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in all Mr. Trollope's works, and for this tendency a though their ample estates remained to them, theso full opportunity was afforded by the yet unsolved were worthless without laborers, and the freed nepractical problems presented by West Indian society. groes would not work without wages-probably but He is unquestionably a thorough Britisher, and in indifferently with—and the planters bad neither the going abroad in the service of his Government he will nor the power to pay them. Great social changes seems to have carried in himself a miniature copy of are always inconvenient, and that effected in Jamaica “Hold-Hinglan'.” As in duty bound, therefore, he by the act of emancipation was probably as little so was an abolitionist, in the special English sense of as the case would admit of, and the happy consethat term, and must need approve of the emancipa- quences likely to accrue will more than justify the tion act, by which West India plantation negroes wisdom and philanthropy of the British nation in were suddenly transformed into freemen and political making an end of the old system in the manner it rulers. But for your thorough Englishman to like a was done. It is more convenient to reform orgapio negro in close proximity to himself, or on a scale of abuses, and yet the welfare of the social body, to say equality, is most unnatural, and probably it almost nothing of justice to individuals and classes, demands never really occurs. Certainly Mr. Trollope did not such reforms; and the general good is in the end especially fancy the black men of Jamaica, though greatly promoted by them. he seems disposed to treat them fairly and to deal A more deeply-interesting question in social science justly with them. He, at least practically, discrim is involved in the future of the Anglo-African race inates between the act of public justice, by which in America, of which the colored men of Jamaica those formerly slaves were restored to their natural are perhaps the most important portion. This race rights and taken under the protection of law, and is now, next to our own, making the most rapid adthe further and much more difficult work of deliver vances in civilization, and promises in the next hising these freedmen from their native and traditional torical cycle of the world's progress to contest the barbarism, and raising them to the condition of social prize of supremacy with the Anglo-Saxons themequality with the more elevated, and, therefore, the selves. Ethnologists tell us that the strongest tribes ruling classes of society.
are those produced by the blending of diverse races His sentiments respecting the white men of Ja of men.
It would be bold to assert that the colored maica, if they do not especially entitle him to respect amalgam of the African and the Anglo-Saxon is suas a social philosopher, at least disclose something perior to his ancestors on either side; but what is of the social elements of his character. To his no the evidence offered by the facts in the case? Did tion the Jamaica planter was “the true aristocrat of ever any portion of mankind achieve greatness more the West Indies." " He had his pedigree and his rapidly, and in spite of more formidable difficulties, family house, and his domain around him. He than they have done? But the most sanguine advoshoots, and fishes, and some few years since, in the cates of this new race must confess that there is a good days, he even kept a pack of hounds. He was great steep for it to climb before it can stand side by in the commission of the peace, and as such had side with its father, the white man. At this deeplymuch to do.” But all this is now past. His pedigree interesting problem our author only glances in bis avails bim but little among those who never wish to chapter on the colored men of Jamaica. Mr. Trolremember their own, and among whom the idea of lope's book will serve very well for summer reading ancestry has yet to be born. He would shoot, and for those who would unite somewhat of thought with fish, and keep his hounds still, but while engaged in amusement and recreation. It is genial and wise, as these occupations, who would look after his pecu well as superficial and opinionated. niary interests? If he sits on the magisterial bench, “He who has once hit the mark will be always a colored man sits beside him; if he aspires to a seat shooting,” is an old proverb, and, like many others in the provincial Assembly, a colored man is chosen of its kind, it contains not only truth, but satire too. over him; and so he scorns public life, and will have It is sometimes said of Nature, that when she has no part in the affairs of the government. “A thou produced some great master-piece she remorselessly sand pities, for he was the prince of planters.” Now, breaks the die in which it was fashioned. But human all this may be very sentimental, but it is also very genius is always attempting to excel its own best, superficial and unphilosophical. A vicious social and so multiplies its mediocre productions to damage system had been established and perpetuated in the by their brotherhood the renown of that which is British West Indies, which, while it oppressed the best. We have seen several striking examples of masses to a degrading slavery and lifted up a small, this in matters of literature within a short time past. purse-proud aristocracy into an unnatural preëmi- | A few years since Longfellow stood at the head of pence, was rapidly exhausting the substance of the
American poets, but not so since he issued “ Hiawawhole community, and just as the catastrophe was tha" and "Miles Standish's Courtship.” “Nothing impending the home government averted it by the to Wear" was a most capital hit-nearly perfect of act of emancipation and the grant of twenty millions its kind, and justly entitled its author to the renown of pounds to the hopelessly-bankrupt planters. And of a successful, good-natured satirist; but all that these now finding their debts paid for them, were not was dashed when the whole thing was reproduced, a little indignant that they were not permitted to re like a second-hand joke, expanded and diluted in the peat the disastrous process from whose evil results story of “ Firkin.” “Uncle Tom's Cabin” was a they have been delivered. They were now gentle- complete success, at which no one was probably more men without fortunes, masters without slaves, drones surprised than the writer herself; and from that time without workers to bring honey to their hives; for onward Mrs. Stowe has been diligently occupied in
writing down the reputation which she so suddenly first volume of a new “ History of France,” by Parke achieved in that single, first production. A like case Godwin, a name well known in our home literatureis now presented. The sucoess of Adam Bede was especially from its connection with our local journal. nearly complete, and it was quite evident that the iem-in which he has been known as one of the active writer could never duplicate it, and, of course, could editors of the “Evening Post." The opening paranot appear again in the same department of litera- | graph of the author's Preface so accurately expresses ture without damaging the renown which had been my own experience-and I presume that of a great so successfully gained. And yet scarcely two years many others—that I transcribe it as my own: “Mang have passed and a new novel by the same writer is years ago, when I first began to read history, I was announced in flaming show-bills, and the work itself surprised as well as disappointed in not being able to is in all bookstores, and forms a staple article with find in our English literature a good general history the hawkers of literature along the highways of of France. As I did not then understand the French travel. But the discriminating reader takes up “The language, my curiosity was forced to satisfy itself Mill on the Floss” with velvety fingers, and reads it with imperfect compilations and abridgments.” This through with many misgivings, and at last lays it felt want has happily stimulated the author of this down with a feeling that it would be very well were volume to undertake the work of writing a complete it not by “the author of Adam Bede.” Doubtless history of the French nation for the American peothe book is a good one, deservedly ranking in the ple, and as none but an American writer can do it, same class with its renowned elder brother; and yet and this first installment, which is confined to the it detracts from, rather than adds to, the fame of its history of “ Ancient Gaul,” is something more than author. In the world of literature it is as in the a promise of the excellence of the work of which it world of human action-individuals may outlive their is the beginning. Mr. Godwin is a spirited and vig. reputation, and blast it by their own endeavors. Had orous writer, patient of research, and devoted to his Benedict Arnold fallen on the plains of Saratoga, theme, upon which he seems to have staked bis hopes his name would have been honored in his country's of literary renown, and is likely to secure it. By history; and had Thomas Paine died immediately such productions our national literature is permaafter the publication of his political tracts on the nently enriched, and their writers by them are makrights of man, he would now be known as an incor-ing the whole nation their debtors. Hereafter let all ruptible patriot and honest citizen. Perhaps Wash- English readers who would become acquainted with ington's death occurred at the right time for his rep- one of the richest departments of history avail himutation: he neither lived too long nor died too soon. self of Parke Godwin's “ History of France." Had Webster died ten years earlier, bis memory Journalism is becoming a very important departwould now be fragrant to all parties; but he undid, ment of the literature of thọ age. Great changes toward the end of his career, the work of his man- have taken place within the last quarter-centuryhood, and despoiled himself of the reputation which since you and I, Mr. Editor, used to pore over the had taken him a lifetime to build.
columns of the Journal of Commerce and CommerIt is a little remarkable that the Anglo-Americans, cial Advertiser to glean out scraps of news only three the people who have the least bistory of their own days from Wasbington and thirty days from Europe. of any of the great nations, are especially addicted But the change in the rapidity of the transmission to historical studies, and to writing history. Most of news is less remarkable than that of the general of our great writers are historians, and of these every character of journalism as to its scope and desigo. American has good reason to be proud. And what- The progress of this change, which I will not now ever may have been the cause of this peculiar bent attempt to detail, would form a most interesting of the mind in our scholars--and that is not very chapter in the history of cotemporaneous literature, obscure-there can be no doubt that the selection is as its facts constitute one of the most remarkable inhappily made. As a literary harvost-field it is of dications of the growth of our civilization. The almost limitless extent and thoroughly ripe, inviting secular press of New York has become a tbing of 1 the hands of the reapers; while of all human sciences immense proportions, whether considered as to its history is the noblest, for it has for its subject man in businesss relations, or its social and political power, his fullest developments and in the aggregate em- or in respect to the current literature. Happily, unbodiment of the race. He who is well versed in his- like London and Great Britain, we have no single tory is a learned man, of whatever else he may
be monster sheet, enjoying a monopoly by virtue of its · ignorant; and he who is not learned in this depart- overshadowing superiority; nor is the ground so 0c
ment is an ignorant man, though expert in many cupied that no new-comer may not find room-proother sciences. The field of American history has vided it come prepared to make the necessary outlay been pretty thoroughly explored by our own writers, in advance, and wait for the returns in after years. Irving, Bancroft, Hildreth, and the various compilers Such an attempt is just now in progress-a new firstof the inemoirs and papers of our great statesmen.
class daily, “ The World," having made its appearA highly-successful attempt at the history of other ance under favorable auspices, and destined to suepations was made in the writings of Prescott, in ceod if conducted on a broad scale of enlightened which indeed he was only following the lead given liberality. Doubtless the new paper is placed on your him by Irving in his Life of Columbus; and Motley's list of exchanges, and you will seo and examine it for “Dutch Republic" is among the ablest and most yourself. Certain important movements in religious perfeet historical productions of the age. And now journalism are also in progress, but of these you will we have-irom the press of Harper & Brothers-tbe hear more by and by.
TRIAL OP MEMBERS.
THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF 1860 AND ITS DOINGS. (CONCLUDED.)
In the trial of Church members, several important In our last number we commenced a review of the changes were made in the Discipline. Among them proceedings of the late General conference. In the
are the following: present article we resume and conclude that review.
1. In the case of trial before a select committee, Our object is not so much to detail the daily proceed
the parties have the right to challenge for cause. Our ings as to give an outline of the more important acts
best administrators have always gone upon this prinof the body. Even these we shall be compelled to
ciple. That is, they have always excluded from servnotice in brief.
ing upon the committee persons against whom valid
objections were made; or at least in some way they COURT OF APPEALS.
have sought to bring trials before unobjectionable Among the earliest and wisest things transacted by persons. Now “challenge for cause” is secured to the body, was the organization of a Court of Appeals.
the parties as a right. This is as it ought to be. It is well known that in case of trial an appeal may
2. Provision was made that the "select number" be taken from the annual to the General conference.
for the trial of a case should not be members of the No less than twelve such appeals, and some of them quarterly conference. There is a manifest propriety of a grave character and involving the most compli
in this, as, in case of appeal, the quarterly confer
ence is to hear and try it; and the impropriety of cated and difficult problems in our ecclesiastical
having an appeal case adjudicated by tbe same pereconomy, came up for final adjudication. Heretofore such appeals have been tried in open confer
sons who sat upon the trial and from whose decision ence and before the whole body. To this course
the appeal is made, must be obvious. there were many and grave objections. Among oth
3. In making up the committee to try a case, the ers, the following will strike the reader as decisive:
administrator may go without the bounds of the 1. It gave an unnecessary and injurious publicity to
charge, but not without the district. This gives a scandalous cases, and indeed to all casos. 2. It oc
wider range for the selection of suitable men-now casioned a consumption of time-quite unnecessary to
more necessary since the members of the quarterly the ends of justice. 3. It involved the transaction
conferenco aro not to sit upon such cases; and further, of judicial business in a looso manner as the indi
it will often secure the ends of justice by freeing vidual members of the conference would rarely hear
trials from the influence of local prejudices. the whole of the case; and yet each one of them in
4. It was also provided that no member can be dethe end was called to vote upon it.
clared withdrawn without at least his verbal consent, The present method is to organize a Court consist
so as to preclude him from Church privileges or the ing of as many members as there are annual confer- right of trial and appeal, if he desires it. The deences—two-thirds of whom constitute a Court to hear
sign of this was to guard more sacredly the rights of
the members. any particular case; but the individual members detailed to hear the case are to be present through
5. It was also decided, that in Church trials the the whole case-hearing, and in the end giving judg. presiding officer is not to sum up the evidence or give ment upon it. The right to challenge for cause was
any charge, and his business is to state the law; that secured to both parties, the remaining members de
of the committee to judge of the facts. termining whether the challenged member should be
ARRANGEMENT OF THE DISCIPLINE. excused or not. One of the bishops presides over the Every one attempting the study of the Discipline Court, and one of the conference secretaries is detail
has been more or less perplexed by the lack of method ed to keep the minutes. The organization, in its gen in its arrangement. This has grown out of the fact eral principle, seems as perfectly adapted as any that the Discipline has come into being in parts as thing can be for securing the ends of justice.
the exigencies of the times have called for them; and Had the appeal cases, at the late session, been tried also that it has been revised in the same way, at difin open conference, it would have added at least two ferent times and under different circumstances. At weeks to the session. As it was, the trials all pro the late session, a complete digest of the whole Disceeded penceably and quietly, in the afternoons and cipline was presented and adopted. This digest disevenings. An occasional reference to the Court or to tributes it into five parts, namely: an individual case, and an occasional report of the Part I. Treats of Doctrine. judgment given in a case, were almost the only things
" Government. that indicated to the spectator that the Church was " III. Contains a Ritual. so unfortunate as to have such cases. Yet the work
IV. Treats of Benevolent Institutions. went steadily on, discriminating the errors of confer
Temporal Economy. ences and individuals, and administering justice to The forthcoming edition of the Discipline will be each alike.
conformed to this method.
more than doubled before the close of the quadrer
nial The mission work among the Germans in this coun
upon which we have just entered.
Qur antry is justly regarded as a work of transcending im
naal missionary collection ought speedily to reach portance. It has grown up in a comparatively few
ONE MILLION OF DOLLARS. It might be realized eren years, till it now comprises about 250 traveling within the present quadrennial, and yet the Church preachers and nearly 25,000 members. Its interests scarcely feel the burden. were intrusted to a special committee.
A more efficient mode of ascertaining, through the One topic demanded the especial attention of that presiding elders and the stationed preachers, the col
lections and their amount, was adopted with great committee, namely, the organizing of the German work into distinct annual conferences instead of con
unanimity. We confidently expect a large increase necting it, as at present, with the English work.
in our missionary efficiency, from the action of this
COURSE OF STUDY FOR LICENTIATES.
The Methodist Church, though ever the friend of we can hardly doubt but that the measure would have
education, has never favored tbeological seminaries carried. But, as the plans bad not been arranged,
as they were conducted under the old regime. But the whole matter was laid over four years. It will claim and no doubt receive the early and earnest con
while she has ignored the making of ministers as ma
chines are turned out of a factory, she has neverthesideration of the General conference of 1864. In the
less favored the education of such as God has called mean time we hope the speech of Dr. Nast will be given to the public through our journals, that the an
to the ministry, seeking to make them workmen that
need not be ashamed. At first our young men nual conferences may come to a more thorough understanding of the subject.
were placed upon circuits under a senior preacher. They had comparatively a few sermons to prepare,
and could easily prosecute, with the aid of the superThe cause of missions received early and earnest intendent, the course of study prescribed. But the attention. Increased appropriations were
course of years has brought about a new state of mended for the domestic missions in the new states things. The old circuits have given place to stations. and territories of the north-west. Provision was Our young men, for the most part, become at once made for three additional mission conferences; name- preachers in charge. This has brought about an ly, one in India, one to include Pike's Peak and adja- anomalous state of things. The course of study still cent settlements, and a third to include Arizona, New remains. In fact, it is greatly enlarged. The young Mexico, and neighboring countries in which missions preachers, then, just at the time when pastoral visitmay be established.
ing is new, when preparation for the pulpit is new, and In order to facilitate the General Mission Commit- when preaching is also new to them-have a course tee in making their annual appropriations, it is made of study, enough to occupy their whole time, imposed the duty of the presiding elders to report the condi- as an additional burden. The tendency of such a tion and wants of the mission work to the respective state of things is to make poor pastors as well as poor members of the General Mission Committee. These students of such as are subject to this regimen. The plans for enlarging and pushing forward more vigor- evil has been severely felt, but the remedy has not in ously the mission work, both at home and abroad, in- all cases been so apparent. volve an increased expenditure of means, and call for Besides, in the prescribed course were included enlarged contributions.
studies that belonged to the district or high school The ways and means for effocting such results were rather than to a ministerial course. It was a scandal not overlooked. It was found that in those annual to us that modern geography and common English conferences which had been repeatedly visited by the grammar, and other English branches, were not left Corresponding Secretary, and where the disciplinary to the district school, where they belonged. plan for making collections had been thoroughly ex- These things attracted the attention of the General plained and adopted, there was a great advance in conference of 1856. A provision passed the Committhe collections. In some instances they were doubled tee on Itinerancy, requiring an examination in a literand even trebled in a very few years.
ary and scientific course before reception upon trial The number of conferences has become so great and in the traveling connection. By some inadvertence the office labors at New York so much increased by the chairman permitted this important measure to the extension of the missionary work, that it was no slumber upon the table, and it was lost. longer practicable for one Secretary to meet the exi- The movement was more successful in 1860. In gencies of the case. Accordingly, an Assistant Sec- the forthcoming edition of the Discipline it is made retary was determined upon, and Rev. Dr. W. L. the duty of the bishops “to prescribe a course of Harris elected to that office. He is to reside in the study in English literature and in science, upon which west, visit the western conferences, keep his eye upon those applying for admission upon trial in the annual the frontier work, and also in all possible ways pro- conferences shall be examined and approved, before mote the collections for the missionary cause. If he such admission." This is a step in the right direcshall succeed in inducing the western conferences tion. If faithfully carried out, our young men will heartily to adopt and carry out the plan for taking learn the propriety of securing at least their common collections, prescribed in the Discipline, we hazard school education before they enter the ministry. It the prediction that the collections in the west will be will at least partially remedy the evil which we bare
pointed out, and which has been felt severely in some arise, in annual conference, before them, and that eveparts of the work.
ry administrator of the Discipline is responsible to the
proper authorities for his own administration of law. EDUCATION.
7. The distinction heretofore made in the DisciWe have already referred to the educational inter- pline between “quarterago,” “table expenses," etc.; ests of the Church. The Committee on the subject and the provisions making so much claim for the made a strong report against the undue multiplication minister, so much for his wife, and so much for each of literary institutions—especially those of a highor child, have all gone to “the Tomb of the Capulets,” grade. They also favored the creation of some agen and in their place a common-senso, business procy that would secure a more judicious distribution of
vision is made for the stewards or estimating comteachers; and also the providing, through some system, mittees to estimate the salaries of the preachers. for the aid of pious and promising young men who 8. The amount necessary for the support of superhave the ministry in view, but are without means to
annuated preachers, widows, and children of deceassecure the requisite education.
ed preachers, must be estimated by a committee of To meet these exigencies, or at least take some
the quarterly conference within the bounds of which steps in that direction, a general Board of Education
they reside, subject to approval of the annual conwas proposed. The General conference so far ap
ference with which they are connected. proved of this as to appoint a Committee of Education
9. Each annual conference is left free to adopt to mature more fully the plan and present it for the
such plan as it may judge most expedient for the colaction of the conference in 1864. The following gon lection of these several amounts. The Discipline tlemen compose that Committee, namely:
will, however, contain a recommendation that these Frederick Merrick, of Delaware, Ohio; Miner Ray amounts be taken in weekly collections, in all our somond, of Wilbraham, Mass.; Herman M. Johnson, of
cieties where it is practicable. Large classes, if the Carlisle, Penn.; Cyrus Nutt, of Greencastle, Ia.; Ed
stewards desire it, may be divided into financial ward Cooke, of Appleton, Wis.; J. M. Reid, Lima, N. classes of not more than twelve each, and a collector Y.; Oran Faville, Iowa; and Edward Bannister, of
appointed by the preacher, by and with the advice Santa Clara, Cal.
and consent of the stewards, for each, whose duty
it shall be to collect weekly, monthly, or quarterly, SUNDRY ITEMS.
as the case may be determined, from each member of Several items, for the separate consideration of the class what they agree to pay." which we have not space, we must group together. 10. The Discipline was so changed as to require 1. The supernumerary relation, which has been
that the stewards shall be elected annually. The subject to growing abuse Tor years, was abolished. mode of election and daties remain as heretofore, and
2. The duties and prerogatives of the quarterly the old stewards are also eligible to reëlection. conferences were more clearly defined. Also a series
11. The boundaries of the conforences were of questions to be asked at them was adopted and adjusted, with the following results: ordered to be published in the Discipline.
New England conference received Foxboro from 3. A provision was passed that the claims of a Providence conference. The Vermont conference empreacher on the funds of a conference coaso whenever braces all of Vermont but the Poultney district, exhe is suspended by a committee.
cept Mt. Holly, Cuttingsville, and one or two other 4. The conference determined the status of trans
places, which are in Vermont conference, thus taking ferred preachers by the following resolution: “When
a large slice from the Troy conference. The name a preacher is transferred from one conference to an of the Delaware conference changed to Central Ohio; other, his rights, privileges, and responsibilities in the the Peoria conference to Contral Illinois. The Northconference to which he is transferred shall date from West Wisconsin conference was establishod; also the date of his transfer, unless it be especially pro the Western Iowa conferenee. The Kansas and Ne. vided otherwise by the bishop by whom the transfer braska conference was divided into two. The Arkanis made; but it will not be lawful for him to vote sas conference was attached to the Missouri, and the twice on the same constitutional question, or be Philadelphia was allowed to divide itself into two counted twice in the same year as the basis of the conferences any time previous to the next General election of delegates to the General conference.” conference. The number of conferences was 47, ac.
5. A resolution was passed discountenancing cording to the Discipline, including Liberia and the “special transfers;" that is, transfers based upon German conferences. But it was really 47 excluding special negotiations between the preaehers and the them, as the New Hampshire and Vermont confercongregation, providing for his transfer, not with a ences were counted as one, though they did not unite, view to become identified with the conference as a and the Baltimore was counted as one, though it was laborer, but simply to supply a special station for the actually divided. The number is now 51, including time being.
Germany and Liberia, and will be 52 if the Philadel6. The conference also passed a very important phia is divided, and 55 if the new conferences in Inresolution in relation to the “law decisions" made dia, Arizona and Washington territories are formed. by the bishops. It was to the effect that the pro 12. The publication of a monthly Sunday School vision that “the bishops may decide all questions of Teachers' Journal was ordered, of the size and form law," Discipline, Part I, chapter iv, question 3, of the Tract Journal, to be edited by the Correspondanswer 8, page 45, does not authorize the bishops to ing Secretary of the Sunday School Union. Also, a decide law questions, except when they actually graduated series of Sunday School Text-Books is to