 1798-1868. Rabbi, b. in Sweden, long in England; in New York from 1849: tr. Minima, 1840, with D. A. de Sola. Post-Biblical History of the Jews, 1855.

Raphe, or Rhaphe. Ridge along the side of the anatropous or amphitropous ovule: also this structure in the seed; also the median rib connecting the nodules of a diatom frustule.

Raphideae. Order of Diatomacecc, comprising the genera

which have a well-defined raphe, or median rib connecting the nodules,

Raphides. Needle-like crystals occurring in the parenchyma of certain plants; generally composed of oxalate of lime, and especially abundant in plants of the natural orders Aracece and Onagracece.

Raphidian. In Plant Anatomy, cells containing raphides.

Rapidan. River of Va., flowing e. to the Rappahannock ab. 10 m. above Fredericksburg, ab. 80 m. long.

Rapid-Fire duns. The necessity of preventing torpedo boats from coming within effective range to destroy battleships brought about the development of the rapid-fire gun. It consists of a single barreled breech-loading rifle capable of being trained quickly and kept easily upon a swiftly moving object, and of firing with great accuracy a large number of projectiles in a very short time. The rapidity of fire results from the quickness with which the different operations of loading and laying the gun can be performed. The use of fixed ammunition in metallic cases shortens the time of loading and saves that of inserting the primer. In the recoil mounts the gun returns automatically to the firing position and in the non-recoil carriage no time is lost, the gun alwa3'.s remaining in the firing position. The intervals of time between firings is diminished to the least possible by the rapidity with which the gunner operates the handle bar for opening and closing the breech, the cocking of the hammer taking place also during the latter operation. Since their first invention in 1880 they have increased rapidly in size, range, and destructive power. The use of smokeless powder in the cartridge has enormously increased the initial velocity, as shown by the Armstrong 6-in., which, in Jan. 1893, gave 3,711 f. s. to a 70 lb. shot, and this has brought about a corresponding increase in the thickness of the protective armor of torpedo vessels. These guns are named from their designers and from the weight of the projectile or diameter of the bore in inches or millimeters. They comprise two classes; first, those whose breech mechanism consists of a wedge-shaped breech block, and, second, those having an interrupted-screw breech block. The principal types of the former are the Hotchkiss, Nordenfelt. Gruson. Krupp, and Driggs-Schroeder, and of the latter are the Canet, Schneider, Seabury, Dashiell and Gordon. The following data of the 6-in. Driggs-Schroeder, tested by the Ordnance Board at Sandy Hook proving grounds in June 1894, will serve as an example of the capacity of the modern rapid-fire gun. Weight 786 lbs.: caliber 2.344 in.: length 50 calibers: weight of breech mechanism 8ii£ lbs.: number of rounds fired in one minute 32: time of firing 100 rounds 275J seconds: mean initial velocity 1,891 f. s. Hotchkiss and Nordenfelt monopolized the construction of these guns until ab.1885, but since that time more than eighteen firms were engaged in their manufacture. Of the Hotchkiss, there are 21 types, varying from 37 mm. or 1-pdr. caliber to the 155 mm. or 100-ptIr. caliber. The armament of a modern battleship would be ten 100-pdrs., sixteen 6-pdrs., eight 3-pdrs., with a capacity of seven, twelve, and twelve rounds respectively per gun per minute. Rapidfire guns will probably hereafter have a wider field of usefulness on land for the protection of stationary torpedo lines and in the defense of fortified places. See HOTCHKISS GUNS.

Rapier. Word of Spanish origin, signifying a gentleman's sword; a light, thrusting weapon, about three feet long, worn on occasions of court ceremonials.

Rapln de Thoy ran, Paul De, 1661-1725. French Protestant, resident mostly in Holland and w. Prussia. His History of England, 8 vols., 1724, tr. in 15 vols., 1725-31, was considered by Voltaire the best then extant. It was enlarged 1749 and later.

Rapp, George. 1770-1847. German-American founder of the Harmonists or Rappists, and of settlements at Harmony, Pa., 1803, New Harmonv, Ind., 1815. and Economy. Beaver co., Pa., 1824.

Rapp, Jean, 1772-1821. French general 1805, Count 1809: distinguished at Austerlitz and in the defense of Dantzig; prisoner in Russia 1813-14; Peer of France 1819. Memoir's. 1823.

Rappahannoek. River of Va.. rising near the Blue Ridge, and navigable from Fredericksburg; length ab.250 m. Several battles were fought on it and its tributary, the Rapidan, during the Civil War.

Rapparees. In 17th and 18th centuries in Ireland, ejected tenants, who waged a sort of guerrilla warfare on their successors.

Rappee. Strong snuff, made from the darker and ranker tobacco leaves, or from the veins and fibers.

Rappcn. Smallest coin of the Swiss cantons, worth ab. a centime or fifth of a cent.

■Capiatore* (raptores, ^etomorphve. Accipitres). Birds of Prey. Order of Insessores, including powerfully built birds.

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with curved beak hooked at the point, and feet strongly clawed (Insidentes). The outer toe can be turned backward or forward. The leg's are rarely feathered below the inter tarsal joint. They feed principally on warm-blooded animals. The young are altrices, and number ab. four to a nest, which is usually placed in inaccessible places. The male is more powerful than the female. The latter incubates the eggs, but the male assists in procuring food. There are three subgroups: Striqes, Pandiones and Falcones (q.v.).

Rarey, John S., 1828-1866. American horse-tamer, prominent as an exhibitor from 1856; in Europe 1860-61. HorseTaming, 1858.

Raritan. River of e. N. J., navigable from New Brunswick to its mouth at Perth Amboy.

Rash. Eruption of the skin accompanying the eruptive fevers, e.g., scarlet fever, measles; or resembling the eruptions of such fevers.

It a* lii (rabbi Shelomoh Ben Izaaki). 1040-1105. Greatest of Jewish commentators. He lived at Troves, s. France, and elucidated all the O. T. books except Chronicles. His work on the Pentateuch was the first book printed in Hebrew, 1574. It was tr. into German 1833-38. and the whole into Latin 1710-14.

Rusk, Rasmus Christian. 1787-1832. Danish philologist, prof. Copenhagen 1825. He traveled through Russia, Persia, and India, 1819-23. and brought back many MSS. His works on Icelandic Language, 1808-18, Danish Orthography. 1826, and edition of the Eddas, 1818. are highly valued. Among his other works are grammars of Anglo-Saxon, 1817, tr. 1830, Spanish, Frisian, and Italian. He partly anticipated Grimm's Law (q.v.).

Ra«kollliks. Russian schismatics, who adhere to the old ritual ami reject all reforms or alterations; extant since ab. 1666, and from an early period in two sects, one practically Congregationalists or Presbyterians. They are numerous, and of high character.

Rattle, Sebastien, 1658-1724. French missionary in Maine from 1695. His Abenaki dictionary was pub. 1833.

RasorcR. Order of birds, including the Oallinacei or Oallince; scratching birds, of which the domestic fowl is a type. Some authors also include the Columbines, and even the Crypturi.

Ragpail, Francois Vincent. 1794-1878. French surgeon, introducer 1845 of a camphor system of antiseptic surgery.

RaMpberry. Shrubs of the genus Iiubus, natural family

Rosacea;, nativesof Europe and N. America, bearing delicious edible aggregate fruits consisting of numerous small drupes borne on an elongated receptacle. The Black Raspberry or Thimble berry of e. N. "America is R. occidentalis.

Rampe, Henry, d. 1247. Landgrave of Thuringia; proclaimed emperor of Germany by the Rhenish archbishops 1246; defeated by the regent Conrad.

Raftgam, Hormuzd. b. 1826. Mesopotamian Assyriologist, helper and successor of I<ayard in explorations; envoy to Abyssinia, and prisoner there i866-68; discoverer of sites and relics for the British Museum. Mission to Theodore, 1869.

Rastadt, or Rastatt. Raspberry (R,*us idanu). Jown of Baden, strongest

fortress since 1848. Here was signed the treaty which ended the war of the Spanish succession 1714; here met the Congress which aimed to settle the differences between France and the Empire 1797-99.

Rastell, William. 1508-1565. English writer on law. Statutes, 1594; Collection of Entries. 1596. Rat. See Rats.

Ratafia. French cordial composed of alcohol, sugar and a flavoring substance, fruit or berry juice, kernels and flowers; as almonds, cherries, raspberries, coffee, orange blossoms, etc.


Ratchet Wheel. Form of toothed wheel, whose teeth are designed not so much to transmit motion to another wheel, as to fit them to resist the impact of the pawl or dog which opposes motion in one direction. The pawl is a lever, usually curved, and pivoted at one end. It is so mounted with respect to the wheel that when gravity or a spring shall cause it to fall into the space between two teeth, pressure against the end of the pawl is transmitted to the pin on which it is pivoted, and rotation of the wheel in that direction is prevented. When the wheel is turned the other way, the underside of the pawl is lifted by the slope of the ratchet teeth, and the pawl clicks harmlessly as it passes over the crests. Conversely, the wheel may be driven by the pawl. The back of the ratchet tooth is therefore usually a sloping curve, and the front a straight face, the normal to the latter at the common contact of tooth and dog passing outside the pivot in pulling dogs and between the centers of ratchet and dog for pushing and holding ones. The pawl and half pawl arrangement on a ratchet wheel secures less fall-back where the teeth are large. It is used on winding machinery to hold the strain of weight or spring, and on hoisting machinery, such as derricks, cranes, and capstans, to retain the load.

Ratel (honey Badger). Burrowing, skunk-like animal, 2 ft. long besides the short tail, with anal glands that eject a


Cape Rate] {Mrtlivora ratel).

pungent liquid; black on the sides and gray along the back. One species is Indian, two are tropical African. They are skillful bee-hunters.

Rate of a Clock. Amount which the clock gains or loses in a given time, usually a day.

Rates, Method Of. Advanced by some as the basis of the differential calculus. The differential of a variable at any value is defined as the measure of its rate of change at that value: the differential of the function is the measure of its simultaneous rate of change. The lirst differential coefficient is the ratio of the rate of change of the function to that of its variable.

Ratich, Wolfgang, 1571-1635. Educationist, whose system of education, based on Bacon's philosophy, he put into practice in Germany, at Kothen, 1618, and at Magdeburg:, 1620. without success.

Ratification. Adoption by one of an unauthorized act done on his behalf by another. It must be made with a knowledge of all material circumstances, or with intent to take the consequences without knowledge. It has the legal effect, generally, of a precedent authority to do the act.

Ratio. Measure of the comparison of two magnitudes. Arithmetical ratio gives the difference, geometrical ratio the quotient: the latter is the general meaning. The terms of a geometrical ratio are antecedent and consequent; it is indicated by two dots (:) or by the fractional form.

Ratiocination. Process of reasoning, usually limited to syllogistic method, in which the proof of a proposition is effected by two premises and a middle term; a process of determining knowledge which is mediate, and contrasted with the immediate act of intuition and experience.

Ration. In U. S. Army, the ration is allowance for subsistence of one person per day and consists of meat, flour, vegetables, coffee and sugar, the seasoning, and soap and candle; its value is estimated at 18 cts. When troops travel otherwise than by marching, or when they are separated from cooking facilities, and do not carry cooked rations, the travel ration ■ is issued, consisting of bread, canned beef and baked beans, roasted coffee and sugar; this ration is valued at 40 cts.



Rationalism. Doctrine denoting the dependence upon internal functions, the reason of the subject, for the determination of truth. It opposes all forms of external authority for the validity of belief and knowledge. In philosophy, it is opposed to sensationalism, which has denied the contributing agency of Reason to the products of knowledge. In theology, it substitutes Reason for authority as arbiter in matters of faith. It has existed in every age, but chiefly since the Reformation, when Socinus and Zwingli were its chief exponents; opposed to a formal and traditional orthodoxy, from which it is a reaction. The word was used by Comenius 1661, and from ab.1750 was applied especially to a series of professors, whose cool and dry views were long prevalent in Germany. It has only recently emerged from the disrepute of this narrow use, and come to mean a tendency or ruling idea rather than a system of doctrines. The history of rationalism has been traced by several writers, eminently by W. E. H. Lecky, 1865.

Rational Psychology. Branch of philosophy which concerns itself with the nature of conscious activity or of mind, and related questions. It is thus contrasted with modern empirical psychology, which concerns itself solely with the accurate description of the observable phenomena of consciousness and the inference of the laws which underlie them, by scientific methods. See Psychology.

Rational Quantity. One having, in its simplest form, only integral exponents; opposed to irrational.

Ratlsbon, or Regensbukq. Town of Bavaria; frontier fortress of the Romans; free imperial city 1245; taken by the Swedish-German forces 1633; scene of severe fighting between


Cathedral in Ratlsbon.

Napoleon and Archduke Charles April 19-23, 1809; ceded to Bavaria 1810. A Catholic league was formed here, Julv 6, 1524, to enforce the edict of Worms. Pop.. 1890, 37,635.

Ratlsbon, Conference Of. April 27 to May 25, 1541. between 3 Lutherans and 3 R. Catholics. Melanchthon and Eck the most eminent. They came to agreement as to justification by faith and on nothing else.

Ratltse. Sub-class of Aves, characterized as having no keel to the sternum, no firm rectrices or remiges: thn wings are more or less rudimentary, the birds beinir cursorial and incapable of lliirht. The orders included are CURSORES, ApteryGIA, and Dinornithid^e (q.v.).

■tatline*. Small ropes attached to the shrouds, forming the steps of a ladder by which sailors go aloft.

Ratramnui (miscalled Bertram), d. after 868. Monk of Corbie, n. France. He refuted the transubstantiation doctrine of his abbot, Rudbert, in a tract of the same title, On Christ'* Body and Blood, tr. 1549 and often reprinted. Its genuineness was denied by the Council of Trent.

Rat§. Largest species of genus Mus. The common brown rat, improuerly called Norway rat, came originally from Asia, entering Europe 1727. It has overrun Europe and the New World, driving out the black rat. The latter was introduced into America 1544, but is now rare. Feral rats live in burrows. The wood rat (Neotomus) has hairy tail and sole of foot, with soft lustrous fur, brown above and white below. In the Rockv Mts. is an edible species with tail resembling a squirrel's. See MYOMORPHA.

Rattans. Slender stems of species of Calamus, a genus of Palms, native of India.

Rattazzl, Urbano. 1808-1873. Italian Minister of Justice 1853-58; Premier 1862 and 1867.

Rattle. RJiinanthns crista-galli. Yellow-flowered herb of the Figwort family, native of the n. temperate zone.

Rattle-Rox. Yellow-flowered herbs of the genus Crotalaritt. natural family Leguminosa:; of wide geographical distribution in temperate and tropical regions. When ripe, the seeds become loose in the pods and rattle when shaken.

Rattlesnake Master. See Snakeroot, Button.

Rattlesnake-Plantain. Orchids of the genus J'eramium, natives of the n. temperate zone, bearing small flowers and mostly striped or mottled leaves.

Rattlesuake-Root. Coarse herbs of the genus Prenanthes, natural family Composite, natives of N. America. P. alba is known also as White Lettuce.

Rattlesnakes. There are fifteen species of Crotalus, with true rattles on the tail. These are rings of epidermis loosely jointed together, so as to make a rattling noise, which can be imitated by several harmless snakes by vibration of the tail amid dry leaves. The animal uses these organs to warn enemies of its presence, that they may flee and the snake not be endangered. All rattlesnakes are more or less sluggish, and assume the defensive rather than the offensive attitude. C.


Rattlesnake (Crotalus tiufigsus).

horriduH. the species most common in the e. U. S.. is now restricted to mountain regions remote from habitations. It lives on rats and squirrels or rabbits. The largest rarely exceed four feet, and have twenty-three rattles. It is marked by lozengeshaped bands. C. Incifer. the Western Rattler, has large dorsal markings with dark margins; the ground color is reddish brown. The Prairie Rattler (C. confluentes) is most sluggish of all. C. durixsus is the rattler of the Southwest and extends into S. America. It has about 30 rows of scales, with swollen keels. See COPPERHEAD and Solenogi.ypha.

Rattlesnake-Weed. Hieracium venosum. Yellow-flowered herb of the Composite family, with purple-veined leaves, native of e. N. America.

Raucli, Christian Daniel. 1777-1857. German sculptor, memorable for the monument of Frederick II. at Berlin, and statues of Queen Louisa, Blucher, Goethe, and others.

Ranch, Friedrick August, 1806-1841. Pres. Marshall Coll., Mercersburg, Pa., 1836. Psychology, 1840.

Raucli, John Henry. M.D., b. 1828. Sec. 111. Board of j Health; medical writer.

| Rauhc Haus. Institution founded 1831 at Horn, near I Hamburg, by J. H. Wichern. for poor children; since grown l to vast Rize and varied uses, with a training-school for teachers | attached 1845.

1 Raumer, Frikdrich Ludwig Georg Von, 1781-1873. Prof. Breslau 1811, Berlin 1819. The Hohenstaufens. 6 vols , 182325; Hist. Europe Since 1500, 8 vols., 1832-50; Recent History. 5 vols., 1836-89. He wrote several books of travel, as America, 1845.—His brother. Karl Georg Von, 1783-1865, Prof Breslau 1811. Halle 1819, and Erlangen 1827, wrote many scientificworks. Geographie, 1832; Qeschichte der Pedagogik, 1843-51.

Ravaillac, Francois, 1578-1610. French fanatic, murderer of Henry IV.; executed with hideous tortures.

Ravel Family. French pantomimists and dancers, well known in the U S. 1832-34 and 1837-18.

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Ravelin. In Fortifications, a detached work having- a parapet and ditch forming- a salient angle in front of the CURTAIN (q.v.). It may be considered a Redan (q.v.) upon the counterscarp, upon which it is erected.

Raven. Bird differing from the CROW (q.v.) by its larger size and the lanceolate feathers of its throat. It can mimic the human voice and by superstitious persons is regarded as a bird of evil omen.

Ravenel, Henry William, LL.D., 1814-1887. Botauist of S. C.; writer on Fungi.

Ravenna. City of n.e. Italy; taken by Romans 1ST B.C.;

capital of Western Empire 404; given by Pepin of France to Pope Stephen 754; held by Venice 1440-1509; scene of a victory of the French under Gaston de Foix over the Spanish and Papal armies, April 11, 1512 Pop. ab. 20,000; commune ab. 61,000.


Thomas, 1 5 9 2-1640.
English composer, es-
pecially of psalm tunes.
Melismata, 1611.

Raveiiftteln, ErNest George, b. 1834. German-English geographer.

Ravigiian, GusTave Francois Xavier Delacroix De, 17 951858. Preacher at Notre Dame, Paris, 1837-48; writer on the Jesuits, 1844. Clement XIII. Tomb of Dante at Ravenna, and XIV., 1854.

Ravinala. See Traveler's Tree.

Ravval Pinril. Town of the Punjab, n. India, 160 m. n.w. of Lahore; scene of the Sikh submission 1849. and of a review held by Lord Dufferin 1885 for the Afghan Ameer. Pop., 1891, 73.460.

Rawdon-Hafttlng-ii, Francis. 1754-1826. Irish soldier, in America 1773-81: Baron 1783; Earl of Moira 1793; Lordlieut. of Ireland 1805; Gov.-gen. of India 1813-23; Marquis of Hastings 1816.

Rawle, William, 1759-1836. U. S. Dist.-attorney for Pa. 1791. View of the Constitution. 1825.—His son, \villiam, 1788-1858, pub. 25 vols, of Pa. Supreme Court Reports, 1818-33. —His son, William Henry, LL.D., 1823-1889, pub. Covenants for Title, 1852.

Rawlina, John Aaron, 1831-1869. Brig.-gen TJ. S. Vols. 1863; on Gen. Grant's staff 1861-65; Brig.-gen. U.S.A 1865; Sec. of War 1869.

Rawlimton, George, b. 1815. Prof. Oxford 1861-89; Canon of Canterbury 1872. Tr. Herodotus, 1858-60; Five Great Monarchies, 1862-67; Parthia, 1873; Sassanian Empire, 1876; Ancient Egypt, 1881; Phoenicia, 1889.—His brother, Sir Henry Creswicke, D.C.L., 1810-1895, was long an official in India, Persia, and Turkey; knighted 1856; M.P 1858 and 1865-68; Baronet 1891. Hist Assyria, 1852; Cuneiform Inscriptions of w. Asia (with E. Norris and G. Smith), 5 vols., 1861-70; England and Russia in the East, 1874.

Bawton, Albert Leighton, LL.D., b. 1829. American traveler and Orientalist.

Rawgon, George, 1807-1889. English hymnist.

Ray. Main branches of an umbel or cyme; also ligulate flowers of plants of the Composite family.

Ray. In the propagation of a wave-motion of any kind through an elastic medium, the imaginary straight line drawn at right angles to the wave-front at any point is called a ray passing through that point. A collection of parallel rays constitutes a beam.

Ray, Isaac, M.D., LL.D., 1807-1881. Supt. Me. insane asylum 1841, and at Providence, R. I., 1845-66. Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity, 1838; Mental Hygiene, 1863.

Ray, James Brown, 1794-1848. Gov. of Ind. 1825-31.

Ray, or Wray, John, F.R.S., 1627-1705. English botanist

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Mussulmans and Rayahs.

Turkish rule. They were treated as cattle by their Turkish masters, hence the word Rayahs, which means cattle.

Rnylelgh, John William Strutt, Baron, D.C.L.. LL.D.. F.R.S., b. 1842. Prof. Cambridge 1879-84, and Royal Inst., London, since 1887; discoverer, with Ramsay, of argon 1894. Theory of Sound, 1877-78.

Raymond VI., d. 1222. Count of Toulouse 1194: ruler of the rich territory of s. France, blighted by the Albigensian crusade; defeated by Simon de Montfort 1211 and 1213; memorable for his vacillating course under cruel persecutions.

Raymond, Henry Jarvis, 1820-1869. Founder, 1851, and editor of N. Y. Times: Speaker of N. Y. Assembly 1850 and 1861; Lieut.-gov. of N. Y. 1855; one of the organizers and leaders of the Republican partv; M.C. 1865-67. Life of Lincoln, 1865.

Raymond, HlPPOLYTE, d. 1895. French playwright.

Raymond, John T. (orig. O'brien), 1836-1887. American actor, best known as Mulberry Sellers in The Gilded Age, 1874.

Raymond, Robert, Lord, 1673-1733. Chief-justice of King's Bench 1727-33. Entries on Pleadings, 1767.

Raymond, Rossiter Worthington, b. 1840. American mining engineer; ed. Am. Jour. Mining, 1867: U. S. commissioner of mining statistics 1868; pres. Am. Inst. Mining Engineers 1872.

Raymond, Sir Thomas, 1626-1683. Justice of King's Bench 1680-83. Reports. 1696.

Raymond of Snbundc, d. 1437. Spanish mystic, prof, at Toulouse ab.1430. His Theologia Naturalis. 1436, was tr. into Latin 1487, and into French by Montaigne 1569.

Rayimind Lull} . See Lilly.

Raynal, Guillaume Thomas Francois. 1713-1796. French

encyclopedist, previously a Jesuit. Divorce of Henry VIII., 1763. His Establishments of Commerce in the Two Indie*, 5 vols., 1770-80, caused his exile till 1787. Revolution in America, 1781.

Raynonard, Francois Juste Marie. 1761-1836. French dramatist and poet; Deputy 1791 and later. After narrowly escaping the guillotine, he entered the Academy 1807, and turned to the language and literature of his native Provence. His chief works are: Poems of the Troid>adours, 6 vols., 1816-21; Romance Grammars, 1816-21; and a Romance Dictionary, 6 vols., 1838-44.

Rayon, Ignacio Lopez. 1773-1827. Mexican patriot, prominent in resistance to the Spaniards, as was also his brother Ramon, 1775-1839.

Rayi« (rajides. Battides, Batoidea). Plagiostome fishes, with bodies flattened horizontally; with five gill-slits on the ventral side, internal to the pectoral fins. They have complete pectoral girdle, and cranial fin cartilages, but no anal fins. Many Rays attain a length of ten or more feet. They live on the bottom of the sea and feed principally on Crustaceans ajd Mollusks. The Electric Rays (Torpedo) have the electric orp:in between the fin cartilages and the gills. The Sting-Rays (Try1267


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Riiy {Raja claviita).

a flat snout 5 ft. long, set with numerous sharp teeth on the edges, and projecting sidewise. a powerful weapon. The Miliobatidce include Sea Devils or Devil fishes: the latter name is also applied to Cephalopods. Some of these grow to a size exceeding 15 ft. in breadth, and weigh a ton. The males and females live in pairs and have only one young, which the\T carefully tend.

Razor-Bill. 1. Alca torda. Auk of n. temperate coast of the Atlantic, ranging from the Arctic seas to L. I.; noted for its laterally compressed beak. 2. Rynchops. Skimmer or Cut-water, of warmer Atlantic shores, occasionally n. as far as L. I. Its lower mandible is ab. an inch longer than the upper, and laterally compressed. In flight the lower mandible is held in the water, thus dipping up small fishes.

Reach. Distance between two points on the bank of a river where the current flows without interruption.

Reaction. See Suggestion.

Reaction, Chemical. Occurring when two or more substances, brought into contact, unite or decompose to form other substances.

Reaction-Time. See Psychometry.

Read, George, 1733-1798. Delegate to Congress 1774-77; signer of the Declaration of Independence; framer of the first constitution of Del.; member of the constitutional convention of 1787; U. S. Senator 1789-93; Chief-justice of Del. from 1793. —His brother, THOMAS. 1740-1788, was Commodore of the Pa. navy 1775, and in the Continental service 1776-77.

Read, John Meredith. LL.D., 1797-1874. Grandson of George; Chief-justice of Pa. from 1860.—His son and namesake, 1837-1896, was U. S. Consul-gen. for France 1869-73, acting also for Germany 1870-72, and U. S. Minister to Greece 1873-79. Henry Hudson, 1866.

Read, Nathan, 1759-1849. American inventor of a tubular boiler and high-pressure engine.

Read, Thomas Buchanan, 1822-1872. American artist and poet: best known by his verses on Sheridan's Ride, and picture of Longfellow's daughters. New Pastoral. 1854; House by the Sea, 1856; Sylvia, 1857; Wagoner of the Alleghanies, 1862.

Reade, Charles, 1814-1884. English novelist and drama

tist. His chief work, The Cloister and the Hearth. 1861, presents the 15th century with great force. Never too late to Mend, 1856, attacked prison abuses, and Hard Cash, 1863, private asvlums. Others of note are Peg Woffington, 1852; Christie Johnstone, 1863; Griffith Gaunt, 1866; Foul Play, 1869; A Woman-hater, 1877.—His nephew, William Winwood, 18;i91875, novelist and traveler, pub. Veil of Isis, 1861; Savage Africa, 1863; Martyrdom of Man, 1872; Ashantee Campaign, 1875; and The Outcast, 1875.

Reading. Borough of Berkshire, on the Thames at the mouth of the Kennet. 39 m. w. of London. The town has some fine buildings, especially the town hall block, with an excellent


Assize Courts, Reading.

public library and museum, the latter containing the most valuable collection of Romano-British remains in England. Pop., 1891, 55,752.

Reading. City of Berks co.. Pa., on the e. bank of the Schuylkill; settled'1748, chartered 1783 and 1847; center of an iron manufacturing district. Pop., 1890, 58,661.

Read in (i Microscope. One arranged for reading the circles of fine astronomical and geodetic instruments.

Reagan, John Henniger. b. 1818. M.C. from Texas 185761; Postmaster-gen. C.S.A. 1861-65; M.C. 1875-87; U. S. Senator 1887-93.

Real. Spanish silver coin from 1497; one-eighth of a dollar till ab. 1830; now one-twentieth.

Real Actions. Proceedings at common law for the recovery of lands: Covenants, those in real estate conveyances which affect the nature, quality, or mode of enjoyment of such estate: Estate, an estate for life or in fee in lands, tenements and hereditaments.

Real and Money Income. All the new economic goods which come to a person during any given period, less whatever he has had to part with to obtain these, make up his real income; but income frequently means only that part of the above which comes to him in the form of money.

Real Cost of Production. Sum of the exertions of all the different kinds of labor involved in making the given article, and of the abstinences required for saving the capital used in making it.

Real Estate. See Real Actions.

Realf, Richard, 1834-1878. Anglo-American poet.

Realgar. 1. AsaS,. Red or orange-yellow mineral, containing sulphur and arsenic, frequently associated in small quantity with silver and lead ores, as in Hungary, Bohemia, and Saxony; also found at several localities in the vv. U. S. 2. Artificial product. See ARSENIC DlSULPHIDE.

Realism. Two different theories, one epistemological, the other philosophical. The former is opposed to idealism and asserts the existence of something other than mind in the world; namely, matter: the second affirms that general conceptions represent a real essence in existence, which corresponds to them, and is opposed to nominalism.

Reality. 1. Objective as opposed to subjective, real as opposed to illusory; 2. The actual, whether subjective or objective; 3. The permanent as opposed to the transient. The first contrasts it with the mental, the second includes the mental, the third makes no implications as to its metaphysical nature.

Realized Wealth. That part of a man's income which he has saved, whether in present use as capital or laid away for future use; so called as distinguished from income, in questions of taxation.

Real Presence. Doctrine variously held and defined in

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