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women and children; and should you be so fortunate as to reduce those savages to sue for peace, I would not grant it to them on any terms till they were effectually chastised ; and then on no terms without bringing in six of their heads as hostages for their good behavior, and these to be relieved annually; and that they trade with us only for what they may want."
In the latter part of July, 1774, while Governor Dunmore and Colonel Lewis were raising troops for the main expedition, about four hundred men, under the command of Major Angus McDonald, crossed the Ohio at the mouth of Fish creek, below Wheeling, and marched into the Indian country to destroy the Shawanees villages on the Muskingum, near Wappatomica.* On arriving at a point within six or seven miles of the first village, the force under McDonald was met by a small party of Indians, and in the course of some skirmishes, which slightly interrupted the march of the troops, six Indians were killed, and several wounded. In the mean time the Indian women and children evacuated the villages and sought refuge in the woods. The party under Major McDonald arrived at the first village. “We set fire to the town," says an actor in these proceedings, “and destroyed every thing of value. *** From this town we proceeded to the rest, five in number, all of which we burnt, together with about five hundred bushels of old corn, and every other thing they had. We also cut down and destroyed about seventy acres of standing corn. No Indians appearing and provisions falling short, we returned to Wheeling." +
Early in the month of September, about eleven hundred men, under the command of Colonel Andrew Lewis, commenced their march from camp Union, distant about one hundred and sixty miles from the mouth of the Great Kanawha. Passing through the Greenbriar country, and down the valley of the Great Kanawha, these troops, about the 5th of October, 1774, reached the point of land formed by the confluence of the Ohio and Great Kanawha rivers. On this point the army
About sixteen miles below the town of Coshocton, Ohio.
encamped, in two lines, to await the arrival of the forces under Governor Dunmore. Scouts and hunters were daily sent out from the encampment; but no Indians were discovered until the morning of the 10th of October. On that morning, “ by break of day,” two soldiers left the camp and started up the river Ohio, for the purpose of killing game. After walking about a mile and a half, they discovered a large body of Indians who were apparently making preparations to march against the encampment of Colonel Lewis. The Indians fired on the two hunters, and killed one of them: the other ran back to the camp of the Virginians, and, being considerably frightened, reported that he had seen “a body of the enemy covering five acres of ground, as closely as they could stand."* Colonel Andrew Lewis immediately ordered two detachments, each of about one hundred and fifty men, to advance against the Indians. These detachments, led by Colonel William Fleming, and Colonel Charles Lewis, marched out in two lines, and met the Indians in the same order, about four hundred yards from the camp. The battle commenced about sunrise; and at the onset the heavy fire of the Indians forced the detachments under Lewis and Fleming to fall back until they were reinforced by a detachment of two hundred men under Major John Field. The Indians then retreated a little way, and taking positions behind trees and logs, extended their line of attack almost from the bank of the Ohio to that of the Kanawha. The Virginia forces immediately extended their line of battle, and, adopting the Indian mode of warfare, fought under the cover of trees. The conflict was then fiercely maintained, until about one o'clock, when it began to abate; but the belligerent forces, each party watching the other,t continued to fire occasional shots, until the Indians, at the approach of night, left the field. On that evening Colonel Christian reached the scene of action with a reinforcement of three hundred troops from Fincastle, Virginia; and in the course of the night the Indians retreated across the river Ohio.
*Proceedings of the Historical Society of Virginia.
†"There we remained watching the Indians, and they us, till near night; now and then firing as opportunity offered on cither side." (Letter from an officer in the engagement.
In this engagement, the Indians (whose force amounted to eight or nine hundred men) were led, principally, by Cornstalk, a Shawanee; Red Hawk, a Delaware; Logan, a Cayuga, and Elenipsico, a son of Cornstalk. While the battle raged hotly, the Virginians often heard the voice of Cornstalk, the Shawanee, crying in loud tones to the Indians "Be strong! be strong!"
On the morning of the 11th, twenty-one Indians were found dead, on the battle field: the bodies of twelve more were afterwards found in places where they had been concealed; and it is probable that a considerable number of dead bodies were thrown into the rivers, during the engagement. The loss of the Virginians was seventy-five killed ; and one hundred and forty wounded. Among the killed were Colonel Charles Lewis and Major Field.
Soon after the return of the expedition under Major Angus McDonald, Governor Dunmore with about one thousand men, descended the Ohio, from Fort Pitt to the mouth of the Hockhocking. Here he built a small fortification, which he named Fort Gower, in honor of Earl Gower. From this point he resolved to march across the country to the Shawanee towns on the river Scioto. Some time before the battle was fought at the mouth of the Great Kanawha, he sent despatches to Colonel Andrew Lewis, to inform that officer of the change in the plan of operations. These despatches were received before the 10th of October.
On the 17th of October, Colonel Lewis, leaving at his encampment a detachment of three hundred men to take care of the sick and wounded, crossed the Ohio with the remainder of - the Virginia troops, and marched on his way to join Dunmore. In the mean time the Governor had penetrated the Indian country, and halted his army at Camp Charlotte, about eight miles from a Shawanee village which stood on the banks of the river Scioto. Before the army reached this point, the remonstrances of the Governor of Pennsylvania, the intercession of the powerful Six Nations in behalf of the Shawanees, and the intimations of the Earl of Dartmouth, induced Governor Dunmore to change his policy in regard to the hostile Indians. He determined to conclude a peace with them. On the 24th of October, Colonel Lewis, by an express from Dunmore, received an order to withdraw with his forces from the Indian country on the northwestern side of the Ohio. This command was not obeyed until Dunmore himself visited the camp of Colonel Lewis, “was introduced to his officers, and gave the order in person.”* The army under Lewis then reluctantly retired. Governor Dunmore returned to Camp Charlotte, and opened a treaty of peace with the Shawanees and their confederates. The Indians agreed to give up their prisoners, to restore the horses which had been taken from the whites, and to abandon the lands on the southeastern side of the river Ohio.f They gave hostages to Dunmore to secure the performance of these stipulations; and promised to meet him at Fort Pitt in the spring of the next year [1775,] for the purpose of concluding a definitive treaty of peace and friendship with the Virginians. I
The Indians have delivered up all the white prisoners in their towns, with the horses and other plunder they took from the inhabitants; and even offered to give up their own horses. They have agreed to abandon the lands on this (southeastern) side of the Ohio, which river is to be the boundary between them and the white people."-[Am. Arch. 4th series, i, 1014.
IA deposition which was made at Pittsburgh, on the 4th of April, 1800, by John Gibson, Esq. who was the first Secretary of the Indiana Territory, contains the following statements : -“This deponent further saith that in the year 1774, he accompanied Lord Dunmore on the expedition against the Shawances and other Indians on the Scioto; tbat on their arrival within fifteen miles of the towns, they were met by a flag, and a white man of the name of Elliott, who informed Lord Dunmore that the chiefs of the Shawanees had sent to request his Lordship to halt bis army, and send in some person who under. stood their language; that this deponent, at the request of Lord Dunmore and the whole of the officers with him, went in ; that on his arrival at the towns, LOGAN, the Indian, came to where this deponent was sitting with Cornstalk and the other chiefs of the Shaw. anees, and asked him to walk out with him; that they went into a copse of wood, where they sat down, when Logan, after shedding abundance of tears, delivered to him the speech nearly as related by Mr. Jefferson in his Notes on the state of Virginia." The following is the speech of the chief Logan, as it appears in Jefferson's Notes, p. 91.
“ I appeal to any white man to say, if he ever entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if he ever came cold and naked, and be clothed bim not. During the course of the last long and bloody war Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said Logan is the friend of white men.' I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not even sparing my women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it: I have killed many: I have fully glutted my vengeancc; for my country I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one."
At Fort Gower, on the 5th of November, the officers of Dunmore's army held a meeting, at a which one of them spoke as follows: “Gentlemen: Having now concluded the campaign by the assistance of Providence, with honor and advantage to the colony and ourselves, it only remains that we should give our country the strongest assurance that we are ready at all times to the utmost of our power to maintain and defend her just rights and privileges. We have lived about three months in the woods, without any intelligence from Boston or from the delegates at Philadelphia.* It is possible, from the groundless reports of designing men, that our countrymen may be jealous of the use such a body would make of arms in their hands at this critical juncture. That we are a respectable body is certain, when it is considered that we can live weeks without bread or salt, that we can sleep in the open air without any covering but that of the canopy of Heaven, and that our men can march and shoot with any in the known world. Blessed with these talents let us solemnly engage to one another, and our country in particular, that we will use them to no purpose but for the honor and advantage of America in general, and of Virginia in particular. It behooves us, then, for the satisfaction of our country, that we should give them our real sentiments, by way of Resolves, at this very alarming crisis.” The following resolutions were then adopted by the meeting, without a dissenting voice, and ordered to be published in the Virginia Gazette.
“Resolved, That we will bear the most faithful allegiance to his Majesty King George the Third, while his Majesty delights to reign over a brave and free people; that we will, at the expense of life and every thing dear and valuable, exert ourselves in support of the honor of his Crown and the dignity of the
The Continental Congress, which convened on the 5th September, 1774.