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The authors have endeavored, in the rules and illustrative examples and exercises, in Part L, to furnish such aid as a book can impart, to facilitate the progress of pupils in the interesting and important department of reading. They are aware, however, that much of the success which may attend the use of this Reader in the school-room will depend, in a great measure, upon the manner in which the teacher presents these elocutionary principles to his pupils, and the perseverance with which he carries them out, and applies them to the various exercises throughout the book.

It is therefore recommended, that the classes be frequently and thoroughly drilled in the elementary sounds of the letters, and their different combinations, till each pupil can readily and distinctly enunciate them. This exercise will be of great service in securing correctness and ease of utterance, both in reading and speaking.

The rules on Emphasis .and Inflection, and also the examples by which they are illustrated, should be thoroughly studied by the pupil, till he becomes perfectly familiar with them, and can appreciate their importance in enabling him to convey, in the most forcible manner, the sense of what he read?. These rules are not arbitrary, but founded in nature, and can never be disregarded by a good reader or speaker. The rules, too, on Modulation and the Beading of Poetry are equally important, and must be observed by all who would read gracefully or with elegance.

At the head of each Lesson, in Part II., there is an exercise in correcting erroneous pronunciation. This will help to correct those vulgarisms so often heard both in conversation and in reading. The words which are arranged at the beginning of the piece, to be spelled and defined, should invariably be learned before the lesson is read; and it should be a fixed rule that no word in the piece, the meaning of which is not fully understood, should in any case be passed over.

If the answers, also, to the questions appended to each lesson are learned and recited before the lesson is read, it will enable the pupil to read more understandingly, and add much to the interest of the exercise.

It will be observed that the questions which are printed in Italics relate to the notes. The figures opposite to the words defined denote the paragraphs in which the words occur; and those prefixed to the questions, the paragraphs in which the answers may be found.








Definitions, Explanations, and Key.

Articulation consists in giving to every vocal letter its appropriate sound, and to every syllable and word a proper and distinctive utterance.

In order that the articulation may be distinct, the vocal organs must be perfect in their structure, and also under the entire control of the reader or speaker. Perfect organs are the gift of Nature: the art of trailing them is our own work.

But the vocal organs may be perfect, and still, for the want of proper discipline, the articulation be very indistinct. As a beautiful and perfect musical instrument sends forth only harsh and discordant notes when played by an unskillful hand, so the organs of the voice,

Questions. — What are the general divisions of Part First? In what does articulation consist? What is necessary in order to secure distinct articulation? What is the cause of indistinct articulation when the voc:il organs are perfect? How is this illustrated?

when undisciplined or imperfectly trained, often produce a confused utterance of sounds, which, though designed for words, are, in fact, only their unintelligible fragments.

A person, with a comparatively feeble voice, yet having a clear and distinct enunciation, can be heard and understood with ease in all parts of an ordinary room; while another, naturally endowed with a superior volume of voice, and apparently making a much greater effort, can be scarcely understood even with the closest attention, and -hence is listened to with pain rather than pleasure and satisfaction.

Now this great difference lies chiefly in their articulation, which shows the indispensable necessity of properly and thoroughly cultivating the vocal organs; and this can be done only by beginning with the fundamental principles, or the elementary sounds of the language, which are fully presented and explained in the following definitions, rules, and tables.

1. The alphabet is divided into vowels and consonants, or, as some say, into vocals, sub-vocals, and aspirates.

2.' A vowel, or vocal, is a letter whose elementary sound, or element, can be perfectly enunciated by itself.

3. A consonant, as a sub-vocal, is a letter whose elementary sound, or element, can not be so perfectly enunciated as that of a vowel, or vocal.

4. A consonant, as an aspirate, is a letter whose elementary sound, or element', is produced by a strong emission of breath.

Key To Pronunciation.

Note. — The sounds, represented by the different letters of the alphabet, are indicated, in this number of the series, bythe following marks, or characters, taken, by permission, from the last revised edition of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. •

1. A horizontal mark ["] over a, e, i, o, u, or y denotes its long sound, as heard in the words ale, eve, ice, old, tube, fly.

Questions. — What comparison is made between a feeble voice and a strong one? Wherein is the difference, atid what does it show? How can this be done? How is the English alphabet divided? What is a vowel or vocal? What is a consonant, as a sub- vocal? What is a consonant, as an aspirate? How are the sounds of the different letters of the alphabet indicated in this book % What does a horizontal mark,'over a, e, i, etc., denote?

2. A curving mark [w] over a, e, i, o, u, or y denotes its short Bouad, as heard in ttie words fat, met, pin, ndt, bat, hymn.

3. A circumflex [ ' ] over a denotes a modified sound of long a, as heard in the words air, care, bear.

4. Two points [" ] over a denote its ItaHan sound, as heard in the words arm, far, palm. ,

5. One point [ - ] over a denotes a modified Italian sound, as heard in the words ask, dance, last.

G. Two points [ m ] under a denote its broad sound, as heard In the words all, ball, haul.

7. One point [. ] under a denotes that it has a sound like short o, as in tU' words what, wand, wash.

6. A horizontal mark [ _ ] under e denotes that it has the Bound of lone" aa heard in the words eight, prey, o-bey'.

9. A circumflex ["J over e denotes that it has the modified sound of Ion? a, as heard in the words ere, there, where.

10. Tliis mark [ * ] over e, i, or y denotes its sound, as heard in the word! her, verge, pre-fer'j sir, vlr'gin, thlrst'y; myrrh, myr'tle.

11. .Two points [ " ] over i denote that it has the sound of long e, as heard in the words pique, ma-r'ine', po-l'ice'.

12. A horizontal mark [ ~ ] over oo denotes their long sound, as heard iu the words moon, food, bobt'y.

13. A curving mark [ ~ ] over oo denotes their short sound, as heard in tho words book, foot, good.

14. Two points [.. ] under o denote that it sounds like long oo, as heard in the words do, move, group.

15. One point [. ] under o denotes that it sounds like short oo, or middle u, as hoard in the words bo'som, wolf, wo'man.

16. One point [. ] over o denotes that it sounds like short u, as heard in the words done, love, dth'er.

17. A circumflex [Aj over o denotes that it sounds like, or nearly like, broad a in all, aa heard in the words nor, fdrm, or'der. •

18. Short o, when followed by A*, sf, or tli, as in cross, c5st, broth, — also in ldng, gdno, solve, 5ff, and some other words, is somewhat modified, being neither so short as in not, nor so long and broad as in nought.

19. This mark [ "J over o denotes that it sounds like u iu furl, as heard iu tie words world, worm, wortht

20. Two points [.. ] under u denote that it sounds like, or nearly like, long oo in moon, as heard in the words rude, ru'mor, ru'ral.

21. One point [. ] under u denotes its middle sound, or that it sounds like short oo in book, as heard in the words full, put, push.

22. A circumflex [A J over w denotes its sound, as heard in the worda urge, burn, furl.

Questions. — What does a curving mark over «, c, i, etc., denote? What does a circumflex over a denote? Two points over a 1 One point over a 7 Two points under a? One point under a? A horizontal mark under e? A circumflex over e? An irregular mark over e, t, or y 7 Two points over i 1 A horizontal mark over oo? A curving mark over oo? Two points under o1 One point under o? One point over o? A circumflex over o? When has short o a modified sound? What does an iiregular mark over o denote? Two points under u? One point under t*? A circumflex over u?

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