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septs. Our stand-point was in front of the high and abroad, under the walls of Jerusalem and altar, where a larger scope of the "glorious Gothic Nazareth, centuries before even Columbus had scene" is brought within the view than from any sailed for our new world. While yet London other. Now we turn eastward and pass the great was confined within her old walls; while yet an screen that separates the east end of the nave, embowered avenue stretched its grateful shade usually called the apsis, from the transept, and along the shining river from this ancient suburb walking completely around the aisle or ambula- to the capital; while yet the Roman empire tory, we pass on the right some eight or nine maintained in its Byzantine seat much of its old chapels dedicated to St. Paul, St. John the Bap- prestige and warlike pomp, these relics of kings tist, St. Edmund, St. Nicholas, and others; while and great men were bere laid down in sorrow on our left, embraced within our circuit and dis- and in sighing with earnest prayers, and mourntinctly separated from all the rest by the lofty ful chants, and muffled music, and waving banpillars and intervening screens and tombs, is the large area of the ancient chapel and shrine of

The first chapel on our right, as we enter, is Edward the Confessor, who was buried here in that of St. Benedict: in it is the tomb of Arch1066. When it is remembered that Westminster bishop Langham, who was monk, prior, and abbot was for centuries a place of worship according of the Abbey, afterward made primate and chanto the rites of the Roman Catholic Church, it is cellor of the realm, nuncio of the Pope, etc.; he easily understood why so many small chapels are was buried here in 1376, with a prayer " that he found there. In them, under that service, would might be granted the joys of heaven for Christ's assemble for prayer those who sought aid from sake.” This seems old; but just on the left is a either of the dead saints to whom these several monument to Sebert, king of East Saxons, who chapels had been consecrated. The names of the died in July, 606. It was he who first built a shrines have been preserved, but religious serv church near the site of the Abbey. Passing on ices are no longer held in them; they are now from chapel to chapel, we see a crowd of tombs; filled with tombs.

but we can only notice those which are of historic It is a thoughtful, serious walk around that interest. Here is a tomb of an old-and faaisle which separates St. Edward's chapel from mous, too-Lord John Russell, buried in 1584; those already mentioned. The hushed stillness; it is remarkable for its five epitaphs, written by the dusky light; the effigies of the dead; the work his wife in Latin, Greek, and English. She was of ages; the centuries of repose; the memorials | very learned, esteemed the Sappho of her age, of an ancient and still living worship; the illu- and an excellent poet. Near this is the tomb of mination of history-all combine to exclude the Mary, Countess of Stafford, wife to the unfortupresent and wrap us in the shadowy past. Kings, nate Count who was beheaded during the reign queens, princes, nobles, warriors, priests, philos- of Charles II. Another Archbishop, de Waldeby,

VOL. XX-29

who attended the Black Prince in his French standard-bearer at Agincourt! The gallant warwar, was buried here in 1397; also the tomb of rior lies with closed eyes and hands clasped as if another old abbot, buried in 1258. In the next death found him in the attitude of prayer. You chapel lies Sir Humphrey Stanley, knighted by feel as if, Henry VII, for his gallant conduct on Bosworth

After life's fitful fever, he sleeps well;" field. The next is an elegant tomb erected by the great Lord Burleigh to his wife, who says,

while of Watt you feel a dread that he might among other things, that she was well versed in straighten his gigantic figure from its stooping the sacred writers, chiefly the Greek.” When posture and lift the chapel's roof! Close at hand she died she appropriated much of her wealth to is the monument of a noble lady, Frances, founding scholarships in the universities and Countess of Sussex, who by her last will founded perpetual charities for the poor of Romford and

a divinity Chair in Cambridge University. Her Chesnut; so that, though dead, her good works good work still lives. still exist and are a blessing, though three hun

ST. EDWARD'S CHAPEL dred years have passed away. What a noble work! Close to this is a tall pyramid to com

Now let us enter the Confessor's chapel. His memorate a noble infant, overlaid by its nurse! tomb and shrine occupy the center. It was built Places must have been easily obtained in those by Henry III in 1269, and was then the glory of days. Many famous ladies are entombed about England, covered as it was with ornaments and this spot; among others, Katherine Valois, precious stones and golden figures. At one time wife of Henry V, and Mary Beaumont, mother the jewels and valuables were pledged by Henry of the celebrated Duke of Buckingham, of James in an emergency for nearly £13,000. But it has I's reign. In the chapel of St. Paul we have a long since been stripped of its wealthy adorncolossal statue of James Watt, the inventor of ments, and is no longer regarded as a holy spot. the steam-engine. The inscription is written by In the remote period of its erection, it was visited Lord Brougham, and is worthy of being trang by multitudes from all parts of the realm, and cribed: “ Not to perpetuate a name which must even distant lands, who came to make their deendure while the peaceful arts flourish, but to votions at the altar of the pious and sainted king. show that mankind have learned to honor those On the south side of the shrine lies the body of who best deserve their gratitude, the king, his his Queen Editha, who was "commended for her ministers, and many of the nobles and common beauty, learning, prudent economy, gentle maners of the realm raised this monument to James ners, and inimitable skill in needle work, having Watt, who, directing the force of an original wrought with her own hands the king's state genius, early exercised in philosophic research, robes." Near this lies Matilda, wife of Henry I; to the improvement of the steam-engine, enlarged died May 1, 1118. On the north side is the anthe resources of his country, increased the power cient and splendid tomb of Henry III, who reof man, and rose to an eminent place among the built the Abbey; he was buried here in 1272. The most illustrious followers of science, and the real workmanship is admirable: the panels are polbenefactors of the world. Born at Greenock, ished porphyry, bordered by mosaic work of gold Scotland, 1736: died at Heathfield, in Stafford and scarlet. His full-length figure is of gilt shire, 1819.” As much as Watt deserves this brass. The chantry or little chapel of the distestimonial for the incalculable value of the dis- tinguished Henry V comes next. It is extremely covery, yet how inharmonious is his effigy with magnificent. As the Prince of Wales, he was the nature of the place! He is represented seat wild and ungovernable, and has formed, with Fal. ed on a pedestal, stooping forward, compasses in staff and others, the staple of one or two of hand, forming designs. Is there no repose in the Shakespeare's plays; but as king, he played the grave? Must our idea continue to be that of man, gained the battle of Agincourt, conquered toil? When the celebrated Fernel was once en

all the north of France, and died at the early age treated by his friends to slacken his labors and of thirty-four, in Vincennes, near Paris. With spare his life, his noble reply was, “Destiny re- great solemnity his body was brought here and serves for us repose enough.”

interred. His saddle, helmet, and shield, said to As remarked formerly, these monuments of have been worn by him at Agincourt, are in the men, as in the most active toil, are a modern in- chantry above the tomb. novation, and are wholly incongruous with the The next is another Gothic tomb erected over sentiment of the Abbey and with the tombs of the Edward III's Queen Philippa. Her name will be medevial and later periods. What a contrast forever embalmed in the hearts of the good for does Watt's tomb make to the old Gothic one be- her success in saving from the wrath of her husside it, erected over the remains of Henry V's / band the miserable citizens of Calais, when that

He was

ans.

city capitulated. She was interred in 1369. Scone and being crowned king of England. One Richard II and his Queen have tombs close by. may long pause here and contemplate this The canopy of wood is remarkable for a curious the oaken chair of state-how many and how painting on which the image of the blessed Vir- varied in character, the sovereigns who have gin and the infant Savior are still visible. The received in that chair the ensigns of English tomb of the great Edward I is also here. It is royalty; the Edwards, the Richards, the Henrys, plain and rough built of five slabs of marble, and the masculine-minded Elizabeth, the bigoted Mary, has an air of savage grandeur when compared the effeminate James, the profligate Charles, Wilwith the more elaborate ones about it.

liam and Mary, the Georges, and last, Victoria. buried here in 1307. His tomb was opened in There it stands and has stood for centuries, 1774 at the request of the Society of Antiquari guarded, as it were, by the dead monarchs who

After the long interval of nearly five hun- surround it. dred years, “his body was found perfect, having

HENRY VII's CHAPEL. on two robes, one of gold and silver tissue, the other of crimson velvet; a scepter in each hand Lastly, we come to this gorgeous royal mausofive feet long; a crown on his head and many

leum. It is entered from the apsis by steps of jewels; he measured six feet two inches." Ed gray marble under a stately portico. Henry ward III's tomb occupies the space between two built it for his own tomb and those who should pillars. It is in Gothic style and

very

elaborate. follow him in the royal line, and nearly all the His full-length figure reposes on the upper slab. sovereigns subsequently are here interred down

Standing beside the Confessor's tomb is an to George III, who built a vault for himself and other object of extraordinary interest, being noth successors at Windsor. It was completed about ing less than the Coronation chair in which every the year 1500. Its length is 104 feet, breadth reigning sovereign has been crowned, from Ed 70 feet, and hight 61 feet. Like a cathedral, it ward I down to Queen Victoria, a period of al- has its nave and side aisles, and its high altar, at most six hundred years; he was crowned in 1273. which Henry VII intended to have perpetual As ancient as is this chair, it is as nothing com masses chanted for the repose of his soul. pared with the celebrated crowning stone placed A solemn twilight fills the apsis, whence we beneath its seat, on which all the kings of Scot pass through the elaborate gates of brass into land had been crowned from the year 330. It what seems suddenly to become a blaze of light was captured by Edward I, at Scone, in 1296, and decoration. Only an architect, with poetic and brought by him to London and placed in the powers of description, can convey any idea of the Abbey. It is rough-looking sandstone twenty- rapturous pleasure which at first fills a beholder, six inches long, seventeen wide, and ten thick. into such a mass of exquisite forms is the stony Its legendary antiquity is enormous; for it is said pile wrought. The very genius of the Gothic art to be the stone on which Jacob laid his head in must have possessed the soul of the great, but the desert; that was afterward in possession of unknown, architect. The walls, the arches, the the king of Athens, who sent it to Spain, thence roof all of stone, but so elaborately chiseled, so it was carried to Ireland, and was transported to poised in their positions, that it seems, in the Scotland by Fergus, the first king of that coun words of Irving, to be like fairy tracery or cobweb try. However this all may be, it is certainly of work. Arch springs above arch, supporting the great antiquity, and by carrying it off Edward solid stone roof of groined arches, and pendants inflicted the greatest outrage possible on the feels dropping like joiner work from above the stone ings and hopes of the Scotch; for to it they by seeming to have lost its property of gravity. superstitious reverence attached all their ideas That ceiling of stone is a marvel; you can not of national independence. It is said formerly to believe your eyes; you resist the assertions of the have borne a Latin inscription, which, rendered guide. Solid stone! but 0, what tracery, what in verse, said:

fret-work! with such wonderful ornate minute.

ness and airy grace is it achieved ! Though tuns “ Except old saws do fail,

in weight, you no more fear to walk beneath it And wizard wits be blind,

than if it were an Alençon lace awning. You The Scots in place must reign Where'er this stone they find.”

wonder that the light does not break through it; it

surely is transparent. The picture is before me Every effort was made by treaty and otherwise now, that vista of springing arches, gorgeouslyto recover it, and finally out of their despair grow wrought pendants, and mullioned windows. I a hope that a Scot must be king wherever the shall never see its like again. It was truly a stone was retained; which was at last verified by magnificent conception, and only a great mind James I seating himself on the old stone of I could have so liberally endowed not only the art

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