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Palaeozoic. All fossiliferous strata below the top of the

Permian. See Column.

Palaeozoology. Science of the distribution of animals in the strata of the earth's crust. The oldest strata (Archasan or Laurentian rocks) represent the Azoic period, when living things had not yet appeared, or if they lived, their remains have not been preserved. Next comes the Palaeozoic period, characterized by fossil forms most different from species now living. This age includes the following periods: the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian (Old Red Sandstone), Carboniferous or coal-age, and Permian. The great classes of animals up to and including Ichthyopsida had become evolved in these periods. The next age is the Mesozoic (secondary period), including the Triassic. Jurassic, and Cretaceous rocks. The Sauropsida became established during-these periods. Finally, the Kainozoic (Tertiary) Age includes the Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Post-Pliocene (Post-Tertiary), including the present (Quaternary) period. During this age the Mavimalia became established. The most Synthetic Types (q.v.) are always found in the earlier formations. See Paleontology.

Palwphatus. Greek compiler of legends; probably of 2d century B.C.

Palafox y Melzi, Jose De, 1780-1847. Spanish officer, famous for his defense of Saragossa, 1808-9; prisoner iu France till 1813; Duke of Saragossa 1836.

Palagonite-TliiT. Fragments of palagonite intermixed with basaltic lava. It occurs in Sicily, Iceland, and Eifel, Germany.

Palaihnilian (or Pai.aik i Indians. Indians living along Pit River in Cal. They are very degraded, due to the inroads of the Modocs and their warfare with the whites. The women are purchased in marriage and polygamy is common. When persons die of unknown diseases they are cremated, otherwise buried in a sitting posture.

Palais Royal. In Paris, built by Richelieu, who bequeathed it to Louis XIII. Louis XIV. gave it to the Duke of Orleans, in whose family it remained until 1848. The Theatre Francais is at the s.w. angle.

Palainedes. Greek who, when Ulysses feigned madness, detected him by placing his infant son before his plow; in later times, said to have invented lighthouses, measures, scales, and dice.

Palanquin. Asiatic vehicle for conveyance of a single passenger by four bearers.

Palaprat, Jean, 1660-1721. French comic dramatist, collaborator of D. A. de Brueys.

Palate. In Botany, projection from the lower lip of the personate corolla of certain flowers.

Palate. Roof of the mouth, anteriorly of bone, bounded

by the gunis, the hard palate; posteriorly of a muscle membrane-like structure, the soft palate; terminating in the uvula, which is sometimes inaccurately called the palate.

Palatinate (pfalz). Former state of Germany, consisting of two sections. Upper and i Lower. From ab.1100 till 1648 I they were governed by an elector of the empire. By the treaty of Westphalia the Upper fell to Bavaria. The two were united 1777-1801, when the Lower was parceled out between several neighboring states, France getting the territory w. of the Rhine. This was restored to Germany 1814-15, Bavaria getting the greater portion.

Palatine. Officer at first attached to a sovereign's court; later, representing him in a district. In England, Cheshire was a county palatine ab.1080

Tl.e Mouth widely opened so as to 1540> Durhan} 1836> and

show the Palate: Lancaster 1451-1873.

I'.1Ath^'^peria.,"1?',tb.eKlowe,r."p;,3;s' Palatine Hill. Central

the hard palate; 4,4, the soft palate; L.., . , . ,

5, the uvula; 6, 6, the arches of the hill of the Seven On which

soft palate; 7, 7, the tonsils; 8, the Rome was built; supposed site

of the original cit}', and, in later days, of the residences of emperors and wealthy patricians.

Palato-Quaclrate Bar. Cartilaginous bar in the skull of embryo vertebrates, which is replaced by the different bones


that form the upper jaw, as the maxillaries and palatines. It represents, in part at least, the first visceral arch of the primitive vertebrates.

Pale. See English Pale.

Pale, Irish. See English Pale.

Pale, Jewish. In Russia, along the frontier from Baltic to Black Sea; established 1786. It lately contained over 3,500,000 Jews, who were forbidden to enter Great Russia.

Paleae. Flat seta? of Annelids.

Paleaceous. Organs resembling palets, or bearing palets or chaff.

Palcarlo, Aonio, 1500-1570. Italian humanist, twice accused of heresy; burned by the Inquisition. Immortality. 1526; Passion of Clirist, 1542; Actio in Pontificco Romanos, 1606.

Palenibang. Old city of s.e. Sumatra, on the Moesi. 50 m. from Java Sea; long commercially important; now capital of a Dutch residency. Pop. ab. 50,000.

Palenque. In the state of Chiapas, Mexico. It contains the ruins of five remarkable buildings, remains of a city supposed to have been abandoned before the coming of Cortez.

Paleography. See Diplomatics.

Paleolithic Man. The presence of rough stone implements in the early drift in caves and along river courses, associated with the remains of the Cave Bear, Hyena, Elephant, Mammoth, and Rhinoceros, in Europe, and similar remains in America, shows that man was widely distributed over the globe at the close of the glacial epoch, following the retreating ice northward, and perhaps living and hunting like the Eskimo, though there is doubt if the modern Eskimos are related directly to that race.

Paleontology. Science that treats of fossil remains, both animal and vegetable; now often restricted to the former. It has risen to so high a position for accuracy that it is the main dependence of the geologist in determining the age of strata. The fossil faunas of the different systems are so well known that the geologist in a new country need only collect its fossils and compare them, in order to ascertain their horizon. Much time and labor are thus saved. From Paleontology we learn that a regular gradation of organic life has existed among fossils, and that this gradation corresponds closely with that of the existing world of life, indicating a steady progress in development from the beginning. But it has not yet found any of the earliest forms. In the lowest Cambrian, from which the oldest intelligible fossils have been obtained, all the great subdivisions are present except the vertebrates. The first chapter in the evolution of the organic world is consequently yet unknown. See Palaeozoology.

Palermo. Seaport and largest city of Sicily, on the n. coast; anciently Panormus; held by Carthage till 254 B.C.: capital of the Saracens 830-1071. and of the Normans and their



successors till "1269. It has some fine old buildings, a good harbor, a large trade in fruit and wine, and a university, founded 1447, with ab. 65 instructors and 1,300 students. Pop. 1892, 273,000.

Palestine. Holy Land, the Promised Land of the Israelites; in w. Asia, between the Mediterranean and the deserts of Arabia. It measures ab.150 m. from n. to s., with an area w. of the Jordan of ab. 6.000 sq. m., and in all perhaps 11,000. The Jordan valley is greatly depressed below sea level: Lake Gennesaret is 682 ft., and the Dead Sea 1,292 ft., below the Mediterranean. The region was occupied by Canaanitish or Phenician tribes till conquered by the Hebrews ab.HOOB.C; 1121


from ab. 587 B.C. was held successively by Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks, and from 65 B.C. by Romans. Saracens conquered it 634. Crusaders held it 1098-1187, and portions of it till 1291. Since 1517 it has been a part of the Turkish empire. Present pop. perhaps 500,000, of whom 43,000 are Jews. A railway from Joppa to Jerusalem was opened Sept. 1892.

Palestrina. Italian town, 22 m. e. of Rome; anciently Praeneste; prominent in the Latin war 340 B.C.; sacked by Sulla 82 B.C.; long held by the Colonnas; notable for its remains of antiquity. Pop. ab. 6,000.

Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi Da, 1524-1594. Most illustrious of church music composers in the 16th century. His most famous work is the Missa Papce Marcelli.

Palets, Palea, or Pale. In Botany, bracts which occur in a capitate inflorescence on the axis or receptacle, as in Teasel; also inner scales or glumes of the flowers of grasses; chaff.

Paley, William, D.D., 1743-1805. Archdeacon of Carlisle 1782, prebendary of St. Paul's 1793, sub-dean of Lincoln 1795. Moral and Political Philosophy, 1785; Horai Paulence, 1790. His Evidences of Christianity. 1794, and Natural Theology, 1802, were long in general use as text-books, though their viewpoint was utilitarian. The latter applied the argument from design in Nature, and its adaptations, to prove the existence of God. —His grandson, Frederick Apthorp, LL.D., 1816-1888, entered the R. C. Ch. 1846, and edited sundry Greek classics.

Palfrey, John Gorham, D.D., LL.D., 1796-1881. Prof. Harvard 1831-39; ed. N. American Review, 1835-43; M.C. 184749. Evidences, 1843; Jewish Scriptures and Antiquities, 4 vols., 1833-52; Hist. New England, 4 vols., 1858-64.—His daughter, Sara Hammond ("E. Foxton"), b. 1823, pub. Herman, 1866, and several volumes of verse, especially Sir Pavon and St. Pavon, 1867.

Palgrave, Sir Francis, 1788-1861. English historian, of Jewish parentage (orig. Cohen), knighted 1832; keeper of records from 1838. English Commonwealth, 1832; Corporations, 1832; King's Council, 1834; History of Normandy and of England, 4 vols., 1851-64.—His son, Francis Turner, b. 1824, Prof, of Poetry at Oxford 1886, editor of the Golden Treasury of English Lyrics, 1861, has written Essays on Art, 1866, and several vols, of poetry.—His brother, William Gifpord, 1826-1888, was an officer in India 1847-53, a Jesuit priest till 1864, a consul in Asia and elsewhere, and Minister to Uruguay from 1884. His dangerous journey through Arabia was described in a Narrative, 1865. Hermann Agha, 1872; Dutch Guiana, 1876; Ulysses, 1887.

Pall. Calcareous and vertical rods encircling the columella in some corals. They are not united to the septa.

Palikao. In China, below Peking; scene of an AngloFrench victory 1860. For it the commander, Gen. CousinMontauban. 1796-1878, was made Count P. and Senator. He became Premier of France and Minister of War shortly before Napoleon Ill.'s fall.

Pall Language. Dialect derived from the older Sanskrit, becoming in time the sacred language of the Buddhists, and still used by Buddhist writers in Burmah, Siam and Ceylon.

Pall Literature. That of the Buddhist sacred texts, and all other works by Buddhist authors. It is still used in Ceylon, Burmah, and Siam. See Pali Language.

Palimpsest. Vellum or other material from which the writing had been erased, that it might be written on anew. Sometimes the erasure has been so imperfect that the original writing can be deciphered or restored, as in an old painting: this has led to the recovery of many mediaeval texts, especially MSS. of 600-900.

Palindrome. Sentence spelled the same, forward or back, as "Madam, I'm Adam"; common in Latin, unfamiliar in Greek and in modern languages.

Palingenesis. Parallel Variation(q.V.) without Ceno

GENY (q.v.).

Palinode. Song or poem repeated; thence, denying or retracting a previous one.

Palinurus. Eneas' helmsman, who fell into the Tyrrhenian Sea; thence a promontory of Lucania, s. Italy.

Palisa, Johann, b. 1848. Astronomer at Vienna, discoverer of 66 asteroids. Aug. 1889.

Palisade-Cells. Layer or layers of cells, placed, with their longer diameters vertical, immediately under the upper epidermis of leaves. They contain much chlorophyll, and so cause the upper surface of most leaves to be greener than the lower.

Palisades. Cliffs on w. bank of Hudson, in N. J., extending 20 m.: ht. ab. 300 ft. They are outcrops of trap-rock.

Palisot de Beauvols, Ambroise Marie Francois JoSeph, Baron, 1752-1820. French botanist. Flore d'Oware et

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are those decorated with snakes and lizards in relief, colored to closely resemble nature, and were probably molded from the animals themselves.

Palladic Chloride. PdCl,. Made by dissolving the metal in aqua regia. similar to platinic chloride; unstable, decomposing into palladous chloride, PdCU, and chlorine.

Palladlo, Andrea, 1518-1580. Italian architect, chiefly at Vicenza and Venice. His book. Dell' Architettura, 1570, had wide circulation and great influence.

Palladium. Pd. At. wt. 106.6, sp. gr. 11.8. sp. ht. .058, nipt. 1,500° C, valence III.. IV., VI. Rare metal, discovered by Wollaston 1803. Its chief source is a Brazilian gold-ore, from which it is obtained by melting it together with silver, then treating with nitric acid, which dissolves the silver and palladium; the latter is precipitated as the cyanide, which upon ignition yields palladium. It resembles iridium and platinum in appearance. The most characteristic property is its power to absorb hydrogen (see Palladium Hydrogen). It is soluble in nitric and hot concentrated sulphuric acids, is not affected by air and is used for graduated scales and, alloyed with silver, for tooth-fillings.

Palladium. Image of Pallas Athene, supposed to have fallen from heaven, on which the safety of Troy depended; stolen by Ulysses and Diomed; said to have been preserved in the Acropolis at Athens. The Romans claimed that it was taken to Italy by ^Eneas and kept in the temple of Vesta.

Palladium Bromides. PdBr,. Brown substance, soluble in aqueous hydrobromic acid; made by dissolving palladium in a mixture of bromine hydrate and nitric acid. A tetrabromide occurs in double salts, but has not been isolated.

Palladium Cyanides. Pd(CN),. Palladous cyanide. Yellowish-white, slimy substance, soluble in ammonium hydroxide; made by precipitating a palladous salt with potassium cyanide.—Pd(CN)4. Palladic cyanide. Present in the blood-red solution obtained by shaking finely divided potassium palladium chloride with a solution of mercuric cyanide.

Palladium Hydrogen. If metallic palladium be placed in an atmosphere of hydrogen, it absorbs 960 times its volume of the gas. This substance acts as an alloy, and is an excellent reducing agent.

Palladium Hydroxide. Pd(OH),. Dark-brown precipitate, obtained by adding sodium carbonate to a palladium salt, and heating.

Palladium Iodide. Pdl,. Horn-like substance, soluble in ammonium hydroxide and potassium iodide; made by precipitating a palladous salt with potassium iodide.

Palladium Nitrate. Pd(N03)2. Long brownish-yellow rhombic prisms, obtained from a solution of the oxide in nitric acid.

Palladium Oxides. PdaO. Suboxide. Black powder, obtained by igniting palladium carbonate.—PdO. Palladous oxide. Gray to black powder of metallic luster, soluble with difficulty in acids; made by gently heating palladium nitrate. —Pd^O,. Hexoxide. Bright-brown powder, obtained by heat1122


\ag palladium sulphosalts with potassium nitrate and hydroxide.—PdOa. Dioxide. Black powder, obtained by precipitating the chloride with hot caustic potash.

Palladium Sulphides. Pd,S. Subsulphide. Whitishgray substance, not attacked by acids; obtained by heating the higher sulphides.—PdS. Palladous sulphide. Bluish-black powder, obtained by heating the metal with sulphur, or by precipitating a palladic salt with hydrogen sulphide.—PdSa. Disulphide. Crystalline powder, made by decomposing sodium sulphopalladate with hydrochloric acid.

Palladium ab.368-431. Bp. in Bithynia and Galatia. His Hist. Lausiaca (Lives of Monks) was pub. 1616.

Palladlus, 7th cent. Greek medical writer.

Palladlus, St. Traditional Irish or Scottish bishop ab. 430.

Palladlu§, Rutilius Taurus ^milianus, 4th cent. Latin writer, whose De Re Rustica was tr. 1803. Book 14 is in verse.

Pallas. See Athena and Minerva.

Pallas. Second asteroid, discovered 1802 by Olbers.

Pallas, Peter Simon, 1741-1811. German naturalist, who traveled in Asia 1768-74 under Russian auspices. Reise, 177176; Flora Rossica, 1781-88; Southern Provinces, tr. 1812. He lived in the Crimea from 1796.

Pallaslte. Meteorite consisting largely of iron, but also containing interspersed grains of chrysolite or some similar mineral.

Pallavlclno, Ferrante, 1618-1644. Italian satiric poet, executed at Avignon.

Pallavlclno, Sforza, 1607-1667. Italian Jesuit, prof, at Rome 1639, Cardinal 1659. Of his many works the most noted is a Hist. Council of Trent, 1656-57, offered as a substitute for the too liberal one of Sarpi.

Pallial Line. Line on interior of clam's shell, along which the mantle is attached by means of muscle fibers.

Pall lata. See Tectibranchia.

Pallice. French harbor outside Rochelle, opened 1889.

Palliobranchlata. See Brachiopoda.

Palliser, Sir William, 1830-1882. Irish officer, inventor of projectiles and of methods of improving guns; M.P. 1872; knighted 1873.—His brother, John, b. 1817, explored wild parts of n.w. Canada 1857-60. Solitai-y Hunter, 1853; Report, 1861.

Pallium. Mantle of Mollusks.

Pallium. Woolen stole, adorned with black crosses, worn by the pope, and sent to a new archbishop, as necessary to his complete investiture and institution.

Pall Mall. Street in London, near St. James's Park; named from a game formerly much played there, which con

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den and the Saint Barbara in Venice are his best known works.—His great-nephew, Giovane, 1544-1628, was an inferior painter.

Palma, Ricardo, b. 1833. Peruvian author.

Palmacene. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermo? and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising ab.129 genera and 1,100 species, mostly trees and shrubs, widely distributed throughout tropical and warm regions; called the Palm family.

Palma Chrtsti. See Castor-oil Bean.

Palmate, or Digitate. Arrang-ement of principal veins of a simple leaf or leaflets of a compound leaf in a radiating manner from a point, as in the Geranium and Horse Chestnut.

Palmatl. Swimming legs of birds, having a posterior toe and three anterior ones, the latter united to their tips by a web.

Palmatlped. Palmately cleft leaves or other organs.

Palmblad, Wilhelm Fredrik, 1788-1852. Swedish novelist, geographer, historian, and compiler; prof. Upsala 1835. Diet, of Biography, 23 vols., 1835-59.

Palmellin. Red pigment contained in certain minute organisms of Palmellacea:.

Palmer. Pilgrim in crusading times, returned with palms from the Holy Land; later, any pilgrim.

Palmer, Benjamin Morgan, D.D., LL.D., b. 1818. Pastor at New Orleans from 1856; ed. Southern Presb. Review from 1847. The Family, 1876.

Palmer, Edward Henry. 1840-1882. Explorer in Palestine 1868-70; prof. Cambridge 1871-81; killed by Arabs in the Sinaitic peninsula. Desert of the Exodus, 1871; Arabic Grammar, 1874; Persian Dictionary, 1876-83; tr. Koran, 1880.

Palmer, Erastus Dow, b. 1817. American sculptor, distinguished for reliefs of ideal and allegorical subjects. His bronze statue of Robert R. Livingston is in the old Hall of Representatives in Washington.

Palmer, James Shedden, U.S.N., 1810-1867. Captain 1862, Commodore 1863. Rear-admiral 1866; distinguished at Vicksburg, New Orleans, and Mobile.

Palmer, John Mccauley, b. 1817. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861; Major-gen. 1862-66, serving chieflv in Tenn. and Ga.; Gov. of 111. 1869-73; U. S. Senator 1891-97; National Democratic candidate for Pres. 1896.

Palmer, John Williamson, b. 1825. American author, as is his wife, Henrietta (lee), b. 1834.




Palmer, Ray, D.D., 1808-1887. Pastor at Albany, N. Y., 1850-66; sec. Cong. Union 1866-78; author of My Faith Looks up to Thee, 1830, and many other favorite hymns.

Palmer, Roundell. See Selborne, Lord.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Viscount, 1784-1865. M.P. 1806; Sec. of War 1809-28; Foreign Sec. 1830-41 and 184651; Home Sec. 1852-55; Premier 1855-58 and from 1859; Tory till 1828, then Whig. He was a plain but effective speaker, and one of the most popular of British ministers.

Palmetto. Several species of palms, natives of Florida and West Indies.

Palmetto Leaves. Leaves of the Palmyra palm, found in India. They are used in the manufacture of hats and mats.

Palmier!, Luigi, 1807-1896. Prof. Naples 1847; director Vesuvius Observatory 1854; writer on meteorology.

Palmistry, or Chiromancy. Art of divination by examining lines in the palm of the hand; said to have come from India. It is to be distinguished from chirognomy, which deals with

the supposed indications of the general shape of the hands. The principal lines of the palm are designated respectively as those of Life, the Head, the Heart, Saturn or Fate, the Liver, and Sun or Fortune. The prominences or depressions at the base of each finger also are regarded as highly significant, and are called by the names of the planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Mercury, Venus, Apollo (the Sun), and the Moon. These are referred to the tastes or passions. The lines are interpreted according to their depth, color, and length, and their relations to the prominences or Mounts. The lines of the wrist, called Rascettes, or bracelets, are believed to indicate the duration of life, each line representing thirty years. A belief in palmistry exA.wiii; B, logic; c, mount of vera: ists in China and Japan, and is

L). mount of JuDlter: E. mount of, _ - T m ...

situm; F, mount at Apollo; a. known in Japan as Te-no-suii-mi, mount of Mercury; H, mount of or Hand's Line Looking. Great Mars; I. mount of the Moon; K, the ■ ;fl.9 , , .

rascette; a, a. line of life; £, b. line significance is there attached to or head; c.c, line of heart; d,d. line the fine lines at the inner joints

of Saturn or fate; e. e, line of liver . .1 1 . J . .,

or health: /, /, line of Apollo or and on the palmar surfaces of the fortune; g, g, the girdle of Venus; fingers. Those across the inside

R, the quadrangle; m,m.m, brace- * a t. n • _»• ± 1 >»i

lets of lire. Qf lne fjrsfc flnger indicate skill

and thrift; at the first joint of the thumb wealth, and on the palm below the thumb wisdom. Lines on the palm below the little flnger indicate children, as many as there are lines; the lines below these refer to success in matrimony. If the fine lines on the palmar surface of the middle finger are in the form of a circular spiral, it is a sign of skill in handwriting. These indications refer to the left hand; another series is supposed to apply to the right. The Line of Life receives the same name as in Europe, and is also known as the Line of Earth or Mother, while that of the Heart is thought to represent Heaven or Father, and that of Head, Man, or the individual himself. The relations of these lines, forming the cosmical Trinity, are believed to be of the highest importance. See Chiromancy.

Palmitic Acid. C„,H„0,. Mpt. 62° C. White, solid, crystalline acid, prepared by the decomposition of palmitin by water. Its sodium salt is one of the main constituents of soap, and is prepared by the action of caustic soda upon palmitin. It is also prepared from its soap. It occurs in palm oil, animal fats, olive oil, and Japanese beeswax.

Palmitin. CH^O-CH^O),. Tri-palmitin. Mpt. 66° C. Combination of the glyceryl group with palmitic acid; white plates; chief constituent of palm oil, and present in most animal and vegetable fats. Caustic alkalies decompose it, forming glycerin and palmitic acid salts or soaps.

Palm Oil. Semi-solid yellow fat, prepared by boiling the fruit of certain palms with water. It consists mainly of tripalmitin, but also contains palmitic and sebacic acids. It is used in soap-making. It is exported from Africa.

Palms. Aborescent endogens, chiefly inhabiting the tropics, distinguished by their fleshy, colorless, six-parted flowers inclosed within spat lies and rigid, pinnated, articulated leaves. They produce wine, oil, sugar, salt, thread, utensils, weapons, sago, etc. The most common species is the cocoanut. The


stems furnish a great variety of wood which is used for cabinet and marquetry work and for billiard cues. See Palmace^;.

Palm Sunday. Sunday before Easter, so called from the R. C. Ch. ordering palm branches to be carried in procession in imitation of those strewn before Christ when he entered Jerusalem. It is customary to consecrate palm branches, which are afterward distributed to the congregation, in R. C. churches on this day.

Palm Wine. Alcoholic beverage used in India, Africa, and Chili; prepared from the sap of the palm tree.

Palmyra, or Tadmor. City of e. Syria, in an oasis; said to have been built by Solomon. It attained its greatest splen


Triumphal Arch at Palmyra.

dor under Hadrian, who renamed it Adrianopolis, ab.130. Here Zenobia ruled 266-272, when Aurelian took the city and destroyed it. The ruins became known to Europeans 1678.

Palo Alto. Battlefield in s. Texas, where 2,300 Americans under Gen. Taylor defeated 6,000 Mexicans, May 8, 1846.

Palo Alto. In Cal., 30 m. e. of San Francisco; seat of Leland Stanford, Jr., University.

Palos. Seaport of s.w. Spain, whence Columbus sailed 1492. Pop. ab.1,200.

Palplcornia, or Hydrophilux*:. Swimming beetles with pentamerous tarsus and a pair of short, club-shaped antennae; the maxillary palps are often longer than the antennae. They feed on plants.

Palpitation of the Heart. A consciously rapidly beating heart. It may indicate disease of that organ, but is often caused by a disordered stomach.

Palpocil. Delicate hair-like process of a cell used for purposes of touch.

Palps, or Feelers. 1. Distal joints of the endopodite in the mandibles and maxillae of arthropods. 2. Certain tentacles on the heads of annelids.

Palsy. Loss of sensation or motion of any of the muscles of the body (see Paralysis). That form of paralysis accompanied by involuntary movements or shakings is frequently meant when this word is employed.

Paltock, Robert, ab. 1699-1767. English author of Peter Wilkins, 1750, a curious romance of flying islanders, anonymous till 1835.

Paludan-Muller, Freperik, 1809-1876. Danish poet, dramatist, and novelist. Adam Homo, 3 vols., 1841—19; Kalanus, 1854; lvar Lykke, 8 vols., 1866-73; Adonis, 1874.—His brother, Caspar Peter, 1805-1882, prof. Copenhagen 1872, was a historical writer.

Paludicolre (alectorides). Group of Grallat, including the Macrodactyli or Rallidae (Rails) and the Pressirostres or Gruidce (Cranes).

Palllll. Pillars in corals, surrounding the columella; independent of the septa.

Palustrinc. Plants and animals growing naturally in marshes.

Pambour's Theorem. "In a heat engine, moving with a uniform periodical motion, the mean effective pressure of the fluid is equal to the total resistance per unit of area of piston."

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Where the resistance is known, the mean velocity of the piston


of such an engine will be found from the formula: Ns— —.


In this, N — strokes using steam per min.; s — stroke length; r1 — apparent ratio of expansion, and r — the real ratio when clearances in the cylinder are allowed for; h — the available heat of combustion in foot-lbs. for one lb. of coal; W — the lbs. of coal burned per minute; A —area of piston in square inches, and p = pressure equivalent to the expenditure of heat, r and p have to be calculated from other formulae; the others are matters of observation. The principle was first applied by Count de Pambour in his Theory of the Steam Engine and On Locomotives.

Pamir. Plateau in w. Asia, ab.13,000 ft. above sea. On the south is the range of the Hindu Kush, and from it radiate the Karakorum and the Thian Shan. It is a desert region, sparsely populated, and controlled by Russia. The mountain ranges rise 4,000 to 5,000 ft. higher, and some reach an altitude

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Pampas Qrass (G. argenteum). decorating; much planted for ornament. The leaves are from 6 to 8 ft. long and the stem from 10 to 14 ft. The cultivation and preparation of the plant form a considerable industry.

Pampas Indians. Nomadic shepherds of s.w. Brazil, Paraguay, etc., formerly hunters. They are warlike, proud, and independent, despising agriculture and navigation. Some of the tribes practice polygamy. The s. Pamperos are darkskinned, strong, and skilled in throwing the bolas. They secure their wives by purchase. Infanticide is greatly practiced.

Pampero. Dry cool w. or s.w. wind, blowing over the plains of Argentina and of Brazil. The approaching change

from e. winds to the Pampero is announced by long arches of rolling cloud, followed by squalls of wind and rain. See Line Squalls.

Pamphilus, ab. 240-309. Presbyter at Caesarea; founder of a library there; author, with Eusebius, of an apology for Origen, whose writings he did much to disseminate. He was martyred.

Pamphlets. Tracts or small books, usually unbound; long important in political and theological controversies.

Pampliylia. Coast region of s. Asia Minor, with Mt. Taurus on the n.e.; anciently occupied by Greeks and barbarians, with a mixed language.

Pamplona, or Pampeluna. Town of n. Spain, on the Arga; founded 68 B.C. by Pompev; capital of Navarre907; held by French 1808-13. Pop. ab. 27,000.

Pamprodactylous. Bird having all the four toes turned forward, as in true Swifts. Their relatives, the Swiftlets, makers of the edible birds' nests, have the first toe directed backward, and are hence anisodactylous.

Pamunkey River. Virginia river full of sand bars, formed by the junction of the N. and S. Anne River flowing s.e., and with the Mattapony forms York River. Length 75 m.

Pan. Greek (especially Arcadian) god of forests and meadows; represented as man above, goat below; inventor of shep

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herd's flute; thought to suggest panic terrors, such as are felt in lonely places; afterward identified with The All, as in the words, "Great Pan is dead," an omen of the fall of Paganism.

Pan. 1. Shallow sheet-iron dish, used in prospecting for gold. The sand or gravel is stirred with water, the worthless matter is removed from the top, and the gold is found at the bottom, 2. Piece of gold-mining machinery, in which the rock is ground with mullers and the gold collected by amalgamation at the same time.

Panacea. Remedy vaunted to be able to cure a number of diseases; a cure all.

Panaesthetism. Doctrine that consciousness is or may be connected with other forms of matter besides protoplasm.

Panwtlus, 185-112 B.C. Roman stoic philosopher, author of a treatise on virtue, which influenced Cicero in the production of the De offieiis.

Panagia. In Eastern Ch., Virgin Mary; also Eucharistic bread.

Panama. City and seaport of Colombia, on s. coast of the Isthmus of P., at s. terminus of the P. R.R. and of the projected ship canal. Pop. ab. 25,000.

Panama, Bay Of. Small arm of the Pacific, washing s. shore of Isthmus of P.

Panama, Isthmus Of. Narrowest part of the American Continent, connecting link between N. and S. America, 32 m. wide, with a minimum elevation of 290 ft.; crossed by a railway, 47i m. long, opened 1855.

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