149, 150, 151. SUBTRACTION. . 105 3. Subtraction. 149. 1. A person bought a cow for 31. 7s. 6d. and sold it for 41. 12s. 3d. how much did he gain? We write the less number under the greater, so that 1. 8. d. pence shall stand under pence, shillings under shil4 12 3 lings, and pounds under pounds; we then begin at 3 7 6 the right hand, but as we cannot take 6d. from 3d. we borrow from the 12s. ls.=12d. which we join with Gain 1 4 9 the 3d. making 15d. and then 6d. from 15d. leaves 9d. which we write under the pence. We now proceed Proof 4 12 3 to the shillings, but as we have borrowed 1s. from 12s. we call the 12s. lls, and 78. from 11s. leaves 4s. and lastly, 31. from 41. leaves 11. Thus we find that he gained 11. 45. 9d. The above process is called Compound Subtraction. COMPOUND SUBTRACTION 150. Is the taking of one compound number from another, so as to find the difference between them. (42) RULE. 15). Write the less number under the greater, so that the parts which are of the same name may stand directly under each other. Begin with the lowest denomination, and take the number in the lower line from the one standing over: proceed in the same way with all the denominations. Should the number in the upper line be less than the one standing under it, suppose as many units to be added to the upper number as will make a unit of the next higher denomination, remembering to diminish the number in the next place in the upper line by l. PROOF.- The same as in Simple Subtraction. QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE. TROY WEIGHT. 152. In computing interest, the month is commonly reckoned 30 days, and the year 12 months. (145) In working the following questions, in place of the months, write the numbers of the months. (34) A note was on interest from How long was that note on Dec. 29, 1825, till June 22, interest,wbich was given, 1826, 1828 ; what was the length of January 3, and paid August 1, time? of the same year? years. mo. days. Aps. 6m. 28d. 1828 5 22 1825 11 29 How long from 1822, April | 21, to 1826, March 15? 2 5 23 Ans. Ans. 3yr. 10m. 240. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION. 153, 154. 107 4. Piultiplication and Division. 153. 1. What will 61b. of coffee 154. 1. If 6lb. of coffee cost 9s, cost at 1s. 60. 3 qr. per pound? | 44. 2gr. how much is that per lb. ? The cost of 6lb. is If we divide the price 9. d. gr. evidently 6 times $. d. qr. of 6 lb. into 6 equal 1 6 3 the cost of llb. we | 6) 94 2(1s. parts, one of those 6 therefore multiply 6 parts must be the price the price of llb. by of llb. To do this we Ans. 9 4 2 6; thus, 6 times 3gr. 3 first seek how many are 18gr,=4d. 2qr. 12 times 6 in 9s, and write of which we write down the 2qr. | 1s. for the quotient. We and reserve the 4d. to be joined | 6)40(63. then multiply and subwith the pence. We then say 6 tract as in Simple Divitimes 6d, are 36d. and 4d. reserved sion. We then multiply are 40d.=3s. 4d. of which we write the remainder,3s.by 12. down the 40. and reserve the 3s, to adding the 4d.(139) and be joined with the shillings. Last divide the sum, 40d. by ly, we say 6 times 1s. are 6s. and 6)18(3qr. 6, which gives 6d. for a 3s. reserved are 9s, which we write 18 quotient, and 4 d. redown, and the work is done. main, which reduced to farthings, and the 2qrs. 2. What will 47 yards of cloth! | added, make 18qr. cost at 17s. 9d. per yard? These divided We first multiply by 6, give 3qr. for the quotient. Thus we find the price of ilb. to be s. d. 9d. by 47, and divi 1s. 6d. 3qr. 17 9 dicg the product 423d. 42 by 12. find 353. 3d. to! 2. If 47 yards of cloth cost 411. -- be the cost of 47yd. 14s, 3d. what is that per yard ? 12) 423d. at 9d. Again we mul. Here we divide -- tiply 17s. by 47, and 1. s. d. the whole price 359.3d.write the partial pro 47 ) 41 14 3 (01. by the whole 119 ducts, which are shil 20 quantity, as be68 lings, under the 35s. fore. As 47 is - These added together 47 ) 834s. (17s. not contained in 210) 834s. make 834s. which di 47 the pounds, we vided by 20 give 411. place a cipherin A. 411.14s. 3d. 14s. and bringing 364 the quotient and down the 3d. we have 329 reduce the pounds 411. 14s. 3d. for the whole cost. to shillings, adding This method will prevent the ne. 35 the 14s. Dividing cessity of dividing this rule into a 834s. by 47,we get 17s. variety of cases. in the quotient. The By comparing the corresponding remainder, 353. reexamples in the two columns, it 35 duced to pence, and! will be seen that they mutually the 3d. added, give prore each other, 47 ) 423 ( 9d. 423d. which divided by 47 give 9d. in the quotient. Thus we find the price of one yard to be 175, 911, COMPOUND MULTIPLICATION COMPOUND DIVISION * 156. Is the method of sepa155. Is the method of find. | rating a compound number ing the amount of a compound into any proposed number of number by repeating it a pro- | equal parts. (44) posed number of times. (43) RULE. 158. Write the numbers as RULE. in Simple Division, and divide 157. Write the multiplier the several terms of the divi. under the lowest denomina- dend successively by the divition of the multiplicand. Re sor. Should the first term of serve from each product as | the dividend be less than the many units as may be had of divisor, reduce it to the next the next higher denomination, lower denomination, adding the and write down the excess, ad number of the lower denomiding the number reserved to nation. Do the same with the the next product. several remainders. Note.--This rule is susceptible I NOTE.-This rule is susceptible of the same contractions as Simple of the same contractions as Simple Multiplication. ! Division. |