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be thronged with educated Africans-polished first consider that of John Duncan,* who, in the men of color-negro inventors, philosophers, years 1845 and 1816, journeyed from Whydak, on teachers, orators, poets, painters, sculptors, au the western coast, to Adofoodia, in the interior. thors, and even doctors of divinity? Would you | This traveler passed over lands which no civil. not be ready to say, “Surely, all this heathenismized European had seen before. He penetrated is destined to give way for the increase of to the Kong Mountains, and far beyond. The Jesus?"
terminus of his travels he represents as a town So from the capacity of a continent one may “shaded with large trees, having leaves measurreason to its better destiny. In like manner, ) ing nine inches across and about twelve in from the susceptibility of certain dumb animals length." His two volumes show clearly that, as for domestication and training, one might have far as he traveled under and beyond the Kong concluded, long before the trial had been made, Mountains, he trod on a soil of productiveness that such animals would, by and by, be employed and promise. He crossed as many as twentyin agriculture and travel. But to see the full four fine streams-some of them large rivers. force of this argument, it will be necessary to He discovered a species of small black deer susobtain clear views of the extent to which the ceptible of domestication, also a breed of dogs continent, under discussion, is really capable of resembling the British grayhound. He killed a civilization.
serpent of the boa tribe thirty-one feet in length. Africa is considered, as she is, by only a few In the Dahomey kingdom he often traversed a persons. The many are ready solemnly to shake valley which, as he says, “was thickly wooded their heads, when we speak to them concerning with large trees, beautifully adorned with various the future of that extensive country, which con- running plants and thick underwood; so much sists of more than eight millions and a half of so as nearly to close up the path.” In the region square miles, and which has a population of of the mountains he found portions of the landnearly one hundred millions of inhabitants. They scape to be “of a beautiful champaign characpoint to the African sea-coasts, along which they ter." About the Zoa river he was pleased to besay, truly, that disease lives. They refer to those hold large numbers of the English water-lily. wide lagoons, whose breath is so fatal to the “The sight," says he, "of these beautiful flowers, white man, and which will continue to exhale coming upon us so unexpectedly, created a very their malaria so long as the Niger and the Zam- pleasing sensation; for they were exactly the besi have mouths open to the swells of the ocean. same as the water-lily of England.” Partridges, They repeat the names of the many travelers pigeons, and turtle-doves abounded along his and missionaries who have fallen from African festooned path. At Buffo he declares even the fevers. The colony of Liberia, they say, is the solitude and loneliness pleasing. In another rebest of all the achievements made on the borders gion he walked under delicious and refreshing of that unblessed continent during the last half wild grapes, hanging in clusters over bis head. a hundred of sad years; and this they are ready The country, in some parts, was adorned with to pronounce a “poor test." Thus these people the sycamore, the ash, and the fair acacia. “The try to humble us when we talk to them concern- soil," says he of one district, “ being of a moist ing Africa and her prospects. But so much has sandy clay, was very productive." Of another, recently been ascertained in regard to the inte "The valley is composed of excellent soil, and rior of Africa, that we should be able to over rears annually four crops of the small red Inbalance such humiliating statements with repre dian corn.” Of a third, “The country around is sentations of the cheering triumphs of recent well watered by some considerable streams which discoveries. The inner ports of a continent may run eastward." The valley of the charming differ wonderfully from the coast ports. When brook Ithoy was "richly shaded with large trees the traveler has gone entirely over the malarious of luxuriant growth.” The town of Adofoodia, border-lands of Africa, he reaches vast portions the extreme point of his journey, is represented of country, as beautiful and arable as any on as situated on “a dry, healthy plain." While at which the sun has ever shone. And this truth, this place he was an object of great interest to which has not long been known, is to all good the inhabitants, most of whom had never seen a men one of the most gratifying discoveries re white man before. The chief object of his travcorded in the books and discussed in the period els was to learn something respecting the fate icals of the nineteenth century.
of the distinguished explorer, Mungo Park. This of the records of travel and exploration in man, he ascertained, was killed by the natives central Africa, which embody the conclusion to which I have just referred, there are, at least,
* Travels in Western Africa in 1845 and 1816, in five which are peculiarly interesting. Let us two volumes. By John Duncan.
of Yaouri, where he had gone ashore from the Barth is taking leave of the town of Kūkawa, Niger river. “During my stroll round the town," for the purpose of exploring the countries situasays Mr. Duncan, "I was followed by dense ted on the middle course of the Isa or Niger. crowds of people wherever I went. Upon my November twenty-sixth is the coldest night he return to my quarters, I was visited by the king, experiences in Negroland. The thermometer who expressed a wish to see me fire out of my indicates only nine degrees above the freezing gun. To gratify his curiosity, I shot a pigeon point. The interior of Africa, so far removed which was flying past. This excited great sur- from the influence of the sea, forms, he tells us, prise.”
"with respect to the cold season, an insulated The next record of African travels and explo- cool space in the tropical regions.” Our traveler rations, which we will consider, is that of Dr. has here a sharp appetite. Barth.* In company with Mr. James Richard- November 30th. “The district, in a northson and Mr. Overweg, neither of whom lived to westerly direction, seems to be rich in pasture reach home, Dr. Barth crossed the Sahara desert, grounds and cattle.” But the ground is full of in 1819, from Tripoli in the north. The desert, ants of voracious habits. He approaches the he tells us, is not entirely a level expanse; but it Komadugu river, one hundred and twenty yards consists of broad table-lands of sand, interspersed broad, having excellent fish and being adorned with groups of rocky eminences and mountain with luxuriant trees. The district is fertile. chains, some of which rise to the hight of six The swampy forests abound with elephants, anthousand feet. Sometimes his march was over a telopes, wild hogs, water fowl, Guinea-fowl, pardreary plain; at other times his track was in a tridges, and monkeys. “Beautiful and rich as hollow or a valley, with steep slopes. Having was the scenery of this locality, it has the disadentered the interior, his route, in some parts, was vantage of harboring immense swarms of musgirded by mountains from three to four thousand ketoes. He reaches the town of Grémari, bar. feet high. The first signs of extensive fertility ing from seven to eight thousand inhabitants. which greeted him were in Sudàn. The air, here, December 8th. He emerges into open, cultiis salubrious. The huts of the people are, in vated ground, and is greeted with the sight of a many places, made of the tall, strong stalks of pretty sheet of open water, breaking forth from Indian corn.
This corn is thrashed with long the forest on the left. The water abounds with poles. Proceeding south-westward he came to fish. more pleasant agricultural and domestic scenes. December 14th. He passes the town of Sul"He reached," as he says, “those fertile regions liri, having five thousand inhabitants. Granitic of central Africa, which are not only able to eminences dot the whole country. Proceeding maintain their own population, but even to export to the north-west he reaches a natron or salt lake to foreign countries." Where he traveled he was of snowy whiteness. “I gazed," says he, " with cheered by the warblings of numberless tribes of delight on the rich scenery around.” birds. He proceeded to the west of Lake Tsad,
December 20th. “As we marched, during the ! finding it a vast body of shallow water, having hottest hours of the day, I felt," says he, “very no perceptible outlet. His most important geo- unwell, and was obliged to sit down for a while. | graphical discovery is, that the Niger does not, December 21st. Cattle and camels enliven as had been supposed, rise in Lake Tsad, but the scene. The country is dotted with numerous rather in highlands nearly as far south as the corn-stacks. He reaches Badamuni, which is mouth of that river. He deemed the moment surrounded by bills rising from one hundred 10 one of the happiest of his life, in which he made two hundred feet. Here are copious springs, his discovery. “I cherished,” says he, “the well- sorghum, millet, cotton, pepper, indigo, and onfounded conviction, that along that natural high ions. He finds here also two lakes, one salt, the road European influence and commerce would other fresh, united by a narrow channel. The penetrate into the very heart of the continent." natron lake is a dark blue; the other dark green.
A distinct view of the general character of the We can not follow him further in his weekly interior, where our author made the most import- march. On June 20, 1853, he reaches the Niger ant part of his journey, can not perhaps be more on the side opposite the town of Say. The river adequately formed than by tracing, for some here is seven hundred yards broad. Thence our distance, his occasional descriptive observations. traveler proceeds north-westward, on the way to On the twenty-fifth of November, 1852, Dr. the great city of Timbuctu. He enters this city on the seventh of September. It is about three
! * Travels and Discoveries in North and Central miles in circumference, is laid out partly in Africa, in the years 1849–1855, in three volumes. By rectangular and partly in winding streets, is not Henry Barth, Ph. D., D. C. L.
walled, has about nine hundred and eighty clay
houses and two hundred conical huts of matting, and is at liberty to pass the time with any one three large mosques, a settled population of about she may love better. “Their hospitality," says thirteen thousand, and a floating population of Mr. Taylor, "is such, moreover, that if a stranger from five to ten thousand. Our traveler staid visits one of their settlements they furnish him, for some time in this city, and owing to the tur for three days, with a tent and a wife.” One bulence of the times his life was frequently in should think that the free-love party would all great jeopardy. But he at length escaped, re wish to be expatriated, as they deserve to be, to crossed the desert, and arrived at Tripoli on the the villages of these clever negudes. twenty-sixth of July, 1854.
Mr. Taylor describes the vegetation of this reJudging from Dr. Barth's record, one would gion, in that rich, melodious style, which is ususuppose that he passed over thousands of acres ally so peculiar to him. Possibly he has superas pleasant and arable as most of the land lying added to the real charms of the White Nile and west of Lake Michigan. At least he must have the lands adjacent too many ideal and poetic traversed extensive tracts of soil, far more health- adornments. But be this as it may, his narrative ful than Louisiana land or Georgia land can clearly shows that the farther he traced that
bright river toward its sources the more enchantThe third record of travels and explorations in ing and glorious grew the scenery which it mircentral Africa to which we invite the reader's rors. Going south of Khartoum, where, in the attention, is that of Mr. Bayard Taylor.* This hot season, he says o! e "must either sweat or has been perused with delight by nearly all in- die,” he entered the country of the Shilloohs. telligent Americans. The volume is pervaded These he pronounces the only real modern lotus with a sort of melodious richness, which makes eaters. They eat the root and the seed of the it strongly fascinating. It is almost a book of lotus. The root is like the potato in consistence poetic prose. The reader is made completely to and taste, having a strong flavor of celery. Our sympathize with the traveler in all his experi- traveler reaches at last a limit beyond which his ences. Description, in this case, has the charm dragoman and boatmen are unwilling to go. of romance itself. Speaking of the work the But he prizes his opportunity too highly not to Westminster Review, for October, 1858, says, make the most of it, even in the face of jeopardy "Mr. Bayard Taylor's 'Life and Landscapes from
itself. He, therefore, leaves the river and venEgypt,' is perhaps the most wonderful piece of tures to enter one of the Shillooh villages of that continuous description, the most marvelous re interior region. It was an undertaking which production of the sensations of travel, that can required considerable heroism. He could not be conceived."
tell whether or not his very flesh would soon be Mr. Taylor entered the interior of Africa from passing down the throats of negro cannibals. the north-east. He sailed up the Nile, the beau- The result was, that he found a people whose tiful Sihor of Hebrew history. In his work he faces had a wolfish expression. They could skip calls this river the “Paradise of Travel.” He like gazelles, “clearing the ground with a reascended to the point where the White Nile and markable elasticity and swiftness of foot.” the Blue Nile mingle their waters to form the Mr. Taylor's stay was not long among these same famed stream, along whose banks the build- strange negroes. He soon began the return ers of the pyramids, and of Thebes and Mem- journey. When his company had put the boat phis, once wandered. Still keeping his face to in motion northward, he himself went ashore to the south he traced the White Nile toward its wander awhile under the luxuriant foliage. He sources, all the way sailing or treading amid came by and by to a large tract of high, dry transcendently-beautiful scenery. He entered at grass, and seeing the paths of lions leading length the country of the Hassaniyehs, the last through it he proceeded no further; but giving of the African tribes under the Egyptian govern- way to a roguish Yankee impulse-such as you ment. He represents this people as having pe- and I can easily conceive-he took a match from culiar views of “woman's rights." Parents, in his pocket, lighted it, and kindled a blaze in giving their daughters in marriage, claim for those dry jungles, the crackle and smoke of them perfect freedom from their husbands which furnished excitement to him for many every fourth day. So during three days in every miles. twelve, and five in every twenty, the wife is com Mr. Taylor saw no indications of the so-called pletely released from her masculine companion, Mountains of the Moon, which are laid down in
old maps, though he penetrated sufficiently far to * A Journey to Central Africa; or, Life and Land
ascertain that the makers of these maps labored scapes from Egypt to the Negro Kingdoms of the under a great mistake. “Geographical charts," White Nile. Tenth Edition. By Bayard Taylor. says he, “are still issued, in which the conjec
tured Mountains of the Moon continue to stretch but ten years old he was a factory "piercer." their ridges across the middle of Africa, in lati- With part of his first week's earnings he pur. tudes where the latest travelers find a plain as chased a copy of Rudiman's “Rudiments of level as the sea." From certain observations of Latin." He read the classics at an evening his, made amid the Nilotic ruins, Mr. Taylor in school. At sixteen he knew Virgil and Horace fers that our race, unless it be supposed to have better than he did in his manhood. He early had several centers of origin, is more likely fifty became a Christian convert, and resolved to de thousand than five thousand years old. But in vote himself as a pioneer missionary. Having an article like the one now under our pen, this thoroughly prepared his mind, especially in medihasty and erroneous deduction can not be dis- cine and theology, he embarked for Africa in cussed.
1840. In 1843 he was occupied in the Mabotsa Leaving Bayard Taylor's book, we come next Valley, in south Africa. While there he was to the recorded travels and explorations of Dr. attacked, in a hunting excursion, by a lion, Krapf and his associate, Rebbman, who entered “which shook him," he says, “as a terrier does a the interior of Africa from the eastern coast, be- rat.” The shock caused a sort of dreaminess, tween the years 1844 and 1848.* These mis- like that experienced by patients under the influsionaries explored the interior for several hun- ence of chloroform. The lion's jaws "crunched dred miles. They discovered mountains covered the bone of his arm to splinters," and left eleven with perpetual snow. They traversed the beau- teeth wounds in the flesh. tiful Galla country; also the Faita country, which For a long time Dr. Livingstone labored among is represented as inclosed by mountains from four the Bakwain people. But be formed the purpose thousand to five thousand feet in hight. Mr. of exploring the interior to the north and the Rebbman afterward explored the highlands be- north-west. His first journey resulted in the yond Faita, and while wandering over the fertile discovery of the great Lake Ngami--pronounced and richly-clothed soil, he affirms that “he felt N'gami. Along the Zonga river, which is conas if walking in the Jura Mountains, in the can- nected with the lake, he found trees of the booton of Basle, so cool was the air, so beautiful | bad species measuring from seventy to sevectsthe scenery.”
six feet around, and some hollow ones in which Speaking of the bearings of the discoveries twenty or thirty men could lie down and sleep. made by himself and his associate, Dr. Krapf He passed the Bakoba people, a tribe who never expresses the opinion that the high roads of in- fight, and who call themselves by a word meanterior Africa will, in future time, “take every ing" inen.” Our author pronounces them "the observer by surprise.” “It will then,” says he, Quakers of the body-politic in Africa." "be manifested that the facilities of communica- The lake was reached on August 1, 1849. It tion on the African continent are not inferior to | is from seventy to one hundred miles in circumthose of Europe, Asia, and America.”
ference, and is comparatively shallow. Its waBut it is time that I had introduced the record ters, when full, are perfectly fresh; but when low of the greatest of all the recent explorers of are somewhat brackish. Our author returns to central Africa; namely, that of Dr. David Liv- Kolobeny, and in the following spring goes again ingstone.† All educated people of this day, it is to the lake region for the purpose of visiting the presumed, are somewhat familiar with the name chief of the Makololo, in the country beyond. which has just been mentioned. Being a person But some of the members of his family are of excellent abilities and vast scientific informa- seized with sickness near the lake, and he returns
1 tion, Dr. Livingstone has made his volume one to the south. By and by he sets out once more to of permanent attractions. His very face, which the north and north-west. He reaches this time is represented in his personal narrative, shows the Chobe river, and is welcomed by the Makohim to be as earnest an Englishman as ever
lolo tribes. Their chief had come down the prayed for the health of Queen Victoria. He river one hundred miles to meet the white men, has that look of mingled sincerity and nervous
of whose coming he had been forewarned. Dr. courage which the worst people can not but like Livingstone and Mr. Oswell travel to Gesheke, and admire a look which would extort expres
one hundred and thirty miles north-east, and in sions of good-will from pirates or from savages. June, 1851, they discover the Zambesi river, in His early history is highly interesting. When the center of the continent. Its breadth there is from three hundred to six hundred yards. Our
1 * Cyclopedia of Missions, Eastern Africa. By traveler returns to Cape Town. But in Jade of Rev. Harvey Newcomb.
1852 he makes another tour to the north† Missionary Travels and Researches in South Af- west; and this is his last and longest African rica. By David Livingstone, LL. D., D. C. L. journey. He crosses over to the capital of An
gola, on the western coast, and thence proceeds beautiful vegetation, and are not put to a tithe obliquely to Kilimane on the eastern coast. He of the use they might be? It is curious to obtravels in a wagon drawn by ten oxen. He finds serve the coincidence of this conclusion with the the whole country adjoining the Kalabari desert, fact that, long before the days of the discoverers on the north and north-east, to be well watered, whose records we have briefly reviewed, when undulating, and fertile. The plains abound with even the coast parts of Africa were but ill known, antelopes, zebras, and buffaloes. Only tickle the great geographer, Malte Brun, used the the earth there with the hoe and, as Jerrold says, words, “It is not impossible that in the center of "she would laugh with a harvest.” Large tracts Africa there may be lofty table-lands, like those of the country are literally covered with water- of Quito, or valleys like the valley of Cashmere, melons. In this forest lions, hyenas, elephants, where, as in those two happy regions, spring and mice revel from day to day.
holds an eternal reign." If Malte Brun were On May 23, 1853, Dr. Livingstone arrives at living to-day methinks he would often point toLinyante, the capital town of the Makololo. It ward central Africa and say, "Just as I predictcontains from six to seven thousand inhabitants. ed!" But the travels and explorations which The whole population come out to see the wagon have resulted in discoveries reflecting so well on in motion. They treat our traveler with great the sagacity of that geographer have all been hospitality. He remains with them one month, made in ten years-only ten years! Would you being part of this time sick with fever, and then not say that there has been some special exerhe proceeds to the Barotse Valley. The country cise of the divine Providence contributing to to Sesheke is, for the most part, perfectly flat. bring these results to pass? How can you better The river Leeambye is six hundred yards wide. account for the impulse which led this man to It is the continuation of the Zambesi. The soil enter that pleasant interior from the west, and about it is a dark loam. “The country is cov- this other man to journey to it from the north, ered with clumps of beautiful trees, among which and this third man to travel to it from the northfine open glades stretch
direction." east, and this fourth man to struggle to it from Great numbers of buffaloes and zebras graze on the east, and this fifth and greatest man to visit the plains. Hunting is usually poor sport on it and revisit it from the south? Ahl my brother, account of the heat of the sun. Our traveler when He who made all the continents of the ascends the magnificent river. It is adorned world says of one of them, “It is time that these with many islands from three to four miles in my fine lakes, and rivers, and valleys, and highlength. “The islands,” says he, "at a little dis-lands, and mountains, and these my beautiful tance seemed great rounded masses of sylvan wild animals were seen and admired by civilized vegetation reclining on the bosom of the glorious eyes—it is time that this interior fertility, and stream.” Further north the bed of the river is gorgeousness, and amplitude were become subrocky, and there are rapids and cataracts. The jects of intelligent astonishment to Christianized fall at Gonze is about thirty feet. Our traveler nations-it is time that this ignorance, and poascends to the confluence of the Leeba and the lygamy, and idolatry had begun to give way for Leeam bye. Above Libontee eighty-one buffaloes the increase of Jesus!"—then it is that intrepid defiled before his fire one evening, and by day men hasten, from one clime and another, to seek herds of splendid elands stood without fear two out and map God's hidden acres of rich alluhundred yards off. The Barotse Valley extends vium. a hundred miles. The people living in it are Listen now while I recapitulate. Duncan wont to say, "Here hunger is not known." This reached thickly-wooded valleys, sparkling streams great valley, Dr. Livingstone informs us, “is not and rivers, breezy highlands, beautiful meadowput to a tithe of the use it might be.” The soil, like regions, pleasing solitudes, water-lilies, dehe thinks, is so rich that it would make corn run licious grapes, large trees of luxuriant growth, entirely to straw. “My deliberate conviction,” | dry and healthy plains. Barth found himself says he, "was and is, that the country indicated traveling on fertile soil and in hearing of countis as capable of supporting millions of inhabit- less birds of gorgeous plumage, pursuing a route ants as it is its thousands."
girded by lofty mountains, passing through large
walled towns inhabited by thousands of people, It will now be most clearly seen that all the marching over country abounding with indigo, recent explorers of central Africa have rendered sorghum, millet, corn, rice, wheat, cotton, salt, a similar conclusion in regard to the value of pepper, beans, onions, and copious springs. the country. Do not their records distinctly Taylor wandered .amid enchanting vegetation, show that those inner lands are full of richness, entered a country of lotus-eaters, inhaled saluare well watered, are covered with a wild but | brious air, was more and more attracted by the