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Items, Literary,

Scientific, and Religious.

RAWLINSON'S ARCHEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES IN As- / planted a good breadth of potatoes at Sablons, close BYRIA AND BABYLONIA.—The last published part of to Paris, and paid great attention to their cultivation. the Asiatic Society's Journal contains the first install- When the roots were nearly ripe, he put notices ment of a volume, to be written by Sir Henry Raw- around the field that all persons who stole any of the linson, On Archæological Discoveries in Assyria and potatoes would be prosecuted with the utmost rigor Babylonia, which, when complete, will form a highly- of the law, and gendarmes were employed to watch valuable and interesting addition to our knowledge the field day and night, and arrest all trespassers. of the subject. The present portion is, On the Birs No sooner were the new roots thus forbidden, as it Nimrud, or the Great Temple of Borsippa, and gives were, by authority, than all persons seemed eager to an account of the ingenious operations by which in- eat them, and in a fortnight, notwithstanding the scribed cylinders were found in cavities at the cor- gendarmes, the whole crop was stolen, and, without ners of the building in the lower course of masonry, doubt, eaten. The new vegetable having been found as in remote centuries keen antiquarians will discover to be excellent food, was soon after cultivated in coins and other relics under the corner-stones laid in every part of the kingdom.” Queen Victoria's reign. Twenty-two hundred years have elapsed since those cylinders were deposited,

Purification of Foul WATER.—Thomas Spencer, but they are in excellent preservation. From study

the discoverer of the electrotype, has ascertained of the inscriptions, Sir Henry finds that the temple

that the magnetic oxyd of iron, which abounds in was dedicated to the Planets of the Seven Spheres, rocky strata and in sands, etc., attracts oxygen, and he shows reason for believing that its form was

whether it exists in water or air, and polarizes itpyramidal, terrace above terrace, each smaller than

that this polarized oxygen is the salubrifying ozone the one beneath, the seventh and smallest being the

that this ozone, so formed, destroys all discoloring apex. Each was painted of the color assigned to

and polluting organic solutions in water, and contbe respective planet, but the topmost, wbich bore

verts them into the sparkling and refreshing carbonic the shrine of the god, was coated with silver. All

acid of the healthful spring. Even sewerage water this, as the inscription sets forth, was a restoration

can be thus almost instantaneously purified. Moreby that mighty monarch Nebuchadnezzar, who began

over, Mr. Spenoer has discovered that the apparently the work in a fortunate month, and concludes bis re

mechanical process of filtration is itself magnetical, cital with “as it had been in former days, thus I ex

and it is now known that all substances are constitualted its head." Sir Henry is of opinion

tionally more or less subject to magnetical influence;

at, if the grand vestibule of this temple were cleared of its

thus all extraneous matters suspended in water may long-accumulated rubbish, a record of the conquest

be rapidly attracted in filtration and separated; and of Judea and Egypt would be found in the inscrip

this may be done whether on a great scale or a small,

either by the magnetic oxyd or black sand or by tions on the walls.

various other means; and Mr. Spencer has discovered REVOLUTIONS or THE SEA.-M. Adhémar has writ

a solid porous combination of carbon with magnetic ten a book on the Revolutions of the Sea, showing oxyd, prepared from Cumberland hæmatite, which is the mighty changes effected by water on the land in said to have very great filtering power. past times; the changes that are yet to be looked for; and the causes, even now in operation, which will RELIGIOUS REFORMS IN RUSSIA.—Russia is at the convert our northern hemisphere into a condition present moment accomplishing two religious reforms. similar to that now presented by the southern: thus, The first is a careful translation into the Russian the greater part of Europe, North America, and language of the holy Scriptures and the prayers of northern Asia is to be laid under water, wbile the

the Church. Hitherto the old Slavonio tongue was continents of the south are to increase in length and the language used, and as the Latin in the Roman breadth, and its islands to multiply.

Church is a dead letter to the congregation, so the

Slave has been to the Russian. The translation of THE FIRST POTATOES IN FRANCE.-M. Noel, a

both Old and New Testaments has already been conFrench agriculturist, speaking of the introduction of

menced. The second reform is the abolition of the the potato into France, says: “This vegetable was

seminaries where, up to the present, not only the viewed by the people with extreme disfavor when first introduced, and many expedients were adopted to priests themselves received their education, but were

obliged to bring up their children. The male portion induce them to use it, but without success. In vain

of the family were thus compelled to adopt the sacerdid Louis XVI wear its fower in his button-hole,

dotal profession whether they were so disposed or and in vain were samples of the tubercle distributed

Thus the priestly character was rendered in among the farmers; they gave them to their pigs,

Russia purely hereditary, as well as compulsory. but would not use it themselves. At last Parmentier, the chemist, who well knew the nutritive properties POPULATION OF JAPAN.-The number of inhabitants of the potato, and was most anxious to see it in gen- of Japan is to a great extent a matter of conjecture. eral use, hit upon the following ingenious plan: He Some writers place it as low as 15,000,000, while oth



ers have estimated it as high as 40,000,000. From a great privilege it is esteemed. Upon their first arcalculation based upon the revenues, and their equiv- rival in this country, when asked why they had no alent in rice, there seems to be good reason for as- Sabbath, the principal officers replied, “because they suming that the estimate of 25,000,000 is not too were good every day,” but afterward acknowledged great.

that they were atheists. SHAKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.-There are four JAPANESE NAMES FOR God.--The Japanese have Shaker societies in Ohio, numbering 1,059; one in

several names for God, but the most common is Connecticut, numbering 200; two in Maine, number- “Kami,” which means simply a prince, or a higher ing 150; two in New Hampshire, numbering 500; In a conversation, says the New York Herald, four in Massachusetts, numbering 700; two in Ken

with Matemota Sannofio, one of the secretaries of tucky, numbering 900; three in New York, number- the embassadors, which was introduced by his asking ing 1,050—making in all 18 societies and 4,559 mem- some question about the Sabbath, he said that there bers.

was no God; and when asked how the world was

made, he declared that it “came of course." He NEWSPAPERS IN PARIS.—A few statistics have lately did n't know how long ago it “came of course," but appeared in a French paper relative to the circulation wished to know how long ago his interlocutor thought of some Parisian journals. The names of all the it was created, and inquired how this was known, leading papers are given. Their issues are said to and who saw it made. He had read about Christ, be as follows: Press, 46,000, increasing; Siecle, 34,- and asked if he was an Asia man. This secretary is 000, receding; Constitutionel, 25,000, increasing; one of the most learned scholars of the embassy, and Moniteur, 24,000, stationary; Patrie, 18,000, increas- one can not converse with him without perceiving his ing in & marked manner; Illustration, 25,000, re- quickness and force of intellect. cently purchased for $340,000, increasing; Pays, 16,000, increasing; Debats, 9,000, receding; Assemblee

PHYSICIANS IN AUSTRIA AND FRANCE.--In the AusNationale, 5,000, decreasing; Gazette de France, 2,

trian empire there is one physician to each thousand 000, reoeding. The Univers, suppressed in 1859, was

of the inhabitants. In France there is only one rapidly increasing when its suspension took place.

medical man to each two thousand of the inbabitThe statistician states that these figures, although he

ants. can not vouch for their perfect accuracy, will furnish SCHOOLS IN THE CAUCASUS.—The Emperor of Rusa good idea of the number of readers addressed by sia has ordered the establishment of six schools in each of the papers named. He says that, notwith-six different places in the Caucasus, and has decided standing the many periodicals of which the Govern- that the Russian language, writing, arithmetic, geogment has stopped the publication, there are more raphy, history, and drawing shall be taught in them. Dewspapers and magazines in France at present than He has also decided that in each school there shall there were before the Emperor Napoleon III ascend- be 520 pupils, 245 of them to be maintained at the ed the throne.

expense of the state; 150 of those 245 to be natives, The “rates of remuneration paid to writers of and the remainder children of the Russian functionevery sort have rapidly increased within a few years; aries. One would think that schools conducted in and but for the extraordinary influx of literary per- this manner would be somewhat republican in charsons that is poured into Paris periodically from pro- acter. vincial cities and towns, gentlemen of the press could command as good pay there as in any city in

CONGRESSIONAL REPORTERS.-As you enter the galthe world.” We are told that there are as many pa- lory of the senate and the house you will see before pers, magazines, etc., circulated in Paris, not included

a flat white marble desk a number of young men in the above list, as those contained in it.

whose pens move with a rapidity wonderful to betotal of the figures given is 202,000, and of course

hold. These are the regular reporters, paid by Contwice that number would be 404,000. Allowing Paris

gress, who take down in short-hand all that is said to have 1,100,000 inhabitants, it would soem, then, by the senators and representatives, and write it out that there is published a newspaper or periodical for

for the organ of the two houses, The Daily Globe. every three persons, which is not so bad for France. The industry of these gentlemen is as remarkable as

their genius and intelligence. They do not lose a RELIGION IN JAPAN.-In Japan there are three re- word or a syllable that is spoken, and often put a ligions: Buddhism, the Persian sun worship, and an decent dress upon some most ungrammatical and unindefinite sort of belief original with themselves. genteel expressions. Taking their places at 11 The lower classes are credulous, the middle much o'clock, they labor till the close of the session, which less so, and the higher classes have no religion at frequently consumes six, and has even lasted twentyall, calling such things "stuff" and "superstition."

five hours. Then, when the members retire to their There are no priests attached to the embassy, and residences, to dine and rest, the heavy labors of the they have no religious rites or observances of any reporters may be said really to begin. From the kind, keeping no Sabbath. In Japan the first day phonographic hieroglyphics they write out full reof every month is a Sabbath, and at the Japanese ports for The Globe, and this often com pels them to new year fourteen or fifteen Sabbaths como at once, toil till long after midnight. Incredible as it may during which time all officers of government pay their seem, they have each frequently reported and prerespects to their superiors. Only three of the pres- pared for the press ten closely-printed columns in a ent embassy—the princes-have this privilego, and a single day.

The sum

Literary Notices.

(1.) THE TATTLER AND Guardian have recently been nection with his own views, presents those of other issued by Applegate & Co., of Cincinnati, in a royal distinguished physiologists. octavo volume, the former covering 432 pages double

(4.) POEMS. By William H. Holcombe, M. D. New column, the latter 244. It is produced in fine library

York: Mason & Brothers. Cincinnati : Rickey, Malstyle, and retails at $2.50. The illustration is the lory & Co. Large 12mo. 360 pp:--This volume is visit to Mrs. Feeble, Tattler No. 266. It is generally published in superb style on tinted paper. The love admitted that in the prose literature of the English

ers of art might well afford to purchase it for its melanguage, the splendid series by Addison, Steele, chanical beauty of the literary character of the and their associates, is unsurpassed. In style these

work we can not do better than to give one or two papers have been justly regarded as models of clas

choice specimens: sic purity; in sentiment, for the most part, they are

THE HERO'S GRAVE. just and manly. In every respect they are worthy

O lightly, tread lightly, 't is holy ground of a place by the side of the classic productions of

Where the corse of the hero is resting; any and every age. The Tattler comprises 271 papers. There's a charm on the mind and a spell on the mound, The first was issued April 12, 1709, and the last Jan- Like a halo of glory investing. uary 2, 1710. The publication, therefore, was com

For the spirit that kindled the eye of the brave pleted in less than one year. The Guardian was

Lingers still at the spot to endear it; commenced March 12, 1713, and continued through And his is the heart of a coward or slave one hundred and seventy-six numbers. The last was That beats not more gallantly near it. issued October 1st of the same year. Those who

Ah! shed not your tears at the soldier's lot, would become acquainted with the choice productions When he dies where his country calls him, in English literature must not overlook the Tattler When he falls ere the fire of the foeman's shot, and the Guardian.

Or the terror of death appalls him. (2.) THE LIFE OF JACOB GRUBER, by Dr. Strickland- The smoke of the battle may melt away, Carlton & Porter-makes a 12mo volume of nearly

And the turf of the valley may hide him;

His form in its braided shroud may decay, 400 pages, and is sold for $1. It is a life portraiture

And his good saber rust beside him; of an eccentric Dutchman, of the old Methodistic school, full of amusing anecdotes and exhibitions of But a light comes forth from the warrior's grave, coarse humor. Yet few of them will offend good taste,

While his comrades are sorrowing o'er it,

A beacon of hope to the hearts of the brave, and all of them exhibit the downright manly vigor

And oppressors may tremble before it. and heart-devotion of a good man to the work of God. Most men, attempting the imitation of Gruber,

Then lightly, tread lightly, 't is holy ground

Where the corse of the hero is resting; would make a sorry figure. But he is so manifestly

For the spirit of Liberty hallows the mound, himself, on all occasions, that if we attempt to find With a halo of glory investing! fault with him, we feel self-convicted of hypercriti

To this we will add one more selection, which has cism. So we have concluded to let the good old man

in it a genuine touch of nature-exquisite as beau. alone, only premising that we read the book entirely

tiful: through, simply because we got into it and could not

OLD AUNT HANNAH. well stop. We revere these oid heroes of Methodism and bless their memories. It matters but little how

Let's wait a little longer, Tom!

Before we westward go; rough the picture, so long as there continue to rise

Let 's wait for old Aunt Hannah's sake up in the background lofty aims and heroic deeds.

'T would break her heart, I know.

Look at her in her corner there, (3.) The PhysIOLOGY OF Comuon LIFE. By George

Her head as white as snow, Lewis. Author of Seaside Studies," Life of Gothe,"

The last leaf of the good old treeetc. In troo Volumes. Volume II. 12mo. 410 pp.

We can not leave her so! New York: D. Appleton & Co. Cincinnati: Rickey,

In this old mansion was she born, Mallory & Co.-We have already noticed the first of

Her joys and griefs were here: these two volumes. The subjects upon which they

How well she loved and nursed us all treat are of moment to every living man, and upon

Through many a changing year! these subjects they are stored with valuable informa

See how she 's smiling at the fire, tion, the results of inquiry, study, and experiment.

And whispering something low!

She's thinking of our Christmas times, They explain many of the mysteries we meet with in

O long and long ago! common life. The leading topics of the two volumes are hunger, thirst, food, drink, structure and uses of

Beside yon crumbling garden wall

Our gallant father lies, blood, its circulation, feeling, and thinking, the

Our good old mother at his sidom mind and brain, our senses and sensation, sleep and

Aunt Hannah closed their eyes! dreams, the qualities we inherit, life and death. The

She was the playmate of them both, Luthor discusses these philosophically, and, in con

Some fifty years ago

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To leave these dear old graves behind

epistles. When completed the work will constitute a 'T would break her heart, I know.

cheap commentary of the New Testament, sufficiently When the old soldier parceled out

extensive for popular use, and cheap enough to bring His treasures, great and small,

it within the reach of all. The late hour at which Aunt Hannah he would give to none

the present volume was received precluded as thorHe gave her to us all.

ough an examination as we desired, and as we shall We laid his good sword on his breast,

yet give. But we are satisfied that it will prove a For he had charged us som While old Aunt Hannab knelt in tears

valuable help to the Sunday school teacher and to Ah, Tom! we can not go!

the minister. No student of the Bible should be

without it. In addition to the sources of information Her failing sands will soon be out, The kindly angel come,

possessed by the earlier commentators, the author

has availed himself of the rich contributions made And lead the good old faithful soul To our great Master's home.

to Biblical science by modern travelers and explorAnd when we've marked her simple grave,

ers—such as Olin, Durbin, Hackett, Stanley, and esAnd dropped a tear or so,

pecially Thomson, the author of the “Land and the We 'll urn the ashes of the past,

Book,” and Barclay, author of “The City of the And westward gayly go!

Great King," etc. The work is appropriately illusThe above are very fair specimens from the volume.

trated and gotten up in the best style. Most of the scenes and imagery are such as indicate that the home and sympathies of the author are in

(8.) Notes on NURSING. By Florence Nightingale. the “sunny south.” And, indeed, the “inevitable

Boston: William Carter. 12mo. 25 cents.--A reallynegro not unfrequently contributes to the inspira- sensible and clever book, and containing many praction of his song.

tical suggestions which those who have the care of

the sick ought to read. The present edition is issued (5.) The Homilist. A Series of Sermons for Preachers

in a cheap form, and should be generally circulated. and Laymen, Original and Selected. By Erwin House, A. M. 12mo. 496 pp. $1. New York : Carlton &

(9.) PAMPHLETS.-1. Minutes of the Pittsburg ConPorter. Cincinnati : Poe & Hitchcock.-This is a com

ference, 1860. 2. Minutes of the Providence Conferpilation from a choice series of sermons and sketches

3. Catalogue of Alleghany College, 220 stuwhich have appeared from time to time in the Eng

dents. 4. Herron's Seminary, 146 pupils. 5. Hillslish Homilist, edited by Rev. D. Thomas. It has

boro Female College, 113 pupils. 6. East Maino been the object of Mr. House to select the most val

Conference Seminary, 301 pupils. 7. Dickinson Coluable of these papers and adapt them to the Ameri

lege, 168 students. 8. Amenia Seminary. 9. Milcan reader. In this he has succeeded admirably. lersburg Female College, 110 pupils. 10. Troy Con“ The [English] Homilist”-now spread through

ference Academy, 283 pupils. 11. West River several volumes—is accessible to comparatively few

Classical Institute, Md. 12. Female Collegiate Instiof our readers; but in this volume they will find its

tute of the University of the Pacific, 66 pupils. 13. essential essence. The articles are brief, suggestive

Brookville College, 204 pupils. 14. Garrett Biblical rather than exhaustive. They embody in an unusual

Institute, 67 students. degree“ food for thought.” The thinking Christian

(10.) Hooker'S NATURAL HISTORY, for the Use of whether minister or layman-when once he becomes Schools and Academies. Nlustrated with nearly Three acquainted with this volume, will place no low esti

Hundred Engravings. 12mo. 382 pp. New York: mate upon it.

Harper & Bros. Cincinnati : Rickey, Mallory & Co.-(6.) HISTORY OF THE GREAT REFORMATion, in Eng

The aim of Professor Hooker has been to cull land, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, France, and Italy.

from the immense mass of material which zoology By Rev. Thomas Carter. New York: Carlton & Porter.

presents that wbich every well-informed person ought 12 mo. 372 pp. $1.--Here we have a condensed his

to know, excluding all that is of interest and value tory of what heretofore the student has been com

only to those who intend to be thorough zoologists. pelled to search for by wading through many vol

In this way he has not only produced an admirable Mr. Carter has done a good work, and done

and really-valuable book, but one equally well adaptit, too, in good style. After careful examination we

ed to the school and the general reader. The illusmost cordially recommend it to those who hare not

trations are admirably executed. the means to buy, nor the time to read the more vo (11.) Right At Last, and other Tales. By Mre. luminous books upon the subject. The style of the Gaskell. 305 pp. Published by the Harpers, author is easy and attractive, and he has evidently and sold by Rickey, Mallory & Co. spared no pains in his endeavor to attain historical

(12.) The Mount VERNON PAPERS. By Edward accuracy.

Everett. 12mo. 490 pp. New York : D. Appleton & (7.) Whedon's COMMENTARY. A Commentary on the

Co. Cincinnati : Rickey, Mallory & Co.-Our readers Gorpels of Matthero and Mark. Intended for popular

are already sufficiently aware of the origin and charBy D. D. Whedon, D. D. New York: Carlton acter of these papers. They make a decidedly-hand& Porter. 12mo. 422 pp. $1.- The first volume of

some and readable volume. this long-expected, and, we may add, long-desired (13.) HYMNS AND TUNES FOR PRAYER AND SOCIAL work, has at length been given to the public. A Meetings. Compiled by Rev. George C. Robinson. second volume will complete the historical books of Small 16mo. 160 pp., flerible covers. Cincinnati : Poo the New Testament, and a third will include the & Hitchcock. A book for the million.



N e W york Literary Correspondence. Correspondent makes Apology–Anthony Trollope-Always and meretricious displayed in his manner, which Shooting--The Mill on tho Floss-Our Writers, Histori.

pleases all who do not suffer by them. As a teacher ans-Godwin's History of France - Journalism.

of morality he is sound and wholesome, though he As becomes an honest man, your correspondent operates by warnings quite as much as by allureconfesses his remissness as a watchman appointed to ments, and is more a satirist than a eulogist. In observe and note the various movements in the little Doctor Thorne the characters are both good and bad, world of letters that lies within his own narrow hori- but the reader's sympathies are kept steadily on the zon; and after so confessing his shortcomings, of side of the commendable ones. In the Bertrains the which you are yourself sufficiently cognizant, he at- chief characters are all bad ones, and nearly all the

1 tempts no plea in extenuation, but casts himself

secondary ones are only indifferent; and the reader upon your clemency, only faintly suggesting that lays down the volume with the feeling that they were possibly he will do better in time to come. Purposes all a miserable set, with whom he wishes to have but to amend are the instinctive suggestions of a heart little intercourse. Still, the moral lessons taught are self-convicted of past faults, though unhappily they good, and the tone of the work generally wholesome. are often only suggestions, without the needed power But who wishes to learn manners and morals by as. of amendment. Indolence and neglect not only sociating in thought with the things one wishes to waste the passing occasions and opportunities, they avoid? also heavily tax the future, by disqualifying their Mr. Trollope is an employé of the Governmentsubjects for healthy and effective action. And so I one of the large and rather nondescript class which must confess that I return to duty but poorly quali- | the British Government has always under pay, and fied for it, after my long recess from its labors and which it employs as occasions require in wbaterer painstakings.

business may arise. Two great advantages result Among the volumes of light reading to which I from this system of action-the Government has al. have lately given a hasty glance is Mr. Anthony ways at its command trusty and trained men to ren | Trollope's “West Indies and the Spanish Main," der it any needed services; and men who, from their which the Harpers issued some two months since, ability and their restlessness, would become troublesimultaneously with its appearance in England. This some if left to themselves, are thus retained in the Mr. Trollope is becoming one of the woll-known writ. service of the Government. And so well is this un ers of the times, notable at once for the number and dorstood, that a change of the administration does the character of the volumes he has given to the

not affect the position of men of this class: the new 1 public. I first “took knowledge" of him some two

party in coming into power finds them in their places, years ago, as the author of “Doctor Thorne," a and look to them for the game services and support i novel of which, if I recollect rightly, I then gave that had before been rendered to their predecessors your readers some account. That, however, was not in office. One may reasonably suspect that Mr. Trolhis first production, though it first gave him celebrity lope's eminent powers of sarcasm, together with his as a writer; for as a fiction of the late realistic school unusual mental activity, have had something to do it occupies a decidedly high place, both as to its art- with his selection and employment as a Government istio execution and its morality and didactic pur- agent; for while there need be no doubt that he is a pose-standing, in my estimation, second only to most efficient actor in whatever trust is committed to Adam Bede. Since the issuing of that volume its him, there is the clearest possible evidence that he author has sent forth “The Bertrams," a work some- would prove a most formidable enemy to any adminwhat similar in design but vastly inforior in execution; istration, should bis peculiar powers become thorand just now we have the “Three Clerks,” which I oughly enlisted against it. have not read, and probably shall not, as I hear that In the discharge of some of his official duties he it is only a third-rate story. Thus in two years has was sent, some year and a half ago, to the British this author given to the public four distinct works—a West Indios, and the volume under notice is the retruly-remarkable fecundity-too great indeed to be sult, so far as the public is informed. The first thing good, and quite too great unless remarkably good. that specially arrested our notice in reading it, was

Anthony Trollope is a son of the Mrs. Trollope its striking characteristicalness. It is all over and of whom Americans have heard in former times, throughout the Englishman abroad-the man-of-letthough he was not with his maternal parent during ters abroad-and Mr. Anthony Trollope, making her notable residence in this country. As a writer notes and observations on certain new phases of sohe evinces much of the piquancy and cleverness that ciety. Social and economical crudities, which so gave her such unenviable notoriety on this side of greatly moved the irascibility of the mother in the the Atlantic, though he is happily free from her awful United States, and especially in the west, call out acerbity of spirit and manner of writing. Yet he is only good-natured complaints, or, at most, suppressnot without the distinctive family marks in his char- ed murmuring from the son, while roughing it among acter, for there is a pointed earnestness in his ex- the disagreements of Spanish Town and Kingston. A pressions of dislike, and a hearty odium of the false disposition to disquisition on social science is evinced

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