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tures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Con- No title of nobigress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of Restrictions upnobility. No State shall, without the consent of the on States. Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws ; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports, or ex, ports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United Sates ; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II. Sec. 1. The Executive Power shall be vested in a PRESIDENT of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and President of U.S. together with the Vice-President chosen for the same term, be elected as follows.

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to Electors. which the State may be entitled in the Congress : But no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least Their duty.


If more than one shall have a ma

shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with them. selves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of Government of the United States, directed to

the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate President of the shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Reprecertificates of sentatives, open all

the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a ma

jority of the whole number of Electors appointed : And jority. if there be more than one who have such majority, and

have an equal number of votes, then the House of Re

presentatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of If no person have them for President; and if no person have a majority a majority.

then from the five highest on the list, the said House Votes shall be ta-shall in like manner choose the President. But in chooken by States.

sing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this


shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the

greatest number of votes of the Electors, shall be the Vice-President. Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more

who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them,

by ballot, the Vice-President. Congress may fix The Congress may determine the time of choosing the a time for choos- electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes :

which day shall be the same throughout the United

States. Citizens only eli- No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen sible to the office of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this


Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President;

neither shall any person be eligible to that office, who Age & residence shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, required.

and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

In case of the removal of the President from office, or Congress to pro- of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powvide for vacancy ers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve

on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inabil.

dent and VicePresident.


ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall compensation to have been elected, and he shall not receive within that the President. period, any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the follow oath or affimation :

“ I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and Oath. will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Sec. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief President to be of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Chief of the ArMilitia of the several States, when called into the actual my, service of the United States. He may require the opin- may require ion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the exe.

the opinion of

principals in the cutive departments, upon any subject relating to the du-Executive De

partments, ties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the -- may grant United States, except in cases of impeachment.

reprieves and

pardons. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur: and he shall nominate, make Treaties, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, nominate Am

bassadors, &c. shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the Congress may by law vest the Congress may appointment of such inferior officers as they shall think west rappoint proper,

in the President alone, in the Courts of law, or in President, &c. in the heads of departments.

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies President to fill that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by

vacancies, in regranting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress, information of the state of the union, and recom

with advice

cess of Senate.


inay con

- may receive Ambassadors.

President shall mend to their consideration, such measures as he shall State of the Union judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary and recommend occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in

case of disagreement between them, with respect to the venencontressrn time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time

may adjourn Congress. as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors

and other public Ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the

officers of the United States. President and Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil subject to remo

officers of the United States shall be removed from office val.

on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

other Officers

ferior Courts.

ARTICLE III. Sec. 1. The Judicial power of the United States, Supreme and In- shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such infe

rior Courts as the Congress may from time to time, or

dain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme Tenure of office. and Inferior Court shall hold their offices during good

behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their Compensation. services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished

during their continuance in office.

SEC. 2. The Judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affect

ing Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; Extent of Judi- to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to cial power.

controversies to which the United States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects.

In all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Min

isters and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a Original and ap- party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. pellate jurisdic. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme

Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.




The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachnent, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been commit- Trials by Jury ted; but when not committed within any State, the trial where the cerime shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by la directed.

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist Treason. only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two Two witnesses or witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the pun- Congress to deishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall clarë punishwork corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

ARTICLE IV. Sec. 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceed- Credit given to ings of every other State. And the Congress may, by public acts of the general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, i'ecords and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Sec. 2. The citizens of each State shall be entitled Privileges of eitito all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several zens. States.

A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in Fugitives demananother State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of another. of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall in conse- Persons held to quence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged state, vindo escale from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on ping to another claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be claimed. due.

Sec. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State ; nor New States. any State be formed by the junction of two or more States or parts of States, without the consent of the Le


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