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Rationalism. Doctrine denoting the dependence upon internal functions, the reason of the subject, for the determination of truth. It opposes all forms of external authority for the validity of belief and knowledge. In philosophy, it is opposed to sensationalism, which has denied the contributing agency of Reason to the products of knowledge. In theology, it substitutes Reason for authority as arbiter in matters of faith. It has existed in every age, but chiefly since the Reformation, when Socinus and Zwingli were its chief exponents; opposed to a formal and traditional orthodoxy, from which it is a reaction. The word was used by Comenius 1661, and from ab.1750 was applied especially to a series of professors, whose cool and dry views were long prevalent in Germany. It has only recently emerged from the disrepute of this narrow use, and come to mean a tendency or ruling idea rather than a system of doctrines. The history of rationalism has been traced by several writers, eminently by W. E. H. Lecky, 1865.

Rational Psychology. Branch of philosophy which concerns itself with the nature of conscious activity or of mind, and related questions. It is thus contrasted with modern empirical psychology, which concerns itself solely with the accurate description of the observable phenomena of consciousness and the inference of the laws which underlie them, by scientific methods. See Psychology.

Rational Quantity. One having, in its simplest form, only integral exponents; opposed to irrational.

Ratlsbon, or Regensbukq. Town of Bavaria; frontier fortress of the Romans; free imperial city 1245; taken by the Swedish-German forces 1633; scene of severe fighting between


Cathedral in Ratlsbon.

Napoleon and Archduke Charles April 19-23, 1809; ceded to Bavaria 1810. A Catholic league was formed here, Julv 6, 1524, to enforce the edict of Worms. Pop.. 1890, 37,635.

Ratlsbon, Conference Of. April 27 to May 25, 1541. between 3 Lutherans and 3 R. Catholics. Melanchthon and Eck the most eminent. They came to agreement as to justification by faith and on nothing else.

Ratltse. Sub-class of Aves, characterized as having no keel to the sternum, no firm rectrices or remiges: thn wings are more or less rudimentary, the birds beinir cursorial and incapable of lliirht. The orders included are CURSORES, ApteryGIA, and Dinornithid^e (q.v.).

■tatline*. Small ropes attached to the shrouds, forming the steps of a ladder by which sailors go aloft.

Ratramnui (miscalled Bertram), d. after 868. Monk of Corbie, n. France. He refuted the transubstantiation doctrine of his abbot, Rudbert, in a tract of the same title, On Christ'* Body and Blood, tr. 1549 and often reprinted. Its genuineness was denied by the Council of Trent.

Rat§. Largest species of genus Mus. The common brown rat, improuerly called Norway rat, came originally from Asia, entering Europe 1727. It has overrun Europe and the New World, driving out the black rat. The latter was introduced into America 1544, but is now rare. Feral rats live in burrows. The wood rat (Neotomus) has hairy tail and sole of foot, with soft lustrous fur, brown above and white below. In the Rockv Mts. is an edible species with tail resembling a squirrel's. See MYOMORPHA.

Rattans. Slender stems of species of Calamus, a genus of Palms, native of India.

Rattazzl, Urbano. 1808-1873. Italian Minister of Justice 1853-58; Premier 1862 and 1867.

Rattle. RJiinanthns crista-galli. Yellow-flowered herb of the Figwort family, native of the n. temperate zone.

Rattle-Rox. Yellow-flowered herbs of the genus Crotalaritt. natural family Leguminosa:; of wide geographical distribution in temperate and tropical regions. When ripe, the seeds become loose in the pods and rattle when shaken.

Rattlesnake Master. See Snakeroot, Button.

Rattlesnake-Plantain. Orchids of the genus J'eramium, natives of the n. temperate zone, bearing small flowers and mostly striped or mottled leaves.

Rattlesuake-Root. Coarse herbs of the genus Prenanthes, natural family Composite, natives of N. America. P. alba is known also as White Lettuce.

Rattlesnakes. There are fifteen species of Crotalus, with true rattles on the tail. These are rings of epidermis loosely jointed together, so as to make a rattling noise, which can be imitated by several harmless snakes by vibration of the tail amid dry leaves. The animal uses these organs to warn enemies of its presence, that they may flee and the snake not be endangered. All rattlesnakes are more or less sluggish, and assume the defensive rather than the offensive attitude. C.


Rattlesnake (Crotalus tiufigsus).

horriduH. the species most common in the e. U. S.. is now restricted to mountain regions remote from habitations. It lives on rats and squirrels or rabbits. The largest rarely exceed four feet, and have twenty-three rattles. It is marked by lozengeshaped bands. C. Incifer. the Western Rattler, has large dorsal markings with dark margins; the ground color is reddish brown. The Prairie Rattler (C. confluentes) is most sluggish of all. C. durixsus is the rattler of the Southwest and extends into S. America. It has about 30 rows of scales, with swollen keels. See COPPERHEAD and Solenogi.ypha.

Rattlesnake-Weed. Hieracium venosum. Yellow-flowered herb of the Composite family, with purple-veined leaves, native of e. N. America.

Raucli, Christian Daniel. 1777-1857. German sculptor, memorable for the monument of Frederick II. at Berlin, and statues of Queen Louisa, Blucher, Goethe, and others.

Ranch, Friedrick August, 1806-1841. Pres. Marshall Coll., Mercersburg, Pa., 1836. Psychology, 1840.

Raucli, John Henry. M.D., b. 1828. Sec. 111. Board of j Health; medical writer.

| Rauhc Haus. Institution founded 1831 at Horn, near I Hamburg, by J. H. Wichern. for poor children; since grown l to vast Rize and varied uses, with a training-school for teachers | attached 1845.

1 Raumer, Frikdrich Ludwig Georg Von, 1781-1873. Prof. Breslau 1811, Berlin 1819. The Hohenstaufens. 6 vols , 182325; Hist. Europe Since 1500, 8 vols., 1832-50; Recent History. 5 vols., 1836-89. He wrote several books of travel, as America, 1845.—His brother. Karl Georg Von, 1783-1865, Prof Breslau 1811. Halle 1819, and Erlangen 1827, wrote many scientificworks. Geographie, 1832; Qeschichte der Pedagogik, 1843-51.

Ravaillac, Francois, 1578-1610. French fanatic, murderer of Henry IV.; executed with hideous tortures.

Ravel Family. French pantomimists and dancers, well known in the U S. 1832-34 and 1837-18.

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Ravelin. In Fortifications, a detached work having- a parapet and ditch forming- a salient angle in front of the CURTAIN (q.v.). It may be considered a Redan (q.v.) upon the counterscarp, upon which it is erected.

Raven. Bird differing from the CROW (q.v.) by its larger size and the lanceolate feathers of its throat. It can mimic the human voice and by superstitious persons is regarded as a bird of evil omen.

Ravenel, Henry William, LL.D., 1814-1887. Botauist of S. C.; writer on Fungi.

Ravenna. City of n.e. Italy; taken by Romans 1ST B.C.;

capital of Western Empire 404; given by Pepin of France to Pope Stephen 754; held by Venice 1440-1509; scene of a victory of the French under Gaston de Foix over the Spanish and Papal armies, April 11, 1512 Pop. ab. 20,000; commune ab. 61,000.


Thomas, 1 5 9 2-1640.
English composer, es-
pecially of psalm tunes.
Melismata, 1611.

Raveiiftteln, ErNest George, b. 1834. German-English geographer.

Ravigiian, GusTave Francois Xavier Delacroix De, 17 951858. Preacher at Notre Dame, Paris, 1837-48; writer on the Jesuits, 1844. Clement XIII. Tomb of Dante at Ravenna, and XIV., 1854.

Ravinala. See Traveler's Tree.

Ravval Pinril. Town of the Punjab, n. India, 160 m. n.w. of Lahore; scene of the Sikh submission 1849. and of a review held by Lord Dufferin 1885 for the Afghan Ameer. Pop., 1891, 73.460.

Rawdon-Hafttlng-ii, Francis. 1754-1826. Irish soldier, in America 1773-81: Baron 1783; Earl of Moira 1793; Lordlieut. of Ireland 1805; Gov.-gen. of India 1813-23; Marquis of Hastings 1816.

Rawle, William, 1759-1836. U. S. Dist.-attorney for Pa. 1791. View of the Constitution. 1825.—His son, \villiam, 1788-1858, pub. 25 vols, of Pa. Supreme Court Reports, 1818-33. —His son, William Henry, LL.D., 1823-1889, pub. Covenants for Title, 1852.

Rawlina, John Aaron, 1831-1869. Brig.-gen TJ. S. Vols. 1863; on Gen. Grant's staff 1861-65; Brig.-gen. U.S.A 1865; Sec. of War 1869.

Rawlimton, George, b. 1815. Prof. Oxford 1861-89; Canon of Canterbury 1872. Tr. Herodotus, 1858-60; Five Great Monarchies, 1862-67; Parthia, 1873; Sassanian Empire, 1876; Ancient Egypt, 1881; Phoenicia, 1889.—His brother, Sir Henry Creswicke, D.C.L., 1810-1895, was long an official in India, Persia, and Turkey; knighted 1856; M.P 1858 and 1865-68; Baronet 1891. Hist Assyria, 1852; Cuneiform Inscriptions of w. Asia (with E. Norris and G. Smith), 5 vols., 1861-70; England and Russia in the East, 1874.

Bawton, Albert Leighton, LL.D., b. 1829. American traveler and Orientalist.

Rawgon, George, 1807-1889. English hymnist.

Ray. Main branches of an umbel or cyme; also ligulate flowers of plants of the Composite family.

Ray. In the propagation of a wave-motion of any kind through an elastic medium, the imaginary straight line drawn at right angles to the wave-front at any point is called a ray passing through that point. A collection of parallel rays constitutes a beam.

Ray, Isaac, M.D., LL.D., 1807-1881. Supt. Me. insane asylum 1841, and at Providence, R. I., 1845-66. Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity, 1838; Mental Hygiene, 1863.

Ray, James Brown, 1794-1848. Gov. of Ind. 1825-31.

Ray, or Wray, John, F.R.S., 1627-1705. English botanist

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Mussulmans and Rayahs.

Turkish rule. They were treated as cattle by their Turkish masters, hence the word Rayahs, which means cattle.

Rnylelgh, John William Strutt, Baron, D.C.L.. LL.D.. F.R.S., b. 1842. Prof. Cambridge 1879-84, and Royal Inst., London, since 1887; discoverer, with Ramsay, of argon 1894. Theory of Sound, 1877-78.

Raymond VI., d. 1222. Count of Toulouse 1194: ruler of the rich territory of s. France, blighted by the Albigensian crusade; defeated by Simon de Montfort 1211 and 1213; memorable for his vacillating course under cruel persecutions.

Raymond, Henry Jarvis, 1820-1869. Founder, 1851, and editor of N. Y. Times: Speaker of N. Y. Assembly 1850 and 1861; Lieut.-gov. of N. Y. 1855; one of the organizers and leaders of the Republican partv; M.C. 1865-67. Life of Lincoln, 1865.

Raymond, HlPPOLYTE, d. 1895. French playwright.

Raymond, John T. (orig. O'brien), 1836-1887. American actor, best known as Mulberry Sellers in The Gilded Age, 1874.

Raymond, Robert, Lord, 1673-1733. Chief-justice of King's Bench 1727-33. Entries on Pleadings, 1767.

Raymond, Rossiter Worthington, b. 1840. American mining engineer; ed. Am. Jour. Mining, 1867: U. S. commissioner of mining statistics 1868; pres. Am. Inst. Mining Engineers 1872.

Raymond, Sir Thomas, 1626-1683. Justice of King's Bench 1680-83. Reports. 1696.

Raymond of Snbundc, d. 1437. Spanish mystic, prof, at Toulouse ab.1430. His Theologia Naturalis. 1436, was tr. into Latin 1487, and into French by Montaigne 1569.

Rayimind Lull} . See Lilly.

Raynal, Guillaume Thomas Francois. 1713-1796. French

encyclopedist, previously a Jesuit. Divorce of Henry VIII., 1763. His Establishments of Commerce in the Two Indie*, 5 vols., 1770-80, caused his exile till 1787. Revolution in America, 1781.

Raynonard, Francois Juste Marie. 1761-1836. French dramatist and poet; Deputy 1791 and later. After narrowly escaping the guillotine, he entered the Academy 1807, and turned to the language and literature of his native Provence. His chief works are: Poems of the Troid>adours, 6 vols., 1816-21; Romance Grammars, 1816-21; and a Romance Dictionary, 6 vols., 1838-44.

Rayon, Ignacio Lopez. 1773-1827. Mexican patriot, prominent in resistance to the Spaniards, as was also his brother Ramon, 1775-1839.

Rayi« (rajides. Battides, Batoidea). Plagiostome fishes, with bodies flattened horizontally; with five gill-slits on the ventral side, internal to the pectoral fins. They have complete pectoral girdle, and cranial fin cartilages, but no anal fins. Many Rays attain a length of ten or more feet. They live on the bottom of the sea and feed principally on Crustaceans ajd Mollusks. The Electric Rays (Torpedo) have the electric orp:in between the fin cartilages and the gills. The Sting-Rays (Try1267


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Riiy {Raja claviita).

a flat snout 5 ft. long, set with numerous sharp teeth on the edges, and projecting sidewise. a powerful weapon. The Miliobatidce include Sea Devils or Devil fishes: the latter name is also applied to Cephalopods. Some of these grow to a size exceeding 15 ft. in breadth, and weigh a ton. The males and females live in pairs and have only one young, which the\T carefully tend.

Razor-Bill. 1. Alca torda. Auk of n. temperate coast of the Atlantic, ranging from the Arctic seas to L. I.; noted for its laterally compressed beak. 2. Rynchops. Skimmer or Cut-water, of warmer Atlantic shores, occasionally n. as far as L. I. Its lower mandible is ab. an inch longer than the upper, and laterally compressed. In flight the lower mandible is held in the water, thus dipping up small fishes.

Reach. Distance between two points on the bank of a river where the current flows without interruption.

Reaction. See Suggestion.

Reaction, Chemical. Occurring when two or more substances, brought into contact, unite or decompose to form other substances.

Reaction-Time. See Psychometry.

Read, George, 1733-1798. Delegate to Congress 1774-77; signer of the Declaration of Independence; framer of the first constitution of Del.; member of the constitutional convention of 1787; U. S. Senator 1789-93; Chief-justice of Del. from 1793. —His brother, THOMAS. 1740-1788, was Commodore of the Pa. navy 1775, and in the Continental service 1776-77.

Read, John Meredith. LL.D., 1797-1874. Grandson of George; Chief-justice of Pa. from 1860.—His son and namesake, 1837-1896, was U. S. Consul-gen. for France 1869-73, acting also for Germany 1870-72, and U. S. Minister to Greece 1873-79. Henry Hudson, 1866.

Read, Nathan, 1759-1849. American inventor of a tubular boiler and high-pressure engine.

Read, Thomas Buchanan, 1822-1872. American artist and poet: best known by his verses on Sheridan's Ride, and picture of Longfellow's daughters. New Pastoral. 1854; House by the Sea, 1856; Sylvia, 1857; Wagoner of the Alleghanies, 1862.

Reade, Charles, 1814-1884. English novelist and drama

tist. His chief work, The Cloister and the Hearth. 1861, presents the 15th century with great force. Never too late to Mend, 1856, attacked prison abuses, and Hard Cash, 1863, private asvlums. Others of note are Peg Woffington, 1852; Christie Johnstone, 1863; Griffith Gaunt, 1866; Foul Play, 1869; A Woman-hater, 1877.—His nephew, William Winwood, 18;i91875, novelist and traveler, pub. Veil of Isis, 1861; Savage Africa, 1863; Martyrdom of Man, 1872; Ashantee Campaign, 1875; and The Outcast, 1875.

Reading. Borough of Berkshire, on the Thames at the mouth of the Kennet. 39 m. w. of London. The town has some fine buildings, especially the town hall block, with an excellent


Assize Courts, Reading.

public library and museum, the latter containing the most valuable collection of Romano-British remains in England. Pop., 1891, 55,752.

Reading. City of Berks co.. Pa., on the e. bank of the Schuylkill; settled'1748, chartered 1783 and 1847; center of an iron manufacturing district. Pop., 1890, 58,661.

Read in (i Microscope. One arranged for reading the circles of fine astronomical and geodetic instruments.

Reagan, John Henniger. b. 1818. M.C. from Texas 185761; Postmaster-gen. C.S.A. 1861-65; M.C. 1875-87; U. S. Senator 1887-93.

Real. Spanish silver coin from 1497; one-eighth of a dollar till ab. 1830; now one-twentieth.

Real Actions. Proceedings at common law for the recovery of lands: Covenants, those in real estate conveyances which affect the nature, quality, or mode of enjoyment of such estate: Estate, an estate for life or in fee in lands, tenements and hereditaments.

Real and Money Income. All the new economic goods which come to a person during any given period, less whatever he has had to part with to obtain these, make up his real income; but income frequently means only that part of the above which comes to him in the form of money.

Real Cost of Production. Sum of the exertions of all the different kinds of labor involved in making the given article, and of the abstinences required for saving the capital used in making it.

Real Estate. See Real Actions.

Realf, Richard, 1834-1878. Anglo-American poet.

Realgar. 1. AsaS,. Red or orange-yellow mineral, containing sulphur and arsenic, frequently associated in small quantity with silver and lead ores, as in Hungary, Bohemia, and Saxony; also found at several localities in the vv. U. S. 2. Artificial product. See ARSENIC DlSULPHIDE.

Realism. Two different theories, one epistemological, the other philosophical. The former is opposed to idealism and asserts the existence of something other than mind in the world; namely, matter: the second affirms that general conceptions represent a real essence in existence, which corresponds to them, and is opposed to nominalism.

Reality. 1. Objective as opposed to subjective, real as opposed to illusory; 2. The actual, whether subjective or objective; 3. The permanent as opposed to the transient. The first contrasts it with the mental, the second includes the mental, the third makes no implications as to its metaphysical nature.

Realized Wealth. That part of a man's income which he has saved, whether in present use as capital or laid away for future use; so called as distinguished from income, in questions of taxation.

Real Presence. Doctrine variously held and defined in —RECIPROCALLY

the Catholic and Lutheran Churches, that Christ is corporeally, or at least spiritually, present in the elements consecrated and administered in Holy Communion.

Real Quantity. One involving in its combination no impossible operations.

Real Wages. See Nominal Wages.

Reamer. Steel tool for enlarging a hole that has been made. Taper reamers have this as their primary function, and are much used in riveted work, where the hole is made intentionally too small, so that the metal fatigued by punching may be reamed away (see PUNCH). Also where holes in a riveted seam do not come opposite, but are ''half-blind," a taper reamer enlarges both holes till the rivet will pass through. The reamer also appears as a cylindrical bar into which flutes have been milled, so that the tool, when introduced into an untrue hole, will cut it cylindrical, straight, and of exact diameter to gauge. Standard tapers for assembling work are also produced by the use of similar reamers of exact taper and size.

Reaper. Machine used for harvesting grain. It delivers the grain in loose bundles or gavels at the side of the machine.

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It was the forerunner of the binder, which has now superseded it, except on small farms in the rougher portions of the country, where but little grain is raised.

Reason. In its most general sense, conscious intelligence, which is able to adapt means to a given end; also loosely used in many other senses, but most particularly to designate that logical faculty by which the mind arrives at a judgment by any process of inference from previous judgments. In a simple process of reasoning the main steps are assimilation and association; e.g., I see the flame of a candle, and believe that if I place my finger in the flame it will be burned. If I perform this process with conscious reflection, the steps are these: I first recognize and identify, i.e., assimilate, the presentation of the flame; I next associate it with previous experiences of other similar flames accompanied by painful sensations of heat under certain circumstances, and from these premises draw the conclusion that the flame in question will produce a similar sensation under similar conditions; viz., a sufficiently close approximation of the flame and finger. The process is even in its simple form a complex one, involving recollection and discrimination, but the chief factors are assimilation and association.

Reaumur, Rene Antoine Ferchauj,t De, 1683-1757. French physicist, pensioned 1722; discoverer of methods of making steel and opaque glass; inventor of the thermometer named from him, of which zero is the freezing point of water ami 80° is the boiling point of alcohol. Hist, des Insectes. 6 vols., 1734-42.

Reaumur'* Poreelain. Opaque glass, devitrifled by sudden heating and cooling, invented by R. 1739. It is tougher and less fragile than ordinary glass.

Rebecca Riots. Series of outbreaks in England 1843-44. due to the indignation of the people at the great increase of toll-gates on the public highways. Men in female attire tore <lown the toll-bars by night. Their motto was from Gen. xxiv. 60.

Rebeknll. In Genesis, daughter of Bethuel. greatniece of Abraham, wife of Isaac, and mother of Jacob and Esau.

Rebellion. Rising, not permanently successful, against a government; as that of the Parliament against Charles I., 1642, the results of which were overthrown 1660 by the reeetablishment of the Stuarts. Lasting success, as in England 1688-89, and in America 1775-83. converts rebellion into revolution.

Rebolledo. Bernardino, Count De, 1597-1676. Spanish poet and official, Envoy to Denmark and Sweden. He versified Job and the Psalms.

Rebut). Puzzle in which words or phrases are represented by pictures of objects, the names of which are simHar in sound to the syllables or words intended. The picture-writing of the Aztecs was of this character, they not having advanced to the alphabetic stage.

Reeauiler, Jeanne Francoise Juije Adelaide (bernard), Mme., 1777-1849. French beauty of high character, head of a famous salon; exiled 1811-14; friend of Mme. de Stael and Chateaubriand.

Reeaption. Remedy, which the common law allows one to enforce, of retaking, without legal process, goods, wife, child, or servant wrongfully taken and withheld. Statutes and modern judicial decisions have limited its exercise.

Reeapture. In International Law, taking of a captured vessel by one of the same state or of an ally. It entitles the recaptor to salvage.

Receipt. Taking possession of a thing, or written acknowledgment of such taking. It is not a contract, and may be explained b3- parol evidence.

Receiver. Court appointee whose duty is to take and hold the property of another, in the interest of all parties interested therein. The power of appointment is generally defined bv modern statutes: the exercise of the power in each case is largely a matter of judicial discretion. Receiver's certificates are non-negotiable instruments for the payment of money, issued by receivers under the order of a court.

Receiver, Telephone. Instrument employed on telephone lines to receive the electric currents and deliver their energy to the air in the form of sound waves. A convenient form is that invented by Bell, consisting of a straight steel magnet upon one pole of which is a bobbin of fine insulated copper wire. In front of and very near to this pole is a thin

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circular iron diaphragm, capable of vibrating to and fro, following the fluctuations in the strength of the magnet caused by the varying current which passes round the bobbin. Thus sound waves are started in the air by the vibrations of the plate.

Air-pump.—Bell-slass in connection with an air-pump from which the air may be exhausted. Its lower edge is ground flat, and it rests on a flat metal or ground glass plate. See Air


Receptacle. In Botany, end of the peduncle. See Torus.

Rcchabltes. 1. Tribe or family of Midianite origin, at Jerusalem ab. 600 B.C.: they lived in tents and used no wine. Jer. xxxv. 2-19. 2. Order of total abstainers in England and the U. S.

Recife. See Pernambuco.

Reciprocal Of A Quantity. Unity divided by the quantity. It is indicated either in fractional form or by placing a minus sign before its exponent.

Reciprocal Equation. One in which the substitution of the reciprocal of the variable for the variable will not alter

the equation. If a be a root, then will - be also a root.

Reciprocally Proportional. Quality of variables

1 when their product is constant.

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Reciprocal Rectangles. Those equivalent and Dot equal; so called since altitudes are proportional to reciprocals of bases.

Reciprocity. Treaty relation between states, by which each is bound to accord to the other certain privileges, chiefly commercial, in return for like benefits.

Reciprocity, Principle Of. Idea assumed to unite the interests of the individual with the good of society, his good actions gaining hini esteem and advantages, and benefiting society by leading others to imitate his example.

Reciprocity Treaty. Between U. S. and Canada; concluded June 5 and ratified Sept. 9, 1854; abrogated 1806, on notice given by U. S. 1865.

Recitative. Kind of music used in opera, oratorio, and cantata, between plain speech and melody, and connecting the set or more highly organized forms of the work. In its simplest form it foregoes the raised rhythms used in artificially constructed pieces, and depends chiefly on variety of pitch: its most useful purpose is to hasten the action. When accompanied simply by an occasional chord on double bass and violoncello or pianoforte, it is called recitativo seeco or dry recitative; when treated more melodiously and accompanied by the orchestra, it is recitativo stromentato or accompanied recitative. It came in with the invention of the opera.

Recke, Ernst Von Der, b. 1848. Danish dramatist, poet, and critic.

Recklinghausen, Friedrich Daniel Von. b. 1833. Prof. Wurzburg 1866, and Strassburg 1872; writer on pathology.

Rcclinate, or Inflexed. Method of vernation where the upper part of a leaf is bent on the lower, as in the Tuliptree.

ReelIik, Jean Jacques Elisee, b. 1830. French geographer and communist, banished 1871-79. T)ie Earth, 1887, tr. 1871; Geographic Universelle, 19 vols., 1874-94.

Rectus, Paul, b. 1847. French surgeon. Clinics, 1887.

Recluse. 1. Monk or nun occupying a sealed cell, ab. 1000-1300. 2. Nun of Port Royal. 17th century. 3. Any one living in retirement.

Recognition. Feeling of familiarity accompanying the presentation of an object which has already affected consciousness. It implies reproduction and comparison. When one recognizes a familiar face, the present object of consciousness, viz., the face itself, is compared with an image which is the result of previous experiences of the same face, and is itself recognized: this comparison results in the recognition, which is clear and complete according as the image is clear and complete. The object of recognition may be either a material object or an image. The recognition of an image depends upon the completeness of the reproduction of the circumstances and associations attendant upon the original perception.

Recognizance. Common law obligation entered into before a court of record or authorized magistrate, by which the obligor acknowledges or recognizes his liability; now regulated by statute.

Recollection. See Memory.

Reeollet. Branch of the Franciscan order, established 1592 in France; also of Augustinians, founded 1530, and others. The name marks a return to the original rule.

Reconciliation. Removal of estrangement between God and man, through the mediation or atonement of Christ.

Reconnaissance. Rough preliminary survey of a country to select an approximate location for a road or canal. Levels are taken by the barometer, angles measured by the prismatic compass, and distances determined by the pedometer or odometer.

Record, Robert. M.D.. 1510-1558. Physician to Edward VI. and Mary; introducer of the sign of equality in algebra; author of an arithmetic. Grounde of Arte*, 1540. and an algebra. Whetstone of Wit, 1557.

Recorder. 1. Class of judicial officers, having original criminal jurisdiction within a locality. 2. Officer, charged with making and keeping official written memorials and tran-! scripts of transactions.

Recording Acts. Modern statutes providing for the public record of conveyances of property, and prescribing the legal effect of such records.

Recoupcment. Legal defense which cuts down plain

tiff's claim, but does not entitle defendant to an affirmative judgment.

Recovery, Common. Obsolete method of conveying land by a lictitious suit.

Recruit. Person who voluntarily enlists in the army. See Enlistment.

Rectangle. Parallelogram having right angles only.

Rectification. Determination of the length of any curve or arc in terms of the rectilinear unit. Some familiar curves may be rectified geometrically, but the processes of the calculus are generally required.

Rectifying. Second and subsequent distillations of a volatile liquid, to free it from impurities which may have been carried over in the first distillation; particularly applied to alcohol.

Rectilinear, or Rectilineal. Composed of or bounded by straight lines.

Rectipctality. Tendency of vegetable organs to grow in straight lines when all external directive influences are removed.

Rector. In English Ch. and P. E. Ch.. incumbent of a parish; also in Scottish Episcopal Ch. since 1890; sometimes head of a ch., school, or other establishment. See Vicar.

Rectriees. Long tail-feathers of birds.

Rectum, Diseases Of. Those affecting the last division of the intestines. Inflammation of the part is known as proctitis; it may be the seat of malignant growths. See PROLAPSUS Ani and Hemorrhoids.

Recurring Equation. One in which the coefficients of terms equidistant from the extremes are the same, having the signs of the corresponding terms either all like or all unlike: e.g., x5—3x44-8x8-f-8x8—3x4-l=-0. A recurring equation of odd degree has -f-l or —1 as a root, as the corresponding terms have unlike or like signs; one of even degree, having all like signs, can be transformed to an equation of one-half the degree: one of even degree, having unlike signs and the middle term missing, has both -)-l and —1 as roots.

Recurring Sines. One each of whose terms after a certain number is related to a number of preceding terms through a sequence of multipliers which remains unchanged throughout the series. This sequence of multipliers is called the scale of relation, and the number of terms in the scale determines the order of the series. A geometrical progression is a recurring series of the first order, the constant ratio being the scale. A recurring series of the second order will have a scale of two terms and two terms given as a basis for the series. The scale of a recurring series of the nth order can be determined if 2n terms be known.

Recurvirostridw. See Limicol^.

Recusants. Those who fail to attend services of an Established Ch. Statutes of Elizabeth were in force against Protestant Dissenters till 1688, and against R. Catholics till 1791.

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