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used boiled with equal parts of sugar and water. When he goes out he throws over his shoulders a Horses are given haschish leaves on festival oc- rough burnoose. casions to make them spirited. The use of the The Kabyle woman enjoys much greater libhaschish, in one shape or other, appears to be erty than among any other of the Algerian tribes. very general in all parts of the Algerian terri- She attends the market, makes purchases for her tory.
household, goes every-where with her face unA word on the former mode of administering covered, talks, sings, and moves in the company justice in Algiers. The Koran has of course of the men of her household as freely as do the the only code of laws. The mufti is the inter- women of Christian nations. It has been suppreter of the Koran. The kadi was judge and posed that this freedom of the women, so conenforcer of the law's penalties. From his decis-trary to the rules of all other Mohammedans, is ions appeals were made to the Dey, who sat all a relic of former Christian influence. In supday to hear petitions, and who, in the general port of this it is mentioned that all Kabyle womanner of Mohammedan petition-hearers, decided men have tattooed on their foreheads a cross. on the spur of the moment. In civil processes And, furthermore, although they can not give justice was sometimes excessively blind—the any account of the origin of this custom, no ante-prandial decisions of the kadis, often sen- marabout or priest will marry a Kabyle woman tencing both the contending parties to the basti- till she has erased this mark; for which purpose nado as the shortest and perhaps justest way of an application of lime and black soap is made deciding a knotty point. Criminal cases were promptly and summarily dealt with. For mur- The Kabyles never wear hat or shoe. Not der, death. For robbery, the robber was mount- even when they enter the Moorish cities do they ed upon an ass and had one hand cut off. Con- break through this habit of going about barespirators were bow-stringed. Bankrupts, if footed and bareheaded. The Kabyle is an inChristians, shared the same fate; if Jews, they tensely-industrious man. He scorns idleness as were burned. Tribes and districts were held | effeminate, and applies himself energetically and collectively answerable for crimes committed constantly to whatever may be his chosen purwithin their bounds. Debtors, if refusing to pay, suit. As agriculturists the Kabyle tribes are far 1 were confined, their goods sold, and after one advanced, cultivating a great variety of grains hundred days they were flogged and released. and fruits. They manufacture, too, their own If willing to pay at the end of a suit, the debtor agricultural implements, arms, gunpowder, carhad to pay double. If much injustice was done pets, leather for aprons, saddles, frames for wear. by this summary mode of dealing with culprits, ing, etc. The women wear the haieks or gowns, it is plain that among a rude people the terror and chachias or white caps which they wear, az of the law would often prove a valuable restraint also the burnooses and habayas of the men from vexatious litigation.
The men make tiles and all manner of rude Come we now to the Kabyles, the mountain- earthenware. They weave table-cloths of the eers, the most remarkable people of that coun- dwarf-palm fiber, make baskets in which to carry try. These are the aboriginals of Algeria. They loads, and spin cords of goats' hair, and, most are spoken of by the Roman historians, and singular of all their various branches of indusseem to retain to this day the same leading char- try, they manufacture counterfeit coin. acteristics which distinguished them then. “They Two tribes in particular have for many years have neither any fear of God nor respect for followed this business almost exclusively. The man,” says Procopius, “nor do they pay any re- metals used are obtained in part from mines in gard to their oath. Lastly, they have no peace the country, and partly imported from a distance, with any one, save with those who coerce them the importations being paid for in counterfeit through fear.”
coin at the rate of about twenty-five per cent of The Kabyles delight in a settled rather than its value, allowing the traders to make again a nomadic life. They live in small communities large per centage. Of course it was never peror villages. Their houses are built of rough mitted any one to pass the spurious coin within stones, turf, or mud, and are generally not more the Kabyle territory. Attempts to do this were than one or two stories high. The people are mercilessly punished. So greatly did the Kabyle fairer than the Arabs of the desert. The dress money increase, and so troublesome had it beof the men is a rude woolen shirt, falling below come in all the large towns of Algeria, in 1844, the knees, and called a chelouchah. The legs that an Arab emir caused all the Kabyles of are protected by footless stockings, knitted of tribes known to practice counterfeiting to be arstout wool, and called bougherons. When at rested, on the same day, in the three markets of work the Kabyle man wears a leather apron. Algiers, Constantina, and Bona.
hundred men were thus taken, and instantly, is done." If the child is a daughter, the mother without trial, condemned to suffer death, if the proclaims publicly that he who desires to wed tribes to which they belonged did not deliver up her need not pay the customary price—the Katheir instruments of counterfeiting. To save byle buys his wife--but must take upon himself the lives of their brethren this was unhesitatingly the sacred obligation of revenge. Thus an asdone. But little time elapsed, however, before sassin is almost sure to pay the penalty of life the process of providing a false currency was for his deed. again in lively operation. To this day a Kabyle When a marriage is celebrated among the Kataken in the act of passing false coin is put to byles, the relations or friends of the bridegroom death without ceremony or loss of time. No shoot at a target. The mark is generally an amount of money can save him.
egg, a pepper-corn, or a fat stone. This custom The Kabyle, though not easily roused to anger, causes a great deal of gayety, for those who miss is the most ferocious of mortals when once his the mark are subject to much joking. When a rage gets the upperband. He is punctilious in Kabyle wants to marry, he informs one of his the observance of customary acts of politeness; friends, who seeks the father of the girl of his but equally punctilious in demanding their ac- choice, and makes known the desire. They fix knowledgment. And revenge is to him a sacred the marriage portion which will be paid by the obligation.
husband; for he literally buys his wife, and a It is customary to kiss the head and the hand great number of girls is considered to constitute of a chief or old man as a salutation. But the wealth of the house. These portions amount whatever be the age or rank of the person, he is to upward of a hundred douros-$125. It somebound instantly to return the salute. Si-Said- times happens that the future husband does not Abbas, a marabout of the Beni-Haffif, was one possess the entire sum; he is then granted a day in the market of the Beni-Ourtilan. A Ka- month or two to collect it, and during that time byle called Ben-Zeddam approached and kissed he may visit the house of his future wife. When his hand; but the marabout, no doubt not think he has succeeded, he leads her, as his fiancée, ing about it, did not return the salutation. “By first through the village, armed with a yatagan, the sins of my wife," said Ben-Zeddam, who a gun, and a pair of pistols; after which he takes placed himself in front of Si-Said with his gun her under his own roof. This ceremony is perin his haud, "thou shalt instantly return me what formed with great pomp. Each village has its I gave thee, or thou art a dead man."
And the band, composed of two kinds of Turkish clariomarabout performed the act.
nets and drums; and these musicians figure in A man of the tribe of the Beni-Yala met, at the nuptial cortege. They sing as they go, and the market of Guenzate, another Kabyle, who the women and children make the air resound owed him a barra. He reclaimed his debt. "I with their joyous cries, “You! you! you!" They will not give thee thy barra,” replied the debtor. fire a number of guns; and the young people of “And why?'' "I do not know." “If thou hast the village, all or a part of them, according to no money, I will wait still." "I have some—but the wealth of the husband, are invited to a great it's a kind of whim which has taken hold of me repast. not to pay thee.” At these words the creditor, With all their ferocity the Kabyles are the quite furious, seized the other by his burnoose most truly hospitable and the most charitable of and threw him on the ground. The neighbors all the Algerian tribes. The institutions called joined in the struggle. Two parties were soon zouaias, which unite in themselves the qualities formed, and they had recourse to arms. From 1 of free schools, free auberges, and public diso'clock till 7 in the evening it was impossible to pensers of charities to the needy, are peculiar to separate the combatants; forty-five men were the people. Every zaouia is composed of a killed, and all for less than one cent! This mosque; a dome-koubba—which covers the quarrel happened in 1843; but the war which tomb of the marabout whose name it bears; of was kindled through it is not yet extinguished. a place where they read the Koran; of a second, The town has since been divided into two hostile reserved for the study of sciences; a third, servquarters, and the houses which stood on the ing as a primary school for children; of a habfrontier are now deserted.
itation destined for the pupils and tolbas, who When a man has been assassinated and leaves come to perform or perfect their studies; also of a widow and child, this child is religiously trained another dwelling in which they receive beggars up to revenge its father's death. If a son, when and strangers; and sometimes there is a cemegrown to man's estate, the mother hands him a tery at hand, designed for pious persons who gun, tells him the assassin's name and tribe, and may have solicited permission to lie near the says, “Go, revenge your father; return not till it marabout. Every man, rich or poor, known or
unknown in the country, who presents himself at more general order of ideas. An individual who the door of any zaouia, is received and provided is either weak or persecuted, or under the stroke for during three days. No one can be refused; some pressing danger, invokes the protection no example of any refusal of this kind is on of the first Kabyle he meets. He does not know record. The people of the zaouia, strangely him, nor is he known himself—he has met his enough, never take their meals, either morning protector by chance; but this is of no conseor evening, without being first assured that their quence, for his prayer will be rarely rejected. guests have had all their wants satisfied. The The mountaineer, delighted to exercise his patprinciple of hospitality extends even to such ronage, willingly grants this accidental anaya. childish lengths, that if a horse or mule has Women invested with the same privilege, and wandered, and arrives by chance without con- naturally compassionate, seldom refuse to make ductor, it is always received, installed, and fed, use of it. They cite the case of a woman who. till the owner reclaims it.
saw the murderer of her own husband about Another peculiar custom is the anaya—a pro- to be butchered by her brothers. The wretched tection or safeguard which every, even the mean- man, struck with many blows, and struggling on est, Kabyle has the power to extend to a friend, the ground, managed to catch hold of her foot, and which is never broken, and thus proves the crying out, "I claim thy anaya!" Whereupon safest of safe conducts from tribe to tribe. A the widow threw her vail over him, and the protection so powerful is granted, however, but avengers let him go. very reluctantly. They limit it to their friends; Such are the people whom the French hare they accord it once only to the fugitive; they re-conquered but not yet subdued; who, longer than gard it as a counterfeit if it has been sold, and any other tribes of Algeria, maintained their they punish with death the usurped declara- liberty and resisted the encroachments of the tion.
stranger; and who, if we may believe recert In order to avoid this last fraud, and at the statements, will never cease troubling the invadsame time to prevent all involuntary infraction, ers—houseless and homeless though they not the anaya manifests itself generally by an os- bemtill the nation become extinct. They are tensible sign. The man who confers it delivers the freemen of the Atlas. as a proof of his support any object that is well known as having belonged to him, such as his gun or his stick; he often sends one of his serv
WAITING. ants, and he himself will not unfrequently escort his protégé, if he has any particular motives for suspecting that the latter will be annoyed. A Ka- I LINGERED long in the gloaming, byle has nothing more at heart than the inviola- But my heart was waiting still bility of his anaya; not only does he attach to it For the lightsome tread of the fairy feet, his own individual point of honor, but that of his
And the welcoming words so low and sweet,
That should still my heart's deep yearning. parents, his friends, his village, his entire tribe, answer also morally for it. A man who would
When the moon's soft rays were gleaming, not find a second to aid him to take vengeance I was listening, watching still, for a personal injury, could raise all his compat- For the girlish laugh with its gleeful ring, riots, if there were a question about his anaya
As forth from the shadows she'd gayly spring, not being recognized.
And chide me for idly dreaming. The friend of a Kabyle once presented himself
On the wealth of her golden hair at his dwelling to ask for the anaya. In the
I knew I should press soft kisses; absence of the master, the woman, rather em- And I thought how this moonlight's tender gleam barrassed, gave to the fugitive a dog very well Would love to flit o'er its golden sheen, known in the country, and the man started with And waken the beautiful there. this token of safety. But the dog soon returned
Ah! little I thought that the summer winds alone, and covered with blood. The zouaoua
Were whispering o'er her grave: was greatly troubled; the people of the village They had sung her requiem, sad and sweet, assembled, they followed traces of the animal, They had wooed the violets at her feet, and discovered the dead body of the traveler. The flowers she had loved to tend. War was declared with the tribe in whose terri
Though far away from my childhood's home, tory the crime was committed; much blood was
A restless wanderer still, shed; and the village compromised in this quar- I can see the spot where my darling lays, rel still bears the characteristic name of village I can wait with patience these weary days, of the dog. The anaya attaches itself also to a Till the summons for me shall come.
BY LYDIA J. CARPENTER.
[The following philosophical and practical view of our bly from other young persons. That he was harmLord's temptation is from the pen of Dr. Curry. We com less, obedient, affectionate, and devout, is more than mend its study to the Christian reader.-ED.]
probable--and so in their degree have other children THE TEMPTATION OF JESUS.—Every thing respect-been-and the difference between his perfect and ing either the person or the history of the Savior is, their imperfect goodness might easily escape ordinary to the Christian, both interesting and instructive.
observation. Even Joseph, his faithful foster-father, It is profitable, by frequent and devout meditation,
seems to have almost forgotten the strange facts atto familiarize ourselves with the facts of that history, tending the early history of the child, and to have for such are the excellences illustrated by them, that
come at length to think of the gentle child and aminwhile they incite to all kinds and degrees of virtue, ble youth and young man as his own son; while his familiarity with them can never detract from their
mother's deeper interest in these things, as well as dignity. As to our modes of considering this subject, her more spiritual nature, caused her to ponder them we have suspected that there is a fault in the pre in her heart, and often to ask herself, with more than vailing forms of thought. The humanity of Christ
an ordinary mother's solicitude, as she dandled him is confessed in form, but at the same time practically, at her knee, or led himn by the band, or in later years almost wholly ignored. A celebrated but erratic
communed with his expanding soul what manner of preacher recently avowed his disbelief of the proper person he should become. humanity of the Savior, ascribing to him only a O what a woman's heart was hers! What a holy physical manhood; and this crude and repulsive faith animated the virgin of Bethlehem! What wonheresy excites but little surprise and scarcely calls derful fidelity was that of Mary, the wife of Joseph forth a protest from any quarter--so nearly does it of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus! The world harmonize with the popular thinking. But, in our of mankind owes to her an untold and incalculable view of the case, the doctrine of the manhood of debt of gratitude. Originally nearer to us than was Jesus is a most interesting and important element of her wonderful Son, since, while he of himself “knew the Gospel system. It brings him nearer to us, and no sin," she, like all her kindred of Adam's race, was assures us of his care for us, and of his adaptation "shapen in iniquity," yet was she raised by grace to to his office-work, as no other form of assurance can an exalted position in the scheme of the world's redo it.
demption, and by the same grace was she made equal We propose in this paper to consider Christ's tempt to her great responsibility. Rejecting most earnestly ation, as detailed to us by the evangelists, that we the senseless and mischievous dogma of the “Immay gather from the subject the lessons of duty it is
maculate Conception,” lately added to the so-called 80 well adapted to teach, and that we may be enabled Catholic faith, and condemning as profane and idolthe more adequately to appreciate the greatness of the atrous the worship addressed to her, we still claim work of our redemption, as seen in his conflicts with
the highest place among redeemed sinners for her the powers of darkness, and in the fact that in that
who bore, and nourished, and, to a large degree, ed. work the Savior was himself made "perfect through ucated the Redeemer of mankind. Chosen of God suffering.” The views of Christ's work and of his
for that bigh and holy work, she was also endowed person here presented, are believed to be entirely by him with all the requisite qualifications for its acScriptural, and also useful in bringing "the world's complishment. And though, as is usually the case Redeemer" within the range of our human sympa with those whom God especially honors, bers was a thies.
lot of peculiar trials from the day of the angel's galThe early life of Jesus Christ that is, his whole utation to that on which the sword entered her own earthly lifetime previous to his entrance upon his soul, as she stood near the cross on which her Son public ministry--at once proves and illustrates his was suffering, yet did she prove equal to every humanity. He there stands before us as a man--a emergency, and in proportion as she was tested did proper, real, and natural human being, evincing his she evince her wonderful virtues. manhood by the same signs that others show, by Into the hands and to the guardianship and direcwhich we know them to be really men. We have no tion of such a mother did infinite Wisdom commit right to suppose that there was any thing in the ap- the future Redeemer of a ruined world. That child pearance or manners of the child and youth in the
was to be educated for his great mission. His mind family of the carpenter of Nazareth, to lead the
was to be developed and furnished, and his character casual observer to suspect that he differed considera- | fashioned by a salutary discipline. Soon was he to
awake to self-consciousness, to receive instruction Transgressions are of two kinds, so widely differthrough the senses, and by his reason to become cog- ent in their conditions as to require to be clearly disnizant of his relations and of the duties and respon- tinguished. The first arises from the indulgence of sibilities imposed by them. Education is largely positively-wicked desires, passions, and impulses. affected by the circumstances among which its subject That all depraved and fallen ones should be thus is placod—or rather, these themselves become effect- tempted may be expected, and with mankind it is ive educators of the susceptible souls that move matter of a sad and universal experience. All men among them. But even these things, in his caso, feel the uprisings of impure lusts, unholy passions, were not left to the disposition of accidents. Divine and vicious propensities; and of these the adversary Providence prepared the school in which the ap- takes hold to incite us to sin against God. But as pointed Restorer of mankind was to be instructed, this supposes a corrupt state of the heart, we must and arranged all its conditions for the furtherance of conclude that Jesus—at least in his own personal rethat infinitely-important design. In the process of lations—was not so tempted. Nor can any unfallen his education Jesus necessarily encountered tempta- soul be so tempted; and it is plain that Adam's first tions. These arise and beset us in the ordinary offense was not the indulgence of a vicious passion, course of things-in childhood, in youth, and es- but the preference of a lower to a higher virtue. The pecially at the period of opening manhood, when the second class consists in the gratification of desires, buoyant soul looks out upon the untried world and good in themselves, or at least indifferent, without feels itself strangely impelled to mingle in its tur- due regard to the better claims of more authoritative moils and dangers. So Jesus, in all the varying and incompatible duties. A just subordination of our stages of life, was tempted in all points like unto us. hearts' impulses is the great practical end of self
At this point we will pause to inquire and fix in discipline; its complete and habitual attainment is our minds more precisely the proper notion of tempt- the perfection of the human character. In every ation. There is danger that, while entertaining some case the highest and most sacred obligation is the idea of what the word means, our conceptions of it only duty for that case; and then the indulgence of may be shadowy and indistinct. Were we called to any impulse aside from that first duty, howerer good define it in precise terms we would say that temptation in itself, is a sin. Now, it is manifestly possible that is any incitement by which one may be led to sin. This a pure and holy nature, with a limited range of perdefinition allows a very wide range to this dreadful ceptions and with habits of self-direction but parinfluence. Whatever acts upon men's minds while in tially formed, should, by diabolical impulses and for the process of education--which in some degree ex- want of due circumspection, prefer the less to the tends over the whole lifetime—inciting them to ac- greater and so fall into sin. Thus Eve wishing to tion, may becomo the occasion of misdirection or er- please her taste, and to become wise and great, and cess; and in these are the first forms of wrong-doing Adam drawn by his love for the wife that God had detected. All the affairs of life are thus, in a modis given him, each subordinated their higher duties to fied form, agents or occasions of temptation; and love and obey God to these good but inferior desires, because these are ordered by Providence, temptations and in this was their sin. Evidently only temptaare sometimes ascribed to God himself. But beyond tions of the latter class could, in the ordinary course these a direct diabolical agency is fully recognized in of things, affect the soul of that "holy thing" who Scripture, and “the tempter" is brought before us as was by divine authority called “the Son of God”a veritable personality, operating upon men's minds though some believe that in a mysterious mode, under and inclining them to sin. In this there is an obvi- divine ordination, Jesus as man's Redeemer was subous and steady implication of the power of pure spir-jected to the most direct diabolical assaults, impellitual natures to act upon each other without the in- ing him toward sin as sin; and that he thus became tervention of the senses; and the facts of the case personally conversant with the spiritual conflicts of make it evident that the point of collision at which those for whom he undertook his course of redempspirit impresses spirit lies outside of the range of the tive sufferings. consciousness. Hence, sensible manifestations are Each position in life has its peculiar temptations. not the usual accompaniments of diabolical tempta- Every change in our affairs, though necessary or actions, nor do they when detected in the mind appearcidental, brings with it new conflicts and dangers; as if injected from without, but rather as the sponta- and since our lives are but a succession of changes, neous suggestions of the soul itself. We are tempted our temptations are perpetually varied, and our conwhen we are “drawn away by our own lusts and en- flicts terminate only at our lives' end. The important ticed," because by means of these the adversary changes that occur in rapid succession in early life seeks to lead us into sin. It is not necessary to de- bring with them many dangerous incitements, wbich termine the question whether or not there was any render that period an eminently-critical one, and outward manifestation of the tempter to the Savior make it the decisive term in the moral history of at the time of the temptation in the wilderness, and almost every one.
He who then overcomes
the on the temple. The greatness of the occasion might tempter, and effectually subordinates his impulses to seem to justify the presumption that there was, while his conscionce and the law of God, in doing so gains the apparently-studied care with which the conditions a victory whose results will suffice to uphold him in of Christ's temptations were conformed to those suf- all future emergencies; while he who then gives free fered by his brethren, renders it more probable that reins to his lusts will hardly be able to restore the the whole process was internal, and to the conscious- government of the heart to reason and the conscience. ness subjective.
At the time at which the story of his temptation