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manners of James and Charles I. were far enough froin
being irreproachable: but they were willing to seem
good, and to be thought religious; as appears from
the form of devotion they kept up, and the noise they
made about the manner of performing it. Those who
succeeded them, in the management of public affairs,
talked much of religion also; and countenanced such
as most strictly professed it: so that, with them, it
was fashionable to appear devout; and to talk much of
the concerns of the soul. Hence the charge of hypo-
crisy so indiscriminately advanced against them.-
But be the thing true, or false ; certain it is, there was
the appearance, at least, of religion and virtue in the
nation at the Restoration; and men, for the most part,
did not glory in their shame. For where administration
does not countenance profligates, profligacy will never
be in
vogue..

-But no sooner had Charles the Second
returned, than the face of things altered. Religion
became a jest; and virtue was mocked at: and those
were most favoured by his majesty, who ridiculed
every thing good and sacred. This is borne witness to
by writers of all parties : by men of all professions.
“ With the restoration of the king, a spirit of extra-
vagant joy spread over the nation, that brought on
with it the throwing off the very professions of virtue
and piety: all ended in entertainments and drunken-
ness, which over-run the three kingdoms to such a
degree that it very much corrupted all their morals.
Under the colour of drinking the kings health, there
were great disorders and much riot every where : and
the pretences of religion, both in those of the hypocri-
rical sort, and of the more honest but no less pernicious
enthusiasts, gave great advantages, as well as they
furnished much matter, to the profane mockers of true
piety. Those who had been concerned in the former

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transactions, thought they could not redeem themselves from the censures and jealousies that those brought on them, by any method that was more sure and more easy, than by giving into the stream and laughing at all religion, telling or making stories to expose both themselves and their party as impious and ridiculous all -Mr. Echard says, “the year of the Restoration produced jovial entertainments, loyal remembrances, free conversation, amorous intrigues, refined courtship and gallantry, with other softening and fashionable expressions, which served to cover the most enorinous viciousness in the court and other places. All which was encouraged and promoted by the licentiousness of the two new-erected theatres or play-houses, where there seemed to have been very little restraint, and where a new custom was now introduced of bringing in women upon the stage, which before had been personated by boys or young men. Thus the felicity of the times was frst sullied, and afterwards corrupted; so as, by degrees, to bring insuperable inconveniences upon the nation b.”

Wood, speaking of lord Rochester, obseryes, “ that, at his return from his travels, he frequented the court; which not only debauched him, but made him a perfect Hobbisto." The same writer, in the article of Fleetwood Sheppard, says, “ After his majesty's restoration he retired to London, hanged on the court, became a debauchee and atheist, a grand companion with Charles lord Buckhurst, Henry Saville, and others. After Eleanor Guinn had a natural son by king Charles II. he became her

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Burnet, vol. I. p. 92. • Id. vol. II. p. 41.

Wood's Athenæ, vol. II. c. 654. Sorbiere informs us, that his majesty gave Mr. Hobbes a yearly pension of a hundred Jacobus's; and kept a copper cut of his picture in his closet of natural and mechanical curiosities. Voyage 20 England, p. 39, 8vo. Lond. 1709

be in vogue.

1

manners of James and Charles I. were far enough froin
being irreproachable: but they were willing to seem
good, and to be thought religious; as appears from
the form of devotion they kept up, and the noise they
made about the manner of performing it. Those who
succeeded them, in the management of public affairs,
talked much of raligion also ; and countenanced such
as most strictly professed it: so that, with them, it
was fashionable to appear devout; and to talk much of
the concerns of the soul. Hence the charge of hypo-
crisy so indiscriminately advanced against them.-
But be the thing true, or false ; certain it is, there was
the appearance, at least, of religion and virtue in the
nation at the Restoration; and men, for the most part,
did not glory in their shame. For where administration
does not countenance profligates, profligacy will never

-But no sooner had Charles the Second
returned, than the face of things altered. Religion
became a jest; and virtue was mocked at: and those
were most favoured by his majesty, who ridiculed
every thing good and sacred. This is borne witness to
by writers of all parties : by men of all professions.
“ With the restoration of the king, a spirit of extra-
vagant joy spread over the nation, that brought on
with it the throwing off the very professions of virtue
and piety: all ended in entertainments and drunken-
ness, which over-run the three kingdoms to such a
degree that it very much corrupted all their morals.
Under the colour of drinking the kings health, there
were great disorders and much riot every where : and
the pretences of religion, both in those of the hypocri-
rical sort, and of the more honest but no less pernicious
enthusiasts, gave great advantages, as well as they
furnished much matter, to the profane mockers of true
piety. Those who had been concerned in the former

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transactions, thought they could not redeem themselves from the censures and jealousies that those brought on them, by any method that was more sure and more easy, than by giving into the stream and laughing at all religion, telling or making stories to expose both themselves and their party as impious and ridiculous asa -Mr. Echard says, “the year of the Restoration produced jovial entertainments, loyal remembrances, free conversation, amorous intrigues, refined courtship and gallantry, with other softening and fashionable expressions, which served to cover the most enorinous viciousness in the court and other places. All which was encouraged and promoted by the licentiousness of the two new-erected theatres or play-houses, where there seemed to have been very little restraint, and where a new custom was now introduced of bringing in women upon the stage, which before had been personated by boys or young men. Thus the felicity of the times was first sullied, and afterwards corrupted; so as, by degrees, to bring insuperable inconveniences upon the nation b.”_

Wood, speaking of lord Rochester, obseryes, “that, at his return from his travels, he frequented the court; which not only debauched him, but made him a perfect Hobbisto." The same writer, in the article of Fleetwood Sheppard, says, “ After bis majesty's restoration he retired to London, hanged on the court, became a debauchee and atheist, a grand companion with Charles lord Buckhurst, Henry Saville, and others. After Eleanor Guinn had a natural son by king Charles II, he became her

• Wood's

Burnet, vol. I. p. 92.

• Id. vol. II. p. 41. Athenæ, vol. II. c. 654. Sorbiere informs us, that his majesty gave Mr. Hobbes a yearly pension of a hundred Jacobus's; and kept a copper cut of his picture in his closet of natural and mechanical curiosities. Voyage 20 England, p. 39, 8vo. Lond. 1709

steward; and afterwards to that natural child, called, Charles earl of Burford (since duke of St. Albans); and managed all their concerns. So that, by that em. ployment, coming to the knowledge of the said king, he became one of his companions in private to make him merry, at the duchess of Portsmouth's, Cheffings's, and Bap. May's.”—Even Clarendon himself, bigotted and partial as he is, owns, “ the king took little pleasure in the queens conversation; and more indulged to himself all liberties in the conversation of those who used all their skill to supply him with divertisements, which might drive all that was serious out of his thoughts 6.” In another place, he says, “ that the constant conversation with men of great profaneness, whose wit consisted in abusing scripture, and in repeating and acting what the preachers said in their sermons, and turning it into ridicule (a faculty in which the duke of Buckingham excelled), did much lessen the natural esteem and reverence he (the king) had for the clergy; and inclined him to consider them as a rank of men that compounded a religion for their own advantage, and to serve their own turn” This same Buckingham, we are told, “reported all the licence and debauchery of the court in the most lively colours, being himself a frequent eye and ear witness of it..."

Those who heretofore sought private holes,
Securely in the dark to damn their souls,
Wore vizards of hypocrisy, to steal
And slink away, ip masquerade, to hell ;
Now bring their crimes into the open sun,
For all mankind to gaze their worst upon.

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For men have now made vice so great an art,

The matter of fact's become the slightest part; ! Wood's Athenæ, c. 1039.

Clarendon's Continuation, vol. III. Id. p. 683. • Id. p. 701.

с

p. 641.

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