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narchs, kings, free princes, and states of


"pope's bulls should pull in their horns, and himself "wish he had never meddled with this matter. The '.'*' cardinal contending against the apology, his majesty *' consirmed his resolution, and with the like celerity in "the compass of one week, wrote his monitory pre*' face; and being so written, published it and theapo"logy in his own name, and made good his word, sent 'c it to the emperor, and all the kings and free princes (a) Preface " in Christendom (a)." Great dispatch this ! but as we to James's have a bishop's word for it, we cannot resuse to subwroite. fCribe to the.truth of it. In his dedication to the emperor Rodolph II. and the princes and states of Christendom, he stiles himself prosessor, maintainer, and defender of the true, christian, catholic, and apostolic faith, prosessed by the antient and primitive church, and sealed with the blood of so many holy bishops, and t*Hames'8 other faithsul crowned with the glory of martyrdom (b). t%%. P He then in a particular manner addresses himself

unto them, and tells them, "that the cause in which *' he is engaged is general, and concerneth the autho, "rity and privilege of kings in general, and all fu

ss) U. p. "per eminent temporal powers («)." He proceeds to isg. give reasons for printing the apology without his name;

shews why he thought now proper to avow it, and goes on to shew the occasion of it. He lets them know, that the publishing his book had brought such two answerers, or rather railers, upon him, as all the world might wonder at. He tften falls foul on Parsons, for Whom he fays a rope is the fittest answer; and proceeds to Mattheus Tortus, who called himself Bellarmine's chaplain. "An obscure author, fays he, utterly un*' known to me, being yet little known to the world "for any other of his works; and therefore must be a "very desperate sellow in beginning his apprenti/age, (J) ld. p. "not only to resute, but to rail upon a king (d)." One 293. would think by this James knew not that in the repub

lic of letters no man holds any other rank than what he

can I

James I. Io;

Christendom, published it, and the apology

• in

can procure by his own industry and abilities. For which reason if the greatest prince commences a member of it, he is to expect, in justice, no other regard than what his fellow-members (hall judge he really merits. Jf he would not be treated like an author, he should not commence author. The moment he acts publicly in that* character, he is liable to be refuted, ridiculed, or exposed j nor has he any body but himself to thank for it. ——But let us go on with our subject, fames, from some passages, concludes that Bellarmine was his real answerer, under the feigned name of Tortus, and as such he speaks of him. After mentioning the epithets bestowed on himself by his answerer, he asks the princes > whether this be mannerly dealing with a king? and he doubts not but that they will resent such indignities done to one of their quality. He then shews the insufsiciency of the cardinal's reply to his apology, aggravates the power he gives to the popes, shews that they formerly were in subjection to christian emperors, and that their assent was necessary to their elections, and that they had been deposed by them. Kings also, he fays, have denied the temporal superiority of the popes, more especially his own predecessors. Apostate he shews he is none, and heretic that he cannot be, as believing all the three creeds, and as " acknowledging for orthodox all "those other forms of creeds, that either were devised "bycouncilsbr particular fathers, against such particular "heresies as most reigned in their times (/)." He then (e) Work?, gives a long-winded confession of faith, with reasons, P. 3°** • such as they are, of his belief; and afterwards spends ho less than twenty folio pages on the subject of Antichrifi", which he thus concludes, " Thus has the cardi"nals shameless wresting two of those places of serip"ture, pasce oves meas, & tibi dabo claves, for proving *' thepope's temporal authority over princes,animated me "to prove (he pope to be the antichrist out of the-book ** of scripture j sotopay him his own money again. And

in his own name, and sent it to the emperor,

i and

f this opinion no pope can ever make me to recant, ** except they first renounce any farther meddling with "princes, in any thing belonging to their temporal ju(/) Workt, " rifdiction (/).'' Returning then to Bel/armine's res' 3z?' ply, he complains loudly of the lies contained in it, and of the iljrmanners wherewith it abounds; and after a great deal of heavy stuff about the powder-plot, oath of allegiance, the villany of Garnet, Sec. he addresses himself to the kings and princes, and prays God that he and they may not suffer the incroaching Babylonian monarch to gain ground upon them. It is very remarkable, that in this answer to Bellarmine, contained in the premonition, 'James takes not the least notice of the account given by him of his having formerly written to the pope, and begged a cardinal's hat for one of his; subjects, in order that through him he might be the more able to advance his affairs in the court of Rome. • This, I fay, is remarkable, and argues in James a conviction of the truth of what was alledged against him. Indeed, with no face could he pretend to deny it: for 'rwas well known to his own and foreign ministers, that his ambasfador at the French court had frequently solicited it, and thereby had reflected on hit honour and, (r) Win- judgment (g); and that he .himself had negotiated with wood's me- the pope by means of cardinal Ædo-brandini, in order, moriah, as was thought, to his becoming catholic (A). He had 388. not the face therefore to deny, in a Work addressed to

(A) Birch's foreigners, a fact which could so easily have been made negotiations, good against.him. However, in order to amuse his own; subjects, he pretended the letter written to the pope, produced in this controversy, was surreptitiously obtained by lord Balmuho; and accordingly that lord, (<)SeeCal- following the direction in all things of lord Dunbar (/),. 60TM°^ P' after navinS consessed that he himself drew the letter Spot'swood, without his majesty's knowledge or consent, and got p.i°7. him ignorantly to sign it, had sentence of death passed on him for this his action. No doubt of it, 'James


and princes, to whom it was addressed. The prefocer of his majesty's works tells us of the great effects produced by this premonition (xx), but, if we deal impartially, we


thought hereby to have cleared himself in the eyes of

his subjects of all correspondence with the pope. "But

"when Balmerino was presently pardoned, and, after

"a short consinement, restored to his liberty: all men.

"fays Bitrnet, believed that the king knew of the let—,

** ter, and that the pretended consession of the sccre

'* tary was only collusion to lay the jealousies of the .

"king's favouring popery, which, still hung upon him*

"notwithstanding his writing on the Revelations, and*

"his affecting to enter on all occasions into controver

*' fy, asserting in particular that the pope was anti

* ' christ (k)," So that his artifice was. of no avail,..') Buraet,

the covering was too thin; and all who had eyes rnustiVol,. p; *' fee that there was but too much truth in what had been said concerning him. Such are the effects of dissimu-lation! whereas honesty, integrity, and fair-dealing, appear, openly and above-board, and always on examination are honourable to those by whom they are prac^ tised, and generally profitable.

(xx) The prefacer to his majesty's works tells us of the great effects produced by this premonition.] He observes, "that upon the coming forth of. that book, "there were no states that difavowed the doctrine of "it in the point of the king's power; and the Vents. "tians maintained it in their writings, and put it in? "execution; the Sorbons maintained it likewise ia; * ' France."

2diy, " That their own writers that opposed it, so, •* overlashed, as they were corrected and castigated by^ '' men of their own religion."

5 3dl

must acknowledge that it met but with a


3dly, * ' That his majesty's confession of faith had '* been so generally approved, as that it had converted *' many of their party; and that had it not been for the -*' treatise of antichrist, he had been informed many *' more would easily have been induced to subscribe to "all in that preface."

4thly, '* That kings and princes had by his majesty's "premonition a more clear insight, and a more per"sect discovery, into the injury offered to them by the "pope in the point of their temporal power, than ever "they had, insomuch as that point was never so tho"roughly disputed in Christendom, as it had been by . '' the occasion of his majesty's book."

Lastly, "That for the point of antichrist, he had "heard many consess, that they never faw so much "light given into it, as they had done by this perfor"mance." So that, adds he, "though controversies "be fitter subjects for scholars ordinarily, than for "kings, yet when there was such a necessity in under"taking, and such a success being performed, I leave •' it to the world to judge, whether there was not a (a)Prefcce "special hand in it of God or no (a)."

And I will leave the world to judge of the gross flattery, not to fay impiety, of this prelate in talking after this rate. What! must we attribute the squabbles of pedants to God? must his hand be concerned in ushering into the world the dull heavy performance of a king? far be such thoughts from us! when God acts, he acts like himself; all is wise, good, and successsul: nor can we more dishonour him than by calling him in as an encourager or assister of our whims and extravagancies. But this bishop had no sense of propriety; as Jong as he could praise he was fatisfied, let it be in ever


to James's


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