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Panama Canal.


Panama Ship Canal.

Ship canal, 46 miles long, proposed across the Isthmus of P. and partially constructed 1880-88 at an expenditure of $178,000,000; abandoned owing to financial difficulties and improper management. It was originally designed to be a sea level canal, but later plans contemplated 4 locks of large size. The U. S. Government had made careful surveys at the isthmus 1873-75. A concession for constructing a canal was obtained by a Frenchman, Lieut. Wyse, 1877. A company was organized, the concession purchased, and the work of excavation begun 1881. The company failed 1889, after making a navigable channel for ab. one-fourth of the whole distance, and that the easier portion. See Lesseps, Ferdinand De.

Pan-A mcrican Congress. Proposed by J. G. Blaine; held at Washington Nov. 18,1889-April 19, 1890, by

representatives of various American countries, who discussed matters of international interest, and recommended reciprocity treaties and uniformity of coinage, weights, and measures. The gathering had no important results.

Pan-Anglican Synods. Conferences held at Lambeth Sept. 1867. July 1878. and June 1888; attended by English, Colonial, and American bishops, the Abp. of Canterbury presiding.

Panard, Charles FRANgois, 1694-1765. French author of many songs and vaudevilles, partly pub. 1764 and 1803.

Panas, Photinos, b. 1832. Greek surgeon in Paris, writer on diseases of the eye.

PaiiHthenrca. Quadrennial Attic festival in honor of Athena, the patron deity of Athens. Games were celebrated, and the sacred peplus or robe was carried in procession. This is represented in the frieze of the Parthenon.

Pancliatantra. Oldest collection of Sanskrit stories; extant in varying texts, whence translations have been made since 550 into sundry Oriental and European languages.

Pancoast, Joseph. M.D., 1805-1882. Prof. Jefferson Medical Coll., Phila., 1838-74. Anatomy, 1844: Operative Surgery, 1844-52.—His cousin, Seth, M.D., b. 1823, besides medical books, pub. Cabala, 1877.

Pan eras, St., 290-304. Phrygian boy, martyred at Rome; regarded as the avenger of false oaths.

Pancreas. Gland found in abdomen, connected with small intestines, secreting pancreatic fluid, which is complex in its composition and supplies the digestive ferment for intestinal digestion. It acts upon albumen, starch, and fat. The pancreas of ruminating animals is used as food, called sweetbread.

Pancreatin. Active elements of the pancreatic juice and more especially that separated from the pancreas of animals to be used to assist weak digestion or to peptonize food before it is eaten.

Panda (wah). Ailurus fulgens; one of the Proeyonidai,

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cat, but have larger ears and bushier tail. The fur is thick and soft, deep black beneath, faun color behind, and cinnamonred above, with white on the head; the tail is ringed alternately with red and yellow. It is plantigrade: the soles of the feet are covered with wool. It is bear-like in its feeding and habits.

Pandanacew. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 2 genera and ab. 80 species, mostly trees and shrubs, growing in the tropics of Asia, Africa, Oceanica, the Indian Archipelago, and Australia.

Pandean Pipe, or Pan Pipes. Survival of the Greek syrinx, and possibly of the Hebrew organ; series of tubes of various lengths, closed at the bottom and open at the top, lashed together side by side. The sounds are produced by blowing across the open ends.

Pandects. Digest of the writings of Roman jurisconsults, made by Justinian's direction; issued Dec. 533. From that time the citation of any passage in the juristic writings, not found in the Pandects, was forbidden. They contain over 9,000 excerpts from 39 authors, classified under 429 titles and grouped in 50 books.

Pander, Christian, 1794-1866. Russian geologist, founder of our knowledge of the Silurian formations of Russia; best known in connection with the discovery of the Conodonts. Geognosy.

Pandlones. Section of Raptatorial Birds, including the OSPREY (q.v.) or Fishing Eagle.

Pandit. See Pundit.

Pandora. In Greek Mythology, first woman, made of earth by Hephaestos, and gifted by each of the gods with some power by which to work the ruin of man. She opened a box containing all human ills, but shut it in time to prevent Hope from escaping also.

Pandorinere. Family of minute, green, multicellular, free swimming, fresh-water Alga of the order VolvocacefB, increasing by both propagative and reproductive processes.

Pandours. In 18th century, Austrian infantry of Servian descent, lawless and fierce; levied in Hungary.

Pandulf, d. 1226. Roman legate to England to negotiate with King John, whose homage as vassal of the Pope he received 1213; Bp. of Norwich 1218.

Panel. In Coal Mining, large rectangular block of coal, laid out for working independently of the rest of the mine.

Panel. Primarily, a piece of wood recessed and surrounded by projecting pieces in a door, wainscot ceiling, or piece of furniture, but applied also to all recessed parts similarly framed, whether in woodwork or masonry.

Panel. Space between two vertical posts of a truss; distance between two joints of a chord of a truss. Its length is usually slightly less than the depth of the truss. The floor beams which support the roadway are attached to the chords at the panel points.

Pange Lingua Gloriosl. First line of two famous Latin hymns, one on the Passion, by Venantius Fortunatus, 530-609; the other, Eucharistic, by Aquinas, 1225-1274.

Pangenesis. Theory of Darwin that the generative cells are collectors of spores (gemmules) thrown off from all the cells of the body throughout life. During development the gemmules produce their corresponding tissues again. Prof. W. K. Brooks has suggested certain modifications: 1. The generative cells are direct descendants from the egg which produced the body of the parent, and therefore the gemmules of each egg can develop a child resembling the parent. 2. New gemmules are received especially from tissues that are subjected to strain through ill adaptation to environment. 3. These gemmules hybridize the old gemmules of like kind, and so the resulting tissue receives an impulse to vary. 4. The male gametes are specially differentiated to receive new gemmules; hence the male leads in progress. Thus variations are produced when and where they are needed, and the very long period required for evolution, according to Darwin's theory, may be greatly shortened. See Natural Selection and La


Pangolin (manis). Scaly \nteaters; several species of Edentates of Africa and s.e. Asia. The hind feet are plantigrade; of the fore feet, the animal walks on its knuckles. On the back and tail the hairs of these mammals have become modified into broad overlapping scales, the whole resembling

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Their stomach is gizzard-like; even stones are swallowed to aid digestion.

Panlcale, Masolino Da. 1378-1415. Italian painter, chiefly at Florence.

Panicle. Compound flower-cluster, with loose and numerous branches, as in many grasses and Liliacece.

Panics. Severe commercial crises. Such have occurred in the U. S. 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893; in England 1793, 1814, 182526, 1847, 1866; in Australia 1892.

Panlni. Sanskrit grammarian, probably of 4th cent. B.C. His work was pub. at Leipzig 1886.

Panlpat. Town in the Punjab, n. India; scene of 3 decisive battles: defeat of the imperial forces of Delhi by Babar on his invasion of India 1526; overthrow of an Afghan army 1556 by Akbar, grandson of Babar; and defeat of the Mahrattas by Ahmed Shah Durani, Jan. 7, 1761. Pop. ab. 25,000.

Panlzzl, Sir Anthony, 1797-1879. Italian refugee, in British Museum 1831-61; chief librarian 1856; knighted 1869; ed. Ariosto 1834.

Panjab. See Punjab.

Pannini, Giovanni Paolo, ab.1695-1768. Italian painter, eminent for views of Roman ruins and historic architecture. Picturesque effect rather than literal accuracy was his aim.

Pannonia. Roman province ab. 8-430, s. and w. of the Danube, n. of Illyricum; now mainly in Hungary.

Pannoie. Surfaces of leaves and other organs when covered with felt-like, matted hairs.

Panopolll. Ancient Egyptian city on the Nile. Its metropolis was unearthed 1884.

Panorama. Kind of extended painting invented 1788 by R. Barker of Edinburgh, and long exhibited on movable cylinders. The diorama and cyclorama are varieties.

Panormltanu§. See Tudeschis.

Panormus. See Palermo.

Pan-Presbyterian Council*. Held at Edinburgh July 1877, Philadelphia 1880, Belfast 1884, London 1888, Toronto 1892.

Panslavism. Movement looking to the union in one confederacy of all the Slavic races. Panslavic congresses met at Prague 1848 and Moscow 1867.

Panspermy. Theory that all living forms have been produced only from pre-existent living forms.

Pansy. Large-flowered forms of Viola tricolor, plant of

the Violet family, native of Europe, widely cultivated as a garden flower. Garden pansies are not preserved or propagated

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without great difficulty, as they easily relapse to their wild form.

Pantaenus. Head of the Catechetical School at Alexandria 180-203. preceding Clement. Only fragments of his writings remain.

Paul hays. Mohammedan community occupying the s.w. of China, who asserted their independence in 1855. They are the descendants of Arab immigrants who settled here soon after the Hegira, and of Mongol soldiers led here ab.1250. The Chinese government recognized them 1866, but suppressed their empire 1872.

Pantheism. Theory which reduces all the phenomena of the universe, whether mental or physical, to modes or activities of the absolute, emanations from the substance of God; assumed to be incompatible with the immortality of the soul. Identification of God with the universe. It existed anciently in Indian and Greek philosophy, and was revived by Bruno (u. 1600) and Spinoza.

Pantheon. Only perfectly preserved building of ancient Rome. It is dome-shaped and fronted by a Corinthian portico, supporting a pediment. The interior dome is 142 ft. high, with the same diameter, and is lighted by an orifice at the center.

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Pantheon of Agrippa.

It is supposed to have been designed as part of the Baths of Agrippa, who began its erection 27 B.C.; after completion it was transformed into a temple for the gods of the conquered nations. It became a Christian church 610 as Santa Maria Rotonda. It is the burial-place of Raphael.

Pantheon. Of Paris; Church of Ste. Genevieve, built in form of a Greek cross, 276 by 370 ft., with a central dome 272 ft. high. It stands on the site of a church built by Clovis, was begun 1764, and dedicated by the Convention to the illustrious I men of France, but since restored to Christian worship.


Panther. See Leopard and Puma.

Pantodonta. See Amblypoda.

Pantograph. Instrument for copying a drawing, and at the same time enlarging or reducing its size.

Pantoja dc la Cruz, Juan, 16th cent. Spanish portraitpainter.

Pantomime. Dramatic representation conducted without spoken words. It began at Rome under Augustus, was popular and often objectionable during the Middle Ages, the players wearing masks: these being- removed, facial contortions were added to movement and gesture. In England it still has great attractions for children at Christmastide.

Pantopoda. See Podosomata.

Pnnyasis Of Halicarnassus, d. ab.457 B.C. Greek epic poet; uncle of Herodotus; put to death by Lygdamus, the tyrant of Halicarnassus.

Paoli, Pasquale, 1726-1807. Corsican patriot, who overthrew the Genoese 1755 and ruled the island wisely till 1769; expelled by the French, to whom it was sold 1768; thenceforth (except 1789-96, when he was Gov. of Corsica) in England, where he was pensioned and highly honored.

Paolo, Fra. See Sarpi, Pietro.

Paolo Veronese. See Veronese, Paolo.

Papacy. System under which the Pope is supreme head of R.C. Ch., involving till 1870 temporal as well as spiritual power.

Papal States, or States Of The Church. Former domain of the Pope, in central Italy, touching both seas, but of irregular form, bordering Naples on the s., and Tuscany and the Austrian territory on the w. and n. The boundaries have varied greatly, but at their greatest extent included ab.16,000 sq. m., with over 3,000,000 inhabitants. The claim of the Holy See was built on a grant of Pepi n the Short to Stephen II. 755, confirmed by Charlemagne. These states formed a part of France 1808-14. Most of their territory was added to the kingdom of Italy 1860, and Rome itself Sept. 1870, the Vatican and Lateran palaces only remaining under the Pope's direct control.

Paparrigopoulos, Constantin, b. 1815. Modern Greek historian. VHistoire dupeuple grec, 6 vols., 1862-77; I'Histoire de la civilisation hellenique. 1878.

Papaveracere. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiosperma} and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising ab.19 genera and 80 species of herbs, distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the n. hemisphere; called the Poppy family.

Papaw. Carica papaya. Small soft-wooded tree of the natural family Caricacece, native of tropical America; cultivated in warm countries for its large, yellow, edible fruit.

Papaw, North American. Asimina triloba. Small tree of the natural family Anonacea, bearing large, edible fruits, native of the s.e. U. 8.

Papayotin. Amorphous hygroscopic powder precipitated by adding alcohol to the juice of Carica papaya. It transforms proteids into peptones.

Paper. Manufactured from Papyrus (q.v.); it was in use in Egypt 4,000 years ago, and in Europe till 12th century, when paper made from cotton began to take its place. The Romans made a stout brown paper from the bark of trees 800600. The Aztecs used the fibers of the maguey plant for the same purpose. The Arabs had paper-factories ab. 600, using raw cotton as the material, having learned the art from the Chinese. By the Arabs it was taken to Spain, whence it spread to other European countries. Italy started its first paper-mill 1250, Germany 1290, France 1340, England ab.1500, America 1690, at Roxborough, now in Philadelphia. The materials of which paper is made are numerous; the most important are linen and cotton rags, hemp, jute, straw, esparto and wood fibers. After cleansing by boiling with lime, the paper stock is reduced to fine fibers in water by the beating engine, consisting of a cylinder with knives revolving on a plate also furnished with knives, contained in a trough. The bleaching is done with chloride of lime, the excess being removed by washing and hyposulphite of soda. For sizing, a mixture of rosin, caustic soda, and alum is added to the pulp, and for colored papers the aniline colors are largely used. Much of the paper is loaded with mineral matter which is mixed with the pulp, the most common being china clay. The prepared pulp is suspended in water, strained, and run upon the paper machine.

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large extent. The finest writing paper is made from linen rags. It is estimated that three-fourths of the paper is used for printing. In 1890 Europe produced ab. 1.049,800 tons of paper, valued at $150,000,000, and the U. S. produced 1,200,000 tons.

Paper Car Wheel. Wheel having the main body of compressed cardboard, while the hub, tire, and sides are of cast iron or steel.

Paper Hangings. These were used in Holland and Spain for wall and ceiling decoration before 1555. They are made by cylinder printing; the finer kinds are printed from wooden blocks. Velvet paper is printed with varnish and flock shearings of woolen cloth dropped upon it.

Paper-Maehe. Paper pulp, paper in sheets with paste or glue, or pasteboard are pressed in molds. After drying, the articles are polished and ornamented. The art is ancient in the East.

Paper Money. Either certificates convertible on demand into coin, or inconvertible notes. The latter may be issued by the government as a fiscal measure, or may be notes originally intended to be convertible but which have lost that character through subsequent exigencies. First made by the Hollanders 1574.

Paper Shell. Spherical shell of cartridge paper containing a bursting charge of powder and combustible compositions for the production of pyrotechnic display; usually fired from an 8-in. smooth-bore mortar.

Paphlagonla. State of n. Asia Minor, on the Euxine; conquered by Croesus; under Roman rule, part of Gnlatia.

Paphos. Two towns on w. coast of Cyprus. One was a chief seat of the worship of Venus, who was said to have risen from the sea near it. At the other St. Paul preached before Sergius.

Paplas, d. ab.163. Supposed disciple of St. John; Bp. of Hierapolis in Phrygia; author of an Exposition of Oracles of the Lord, of which fragments remain. His doctrine was millenarian in character.

Papilionaceous. Irregular polypetalous flowers of plants of the Pea family (Leguminosai).

Papillonidae. Family of Lepidoptera, including Butterflies. They have knobbed antennae and erect wings when at rest. Their pupa is a chrysalis. They fly by day only. There are 5,000 species.

Papin, Denis, 1647-ab. 1712. French scientist, who invented the loaded safety-valve ab.1680, and in 1690 constructed a working model in which first appeared the idea of having steam move a piston in a cylinder. The safety-valve was an attachment to P.'s Digester (q.v.), in which he studied the effects of heat upon confined vapor, and of which the principle is retained in certain processes for treating animal matters in the arts.

Papineau Rebellion. 1837-38 in Canada; improperly named from Louis Joseph Papineau (1789-1871), leader of the French party. It was promptly suppressed: 180 were sentenced to be hanged; some were executed, some banished, and some pardoned. A general amnesty was declared 1840. Papineau came back frcm France 1847, and was later in the Canadian Parliament.

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Paplnianus, Cemilius, d. 212. Most eminent of Roman jurisconsults; high official under Septimius Severus. From his 59 books 595 passages were admitted to the Pandects.

Papln'i Digester. See Digester.

Papoonc. North American Indian child, usually fastened

upon a board and carried on the back of the mother or hung up out of harm's way.

Papoose-Root. See CoHosh, Blue.

Pappenhelm, Gottfried Heinrich, Graf Von, 1594-1632. Marshal of German empire; distinguished at Prague 1620; associated with Tilly and Wallenstein in the Thirty Years' War; killed at Lutzen.

Pappus. Crown of hairs, bristles or scales which surmounts the achenes of plants of the Composite family, being the modified teeth of the calyx.

Pappus, Of Alexandria. Greek mathematician, probably of 3d century. His Collection, in 8 books, but lacking the first and part of the second, was pub. 1876-78.

Papuans. Natives of New Guinea and Melanesia, of NegRito (q.v.) blood; resembling the Australians. They tattoo by Papoose. cutting and scarring the skin,

use bows and arrows, paint their bodies, dye their hair, which is abundant and receives great care, and hang huge ornaments in ears and through the nasal septum. Their toes are partly prehensile. Their clothing is but a fringed girdle and a head dress. Cannibalism is practiced. They use communal houses, erected on piles over water and reached by boats. They are head-hunters like the Dyaks (q.v.). They cultivate land, but have no private ownership, and depend mainly on hunting and fishing. They love to barter. Trial by fire and witchcraft obtain among them, and rude wooden images of the dead are prayed to.

Papyrus. Cyperus papyrus. Sedge or reed, native of Asia and Africa; formerly growing in marshes of the Nile valley, 4 to 6 in. in diameter and 8 to 12 ft. high; still found in some parts of Nubia and Abyssinia, the Jordan valley, and Sicily. The Romans cultivated it in some wet lands of Italy, but obtained their chief supply from Alexandria. It was used by the Egyptians in the manufacture of various articles, as

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Par. In Business Arithmetic, sign of equality between apparent and real values, or between values expressed in different monetary units.

Para. City of Brazil, on the P.; commercially important. Pop. 40,000.

Para. S.e. outlet of the Amazon, after receiving the Tocantins; 20 to 40 m. wide; separated from the main stream by Marajo Island.

Para. Turkish coin of copper or base silver; fortieth of a piastre.

Parabasals. See Dicyclic Crinoids.

Parables. Comparisons; especially our Lord's illustrations of the kingdom of heaven by brief narratives, fictitious in form, or by references to familiar human relations or natural processes. This mode of teaching was used by none of the Apostles.

Parabola. See Conic.

Parabolas, General. Curves whose equations have the form ym — 2pxr.

Parabolic Comets. Comets whose orbits as determined do not differ appreciably from parabolas. They comprise 200 out of 270 computed orbits.

Parabolic Governor. See Governor.

Parabolic Semaphore. Semaphore signal whose arm is bent to a parabolic curve, so as to reflect along the track the light of a lantern placed in the focus of the curve. It is arranged to show red when in a horizontal position, and white or green when inclined at the position of safety.

Parabolic Spindle. Solid formed by revolving a parabola about a double ordinate perpendicular to the axis of the curve.

Parabolic Spiral. One defined by the equation f>* — ad+b, where a and b are arbitrary constants; or (p—r)" — 2p6, where r is the radius of a fixed circle and 2p the constant of a parabola.

Paraboloid of Revolution. Solid formed by revolving a parabola upon its axis: its volume is one-half that of a cylinder having the same base and altitude.

Parabranchlum. Gill-like organ on left side of neck in Prosobrancbs, near the true ctenidium. It represents the olfactory organ (osphradium) of the original right side.

Paracellulose. Modification of cellulose, soluble in cupro-ammonia after treatment with dilute acids.

Paracelsus (philippus Von Hohenheim), 1493-1541. Swiss physician and philosopher, who read and traveled widely in search of medical learning. He introduced new remedies and methods of treatment; taught a sort of pantheism, combining the Cabbala with natural science; and was a mixture of charlatan, investigator, and reformer. Chirurgia Magna; Hermetic Writings, tr. 1894. See Chemistry and Alchemy.

Parachordals. Cartilaginous bars, one on each side of the anterior end of the notochord, in Vertebrate embryos.

Parachute. Large umbrella-like apparatus, by means of which a man can descend from a balloon, the velocity of fall being not dangerously great. The top is sometimes 16 ft. in diameter, and has an aperture in the center, through which the air rushes and thus prevents any oscillations which might cause accident.

Parachute. In Mining, attachment above a hoisting cage, to prevent fall in case of breakage of the cable, and to protect persons on the cage from falling bodies.

Parachute. Fold of skin on each side of the body of Flying Squirrels, etc., which, during their soaring leaps, is stretched between the fore and hind limbs and acts as an aeroplane.

Paracme. That part of the life of an organism from maturity to death; characterized by the gradually increasing effects of senesence.

Para Compounds. When used as a prefix, seethe main portion of the word; e.g., for Paratoluidine see Toluidine. See Meta Compounds.

Paractinire. See Malacodermata.





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Bird of Paradise (Parndiata rubra).

female lacks plumes anil varied colors, and. as is usual among animals, the young males resemble the females. In other species the side plumes are crimson. In the King-bird of Paradise they are fan-shaped. Some species have wonderful crests, and their plumage glows like brilliant gems.

Paradise, or Paryis. Open space surrounded with a coping of masonry in front of a cathedral or other important building.

Paradise Lost. Milton's purpose to write a great epic was formed as early as 1689. On his return to England from the Continent he was occupied in the choice of a subject. A list of those considered remains; 61 were Scriptural, 88 from British History. The first on the list was finally chosen. For a time he wavered between a dramatic and an epic treatment. During the 20 years of his controversial life the poem was laid aside. It was taken up 1658, and was nearly finished 1663. It appeared 1667 in 10 books; the 2d ed., 1674, had 12, books VII. and X. being subdivided, and 8 lines added in books VIII. and XII.

Paradise of the West. See 8ukhavati.

Paradox. Apparent contradiction in terms, usually conveying a weighty truth; e.g., "He that findeth his life shall lose it."

Paradoxides. Middle Cambrian Trilobite, sometimes attaining a length of 20 in.

Para-Epididymls, or Paradidymis. Remains of posterior part of Wolffian body in the male, near the epididymis. See Vasa Aberrentia.

Paraffin. 0.87, mpt. 50°-60° C, bpt. 870° C. It separates as a solid from the heavy oils which are obtained by the distillation of the high boiling portion of petroleum. It is also obtained from wood tar, and by the distillation of shales and brown coal. It consists of C„H4, to C„H,S hydrocarbons, and is used for making candles, as a wax for coating insulated wires, and in chewing gum. Crude Pa. petroleum contains ab. 2 per cent. It occurs in the mineral Ozokerite (q.v.). It is a white solid, soluble in naphtha, ether and oils; also in hot alcohol, but separates in crystalline needles on cooling.

Paraffins. Hydrocarbons corresponding to the symbol CnH,n-l-j. So marsh gas, CH4, is a paraffin; also texone, C(H„, and solids, as C,BH„. The paraffins are also called alkyl hydrocarbons.

Paraflagcllum. Flagellum of small size and secondary importance, situated on a flagellated Infusorian which has one or more large principal flagella.

Parafuclislne. CmHjjN.ClO,. Pararosaniline hydrochloride; prepared as in the case of fuchsine, except that para compounds alone are used in connection with aniline, and that less toluidine or nitrotoluene is used. It is similar to fuchsine, and can be used for the same purposes. It is especially used in the manufacture of dye-stuffs.

Paragaster, or Paraoastkic Cavity. Cavity of a simple sponge, single or branched, before any special differentiations of the endoderm cells arise; primitive cavity of the sponge gastrula.

Par agastric Canals. Two canals that open from the bases of the primary radial canals of Ctenophores, on each side of the oesophagus. They pass to and end blindly near the mouth.

Paragastrula. Peculiar gastrula found in sponges. It originates from an amphiblastula by invagination or the flagellated cells, leaving the granular cells outside to become the elctoderm.

Paraglossia. Secondary pieces borne on the sides of the glossa or ligula of insects.

Paragonite. Mineral resembling common mica, but containing sodium instead of potassium. It gives character to the rock known as paragonite schist.

Paraguay. Republic of S. America, between Brazil and Argentine Republic; 22°-27° S. lat. and 54°-64° W. long. The surface is hilly in the north. In its middle portion it consists of forested plains, while in the south it becomes low and marshy. Its area is ab. 142,000 sq. m. The capital, Asuncion, was founded 1536. In 1620 P. proper was separated from

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Buenos Ayres, and both put under the vice-royalty of Peru. In 1776 Buenos Ayres was made a vice-royalty and P. placed under its jurisdiction. It declared its independence of Spain 1811, but became a despotism 1814 under Dr. Francia. C. A. Lopez came to power 1841. His son, F. S. Lopez, engaged in destructive wars 1864-70, from which P. has since been slowly recovering. Pop. ab. 400,000.

Paraguay. River tributary to the Parana or Rio de la Plata, rising in Brazil and forming part of the Bolivian boundary; discovered by Cabot 1526. Length ab,1,800 m., partly navigable.

Paraguay Tea. See Mate.

Paraheliotropism. In Plant Physiology, movement of leaves into a position parallel with the rays of light.

Parakeets, or Parrakeets. Old World Parrots, with long wedge-shaped tail. In the New World is the corresponding family of Macaws (q.v.). Conurus, the Carolina Parrot or Parakeet, is now restricted to Florida and in danger of becoming extinct. Its general color is green: the head is yellow, the forehead red.

Paraldehyde. CtHl70,. Colorless liquid, boiling at 124° C.; produced from acetaldehyde by bringing the latter in contact with sulphuric acid. It has a disagreeable taste, but is largely used as a soporific.

Parallactic Angle. Angle at a star, formed by arcs of great circles drawn to the pole and zenith.

Parallactic Inequality Of The Moon. Change in the sun's disturbing effect upon the moon's motion, due to variation of the sun's distance. Thus when the moon describes

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