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glass and other smooth surfaces by means of It is, however, at the pleasure of the animal, the pressure of the atmosphere, after the manner capable of being brought up so as to point as I have seen boys carry avy stones with only directly forward, and even projected in front of & wet piece of leather clapped on the top of a the head, and in the same plane as the body, a stone." Another solution has been proposed. fact thus confirmed by Mr. Gosse: “I found a Hooke, one of the earliest of microscopic ob- plant-bug which had plunged this thread-like servers, described the two palms, or pattens, or sucker of his into the body of a caterpillar, and soles as

"beset with small bristles or tenters was walking about with his prey as if it were underneath like the wire-teeth of a card for of no weight at all, carrying it at the end of his working wool, which, having a contrary direc- sucker, which was held straight out from the tion to the claws, and both pulling different head and a little elevated. He fiercely refused ways, if there be any irregularity or yielding in to allow the poor victim to be taken away, being, the surface of a body, enable the fly to suspend doubtless, engaged in sucking its vital juices, itself very firmly."

just as the bed-abomination victimizes the unforMr. Blackwall has exploded the idea of atmos tunates who cross its path." pheric pressure, for he found that dies could The active little flea that makes his attacks walk up the interior of the exhausted receiver upon us beneath the shelter of blankets and of an air-pump. He had explained their ability under the cover of night, is armed with a to walk up vertical polished bodies by the peculiarly-sharp and piercing blade. Examined mechanical action of the minute hairs of the through the microscope it resembles those forinferior sarface of the palms; but further ex midable flat weapons which we often see in periments having showed him that flies can not museums, the rostrums of the huge saw-fishes; walk up glass which is made moist by breath- a great plate of bone covered with gray skin, ing on it, or which is thinly coated with oil or and set along each side with a row of serried flour, he was led to the conclusion that these teeth. Before you proceed to examine a flea hairs are in fact tubular and excrete a viscid microscopically, gentle reader, forget not to folfluid, by means of which they adhere to dry, low Mrs. Glass's direetions concerning the dresspolished surfaces, and on close inspection with ing of a hare—first catch it, an adequate magnifying power, he was always Spiders have few friends. The poor prisoner able to discover traces of this adhesive material in the Bastile tamed one, to be sure, but then he on the track on glass both of flies and various had nothing else to do. Naturalists, however, other insects. This, then, is the latest and best find much to admire even in spiders, physically, explanation of the matter, though the other at least. They show the perfect adaptation of theories are by no means abandoned altogether. organ to function that marks all God's works.,

At the first glance through a microscope one Spiders have a mission, too. They are sent into would suppose that the mouth of each insect the world to keep down what would otherwise be was composed on a plan of its own; but diverse "plague of flies.” They are, therefore, ilyas these instruments are in appearance, they are butchers by profession. They do nothing but found to be composed of the same essential slaughter; but whoever has been driven out of elements. The biting jaws of a beetle, the bed prematurely early on an autumn morning piercing proboscis of a bug, the long, elegantly- by flies incessantly alighting on his noge will coiled sucker of a butterfly, the licking tongue defend the occupation of the spider as a praiseof a bee, the cutting lancets of a horse-fly, and worthy and useful one. “Killing is no murder” the stinging tube of a gnat, show unmistakable in such a case. marks of a common structure.

There in front of the head two stout Who has not been bled at some village inn by brown organe, which are the representatives of the much-dreaded bed-bug? With what sort of the antennæ-vulgarly called feelersof inan implement is that blood-sucking operation sects, though much modified both in form and performed? Now, the structure of the mouth is function. They are the effective weapons of 80 exactly alike in all the members of the bug attack. When the spider attacks & fly it plunges family that an examination of one of the winged into its victim the two fangs, the action of which species that are found so abundantly on plants is downward, and not from right to left like the will serve for all the rest. From the front of jaws of insects. At the same instant a drop the head, which, owing to the manner in which of poison is secreted in each gland, which, this part is carried, is the lower part, proceeds oozing through the duct, escapes from the pera fine thread about four times as long as the forated end of the fang into the wound and head itself, which passes along between the

te rapidly produces death. The fangs are then fore legs close to the body beneath the breast clasped down, carrying the prey, which they



powerfully press against the toothed edges of They are arranged in four longitudinal lines, the stout basal piece, by which means the nutri- running along the ventral side of the animaltive fluids of the prey are pressed out and taken two lines on each side—and in each line there is into the mouth, when the dried and empty skin a point protruded from each of the many rings is rejected.

of which the worm's body is made up. And by The cheese-mite, being a cousin to the spider, these implements the worm makes his way should next come under examination. You through the world. may readily find one, for scarcely any cupboard But space will not allow a further exhibition is without some defunct skeleton of a cheese, in of the wonders of the microscope. We must which are to be found many millions of these close our article by referring to the practical microscopically interesting creatures, out of utility of this subject. Years ago the microwhich you may select a fat, plump one. He has scope was a mere toy, and it may yet be sup a polished, oval body, of a pellucid white hue, posed by many persons that its revelations are and eight short, red legs. His body is divided more curious than useful. But this is a great by a transverse furrow into thorax and abdomen, mistake. It is now understood that in the study and there is another division between the head of geology, botany, mineralogy, and chemistry and thorax. The structure of the head can not the microscope is a useful, not to say necessary be seen satisfactorily otherwise than by crushing instrument. The physician could never have the mite in the compressorium, a thing you need comprehended the structure of some parts of have no compunctions about when you consider the human system without its aid; besides, it how many thousands you crush every time you affords, as we are told by Prof. King, a certainty eat ripe cheese.

in the diagnosis or detection of diseases, several Who has not wondered at the rapid locomo- of which can not be correctly determined withtion of the common earth-worm? Without any out it. visible traveling machinery it glides along with In these days of shams the microscope serves apparent ease, and presently pokes its sharp a most useful purpose in the detection of frauds nose into the ground and disappears. If the in food. Few persons perhaps are aware of the eye could follow it, it would be seen to make its extent to which adulterations in food and drugs way through the compact earth as easily as it is carried. One writer says that the very articles would along the surface. Yet you see no feet, used to adulterate are adulterated, and while wings, fins, or limbs of any kind, only a long one tradesman is picking the pockets of his cylinder of soft flesh divided into numerous customers, a still more cunning rogue is, unrings and tapering to each extremity. The very known to himself, deep in his own. snout which enters so easily the substance of the You purchase what purports to be genuine soil is no hard, bony point, but formed of the ground coffee. In such a case, “if ignorance is same soft, yielding flesh as the other parts. bliss,” it might be "folly to be wise;" but ignoHow with such an implement does the worm rance is not bliss. The decoction sent up to penetrate whithersoever it will? The fineness breakfast is insufferable, and cook is scolded. of the point to which the muzzle can be drawn If Bridget knew that she had been boiling is the first essential. This can be so attenuated ground peas, beans, oats, dry bones, oak, or that the grains of soil can be readily separated mahogany, chicory, and sawdust she might make by it, when its action is like that of the wedge. a good defense; but a microscope is not yet conThe body is then drawn into the crevice thus sidered—as it ought to be-an essential part of made, and the particles are separated still far- kitchen furniture, and nothing else will expose ther. Another provision then comes in; the the villainy of the coffee vender. whole surface of the skin secretes and throws The beautifully-smoked ham served up at off a quantity of tenacious mucus or slime, as breakfast might, by the aid of the microscope, you will immediately perceive if you handle the have been classed with "measly pork,” and the worm; this has the double effect of causing the milk poured into your adulterated coffee might pressed particles of soil to adhere together, and have been itself adulterated with water, chalk, then to form a cylindrical wall, of which they flour, oxyd of iron, and calves' brains. The are the bricks and the slime the mortar.

amount and quality of the trash in our text, But all this does not explain the easy move- sugar, pepper, spices, vinegar, and other articles ment of the worm. Examined through the mi- of food may readily be ascertained by the use croscope the writhing body of our present sub- of this instrument. But not in the kitchen and ject shows a number of tiny points protruded laboratory alone are its beneficent uses seen. and retracted with rhythmical symmetry through It has even secured the ends of justice by the skin. These points are very numerous. saving the innocent and convicting the guilty!


Scripture Cabinet.

CHRIST AND HIS BRETAREN.-"Go to my brethren or hanging upon the tree; for of every thing that he and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your hath in this world they are ashamed—his Gospel, his Father; and to my God and your God." John xx, 17. ways, his worship, his Spirit, his saints, they are all

This is a grand and unspeakable consolation unto of them the objects of their scorn; and in theso believers, with supportment in every condition. No things it is the Lord Christ may be truly honored or unworthiness in them, no misery upon them, shall be despised. ever hinder the Lord Christ from owning them, and

The Money SCALES.-" There is that maketh himself openly avowing them to be his brethren. He is a brother born for the day of trouble, a Redeemer for rich, yet hath nothing : there is that maketh himself poor, the friendless and fatherless. Let their miseries be yet hath great riches.Prov. xii, 7.

An opulent merchant having received a sum of what they will, he will be ashamed of none but of them who are ashamed of him and his ways, when

money, was putting the ducats one by one into a pair

of scales, in order to ascertain that they were not too persecuted and reproached. A little while will clear

light. “For my part,” said Gotthold, who was presup great mistakes. All the world shall see at the last day whom Christ will own; and it will be a great ent, “I should be more afraid of their being too surprisal when men shall hear him call them breth heavy.” “How so?” inquired the merchant. "Do

you not think,” rejoined Gotthold, “that money is ren whom they hated, and esteemed as the offscour

too heavy when bedewed with the blood of the poor, ing of all things. He doth it, indeed, already by

the sweat of the laborious, and the tears of the widow his word; but they will not attend thereunto. But

and the orphan, or when loaded with the curses of at the last day they shall both seo and hear whether they will or no.

those who, by fraud or violence, have been robbed of And herein, I say, lies the great

it? I will hope, however, that there are no pieces of consolation of believers. The world rejects them, it

this description in that heap of yours, or rather, I may be their own relations despise them—they are

will not fear that there are any. Suffer me, however, persecuted, hated, reproached; but the Lord Christ

without offense, to express the wish that you will is not ashamed of them. He will not pass by them because they are poor and in rags-it may be reck- always make your conscience your scales, and weigh

in it your dollars and ducats to 'ascertain that they oned-as he himself was for them-among malefac

are of proper weight, and have been honestly actors. They may see also the wisdom, grace, and

quired. Many a man never learns, till he is struglove of God in this matter. His great design in the

gling with death, how difficult, or rather impossible, incarnation of his Son was to bring him into that

it is to force a soul, burdened with unrighteous gain, condition wherein he might naturally care for them

through the strait gate which leadeth unto life. as their brother; that he might not be ashamed of

Take heed, then, that no such gain ever burdens them, but be sensible of their wants, their state and

yours. The more he carries, the more the pilgrim condition in all things, and so be always ready and

sweats and pants as he climbs the steep; and the meet to relieve them. Let the world now take its

more the conscience is oppressed with dishonesty and course, and the men thereof do their worst; let Satan

fraud, the harder will the struggle of a death-bed rage and the powers of hell be stirred up against

be." them; let them load them with reproach and scorn, and cover them all over with the filth and dirt of THE BUSYBODY.-Let none of you suffer their false imputations; let them bring them into busybody in other men's matters." 1 Peter iv, 15. rags, into dungeons, unto death--Christ comes in the The character of the busy body is well described midst of all this confusion and says, “Surely these by Bishop Hall: “ His estate is too narrow for his are my brethren, the children of my Father," and he mind, and, therefore, he is fain to make himself room becomes their Savior. And this is a stable founda- in others' affairs; yet ever in pretense of love. No ticy of comfort and supportment in every condition. news can stir but by his door; neither can know And are we not taught our duty also herein, namely, that which he must not tell. What every man vennot to be ashamed of him or of his Gospel, or of any tures in Guiana voyage, and wbat they gained, he one that bears his image? The Lord Christ is now knows to a hair. Whether Holland will have peace himself in that condition that even the worst of men he knows; and on what conditions, and with what esteem it an honor to own him; but, indeed, they are success,

is familiar to him ere it be concluded. no less ashamed of him than they would have been No post can pass him without question, and rather when he was carrying his cross upon his shoulders, than he will lose the news, he rides back with him to

VOL. XX.-24

... a: a

appose him of tidings; and then to the next man he what to do with myself. I tried to pacify it by a remeets he supplies the wants of his hasty intelligence, newal of all my resolutions, with many additions and makes up a perfect tale, wherewith he so haunt- and amendments. I parleyed and reasoned the mateth the patient auditor that, after many excuses, he ter over for hours, trying, if possible, to come to is fain to endure rather the censure of his manners some terms of accommodation, but still the obstinate in running away, than the tediousness of an imperti- monitor within cried out, “ There 's an Achan in the nent discourse. His speech is often broken off with camp; approach the table of the Lord if you dare! a succession of parentheses, which he ever vows to Scared at the threat, and yet unwilling to part with fill up ere the conclusion, and perhaps would effect it my darling lust, I became like one possessed. Restif the other's ears were as unweariable as his tongue. less and uneasy, I few out of the house to vent my If he see but two men talk and read a letter in the misery with more freedom in the fields under the street, he runs to them and asks if he may not be wide canopy of heaven. Here I was led to meditate partner of that secret relation: and if they deny it, on the happiness of the righteous, and the misery of he offers to tell, since he may not bear, wonders; the wicked in a future state. The importance of and then falls upon the report of the Scottish Mine, eternity falling with a ponderous weight upon my or of the great fish taken up at Lynn, or of the soul, raised such vehement indignation against the freezing of the Thames; and after many thanks and acoursed thing within, that crying to God for help, I dismissions, is hardly entreated silence. He under- kneeled down under a hedge, and taking heaven and takes as much as he performs little. This man will earth to witness, wrote on a piece of paper with my thrust himself forward to be the guide of the way he pencil a solemn vow, that I never would play at cards, knows not; and calls at his neighbor's window and on any pretenso whatsoever, so long as I lived. No asks why his servants are not at work. The market sooner had I put my name to the solemn vow than I hath no commodity which he priceth not, and which felt myself another creature. Sorrow took wing and the next table shall not hear recited. His tongue, flew away and a delightful peace succeeded. The like the tail of Samson's foxes, carries firebrands, intolerable burden being removed from my mind, I and is enough to set the whole field of the world on approached the sacred table of the Lord with an una flame. Himself begins talk of his neighbor at an- usual degree of pleasure and delight. This was not other's board: to whom he bears the first news, and my only idol. I had many others to contend with. adjures him to conceal the reporter; whose choleric But while I was endeavoring to heal my wounded answer he returns to his first host, enlarged with a soul in one place, ere I was aware sin broke out in second edition; so, as it uses to be done in the fight another." of unwilling mastiffs, he claps each on the side a part,

W1800m.-—" Wisdom is a defense, and money is a deand provokes them to an enger conflict. There can be no act pass without his comment, which is ever

fense : but the excellency of knowledge is, that wisdom far-fetched, rash, suspicious, dilatory. His ears are

giveth life to them that have it." Eccl. vii, 12.

There is a beautiful marginal reading to this paslong, and his eyes quick, but most of all to imperfections; which, as he easily sees, so he increases

Bage. The Hebrew word rendered defense signifies a with interneddling. He harbors another man's serv

shadow; that is, a protecting shade. Here are two ant, and amid his entertainment asks what fare is

sheltering shades; both are grateful; but one is suusual at home, what hours are kept, what talk pass

perior to the other as the soul is superior to the body. eth their meals, what his master's disposition is,

The one protects us from such evils as are incident wbat his government, what his guests; and when he

to poverty; the other protects us from miseries of hath by curious inquiries extracted all the juice and

the mind; it refreshes and restores the soul. spirit of hoped intelligence, turns him off whence he

AN EASTERN Custom OF EXPRESSING COMPLAINTS.came, and works on anew. He hates constancy as They cried out and cast off their clothes, and threw dust an earthen dullness, unfit for men of spirit, and lovos into the air." Acts xrii, 23. to change his work and his place; neither yet can ho

A great similarity appears between the conduct of be so soon weary of any place, as every place is the Jews, when the chief captain of the Roman garweary of him; for as he sets himself on work, so

rison at Jerusalem presented himself in the temple, others pay him with hatred; and look how many and the behavior of the Persian peasants, when they masters he hath, so many enemies; neither is it pos- go to court to complain of the governors under whom sible that any should not hate him, but who knows they live, upon their oppressions becoming intolerahim not. So then he la bors without thanks, talks ble. Sir John Chardin tells us respecting them, that without credit, lives without love, dies without tears, they carry their complaints against their governor without pity, save that some say it was pity he died by companios, consisting of several hundreds, and no sooner."

sometimes of a thousand; they repair to that gate CASTING AWAY THE OLD LEAVEN.--" Let us keep the of the palace near to which their prince is most likely feast, not with old learen, neither with the leaven of to be, where they begin to make the most horrid cries, malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of tearing their garments, and throwing dust into the sincerity and truth.1 ('or. 1, 8.

air, at the same time demanding justice. The king, General Burn, in recording his experience, says, upon hearing these cries, sends to know the occasion “One Lord's day, when I was to receive the sacra- of them. The people deliver their complaint in writment, before approached the sacred ordinance, my ing, upon which he lets them know that he will comconscience so keenly accused me on account of this mit the cognizance of the affair to some one, by whom beloved idol-playing at cards—that I hardly knew justice is usually done them.

Notes and Queries. Mason and Dixon's Line.-On the 4th of August, / and 400, wbich, moreover, may be discovered in 1763, Thomas and Richard Penn and Lord Baltimore, composition of several thousand words—4 Sanskrit being together in London, agreed with Charles Mason root-verbs alone being found in composition of 500 and Jeremiah Dison, two mathematicians or survey- or 600 English words. Indeed, to such an extent is ors, to mark, run out, settle, and fix the boundary this the case that we can hardly utter a sentence line between Maryland on the one hand and Dela- which does not contain two or three Sanskrit roots; ware and Pennsylvania on the other. Mason and so that most of us might be likened to the Bourgeois Dixon landed in Philadelphia on the 15th of Novem- gentilhomme who had been speaking prose all his ber following, and began their work at once. They life without knowing it. These Sanskrit roots have adopted the peninsular lines, and the radius and come into our language in various ways. We havo tangent point of the circular of their predecessors. some directly, some indirectly through both the They next ascertained the north-eastern coast of Latin and Greek, some through only one of those Maryland, and proceeded to run the dividing par- languages, others again through the Persian, the allel of latitude. They pursued this parallel a dis- Teutonic languages, and the various Celtic dialects. tance of 23 miles, 18 chains, and 21 links from the The Slavonic languages contain a large number of place of the beginning at the north-east corner of Sanskrit roots, the Hebrew and Arabic very few. Maryland to the bottom of a valley on Dunkard The Latin may be reduced to about 800 or 900 words, creek, where an Indian war-path crossed their route, from which the whole body of the language has been and here, on the 19th of November, 1767-ninety- built up. More than half of these words may be two years ago—their Indian escort told them it was traced to the Greek, and the remainder-after dethe will of the Sioux nation that the surveys should ducting those formed by onomatopoeia, and a few cease, and they terminated accordingly, leaving 36 from the Arabic, Persian, Coptic, and the Celtic and miles, 6 chains, and 50 links as the exact distance Teutonic languages—chiefly to the Sanskrit, Phæni. remaining to be run west to the south-west angle cian, and Hebrew.- English Notes and Queries. of Pennsylvania, not far from the Broad Tree tun

TAE TERMINATION Th."-Derived nouns often nel on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Dixon died

end in th, as, for example, warmth, depth, birth, and at Durham, England, 1777; Mason died in Penn

month, from warm, deep, bear, and moon.

In some sylvania, 1787.

oases, as broth, froth, worth, the source is not obvious. REASONING OF A NEWFOUNDLAND Dog.-Extraordi

Of course th may sometimes be radical, but like t, as nary as the following anecdote may appear to some

in frost, lost-freeze, lose-it is, in a multitude of persons, it is strictly true, and shows the sense, and cases, a mere servile or grammatical suffix. The I am strongly inclined to add reason, of the New- same letters, th or i, are constantly used in the foundland dog:

Hebrew and other Shemitic languages as well as A friend of mine, while shooting wild fowl with

elsewhere, with or without a vowel termination, as his brother, was attended by a sagacious dog of this

the case may be. I wish to know what account is breed. In getting near some reeds by the side of a

given of this curious law, as I may term it, or to be river they threw down their hats and crept to the

favored with any references to works which will edge of the water, where they fired at some birds.

furnish me with the information.- English Notes and They soon after sent the dog to bring their hats, one

Queries. of which was smaller than the other. After several

Differ.-In a late Repository the question is attempts to bring them both together in his mouth, asked, “What is the proper preposition to be used the dog at last placed the smaller hat in the larger after the word differ; should it be from or with?I one, pressed it down with his foot, and thus was able

should say it depends on the intention of the one to bring them both at the same time.-- Jesse's Anec- who “differs.” If he means that he will quarrel dotes of Dogs.

with the one with whom he does not agree, of course RADICALS IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES.- Vans Ken

with is the word; but if a simple dissent is intended, nedy states that there are 900 Sanskrit words in the

then certainly from should be used. This is the Greek, Latin, and Teutonic languages, 265 in Per

“rule by which we can determine the word to be sian, 83 in Zend, and 251 in English. Of these 900

used in given cases.

A. F. B. roots he allots 339 to Greek, 319 to Latin, and 162 to BEGINNING OF THE DAY.-A correspondent recently the German-leaving 80 for the remaining Teutonic asks, “In what longitude on the earth does any day languages. He says there are 208 Sanskrit roots in first commence?" We generally act, think, and Greek not found in Latin, and 188 in Latin not to be speak on the hypothesis that the day first shines met with in Greek, and many roots in Latin not in upon the Celestial Empire, and no doubt the “celesthe Teutonic languages, and that 43 are found in tials” imagine it goes out not far from their western German and not in English, and 138 in English and border, while we are apt to think Phæbus cools his not in German. Perhaps, however, the Sanskrit glowing wheels in our own western waters. Indeed, roots in the English would amount to between 300 the Pacific seems quite a happy arrangement for

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