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BY REV. D. D. LORE.
JESUIT MISSIONS IN PARAGUAY. the means serve the end; and, though the fathers
may at times be found erring from a path strictly
scrupulous, let it be borne in mind that it is for THIS THIS subject has been introduced again to purposes not unworthy of good men.” We knew
the public in a book recently published by this to be the morality of Romanism, “the end Harper & Brothers, entitled, “La Plata: The justifies the means;" but we should regret exArgentine Confederation and Paraguay,” by ceedingly that it should become the morality rin Thomas J. Page, U. S. N. In 1853 Lieutenant the American navy. Page was appointed by the United States Gov And what are some of the errors of the fathe's ernment to the command of the Water Witch, a by which they accomplished their "holy work on small steamer, and sent on an exploring expedi- this side of the Atlantic.” The Lieutenant says: tion to the Rio de la Plata and its tributaries.
" These fathers are supposed to have facilitated The expedition has become famous because of their labors by a. pious fraud. The Jesuits the warlike one growing out of it recently sent taught that St. Thomas had landed on the coast against Paraguay, which, we must say, was one of Brazil, journeyed throughout the vast country of the silliest humbugs a Government was ever of the Guarini race, preaching, cross in hand, guilty of. This book purports to be a narrative Christianizing savages and training wild beasts; of the exploration, but is, in fact, an olla then that he traversed the grassy deserts of the podrida of diplomatic chicanery-Spanish his-grand Chaco, and finally crossed the Andes into tory, scientific discovery, and defense of the Peru, when he must have descended like the setJesuits. Whatever claims the Lieutenant may ting sun into the Pacific, as we hear of him no have established as a naval officer or scientific farther. There was still another mystery condiscoverer, he must try again at book-making nected with this mission of the apostle. It was before he can be promoted as a writer.
taught and believed that the cross he bore had We wish to notice briefly his chapters on the been hidden by some unconverted Indians in a Jesuits and their missions in Paraguay. There lake near Chiquisaca and there found by a Padre are four chapters on this subject, comprising Sarmiento.” Teaching these downright lies was, nearly one hundred pages. The general charac- according to the Lieutenant, a holy work on this ter of the sketch is that of a special plea in side of the Atlantic, and fully justified by the favor of “the fathers." And in this respect end. Sailors have a saying that moral obligait is in keeping with nearly all the official reports tions do not cross the line; our author is a naval and books by American army or naval officers. officer, and this or that side of the Atlantic may Wherever they are brought into contact with make with him considerable difference. Romanism they take occasion to show their dis Again, on page 472, he says: “It may be regard of Protestantism by eulogizing or apolo- noticed at this point that intrigue and cunning gizing for this mother of abominations.
are words familiarly and unhesitatingly associaLieutenant Page pleads the cause of the Jesu- ted with the Jesuits; but nothing is hazarded in its, yet, for want of skill as a writer to conceal saying that in their labors among the La Plata or boldness to reject stubborn historical facts, he savages an energy, piety, zeal, and perseverance greatly mars his work. He finds fault with his worthy of the best cause are eminently conspicauthorities, and places very little confidence in
Of their political relations our author them, though exclusively Romanists and Jesuits. affirms: "It was false to imagine that these reducThese ugly facts will obtrude, preventing him tions—that is, mission establishments-would from making a harmonious history. What a not prove loyal to Spain; it was short-sighted, shame that ugly facts spoil a eulogy on the indeed, not to perceive that Jesuit influence in Jesuits by an officer in the American navy! this, its legitimate missionary sphere, more pow
The author in the commencement of his erful and more stable in itself than all the arms sketch, on page 466, tells us “Pascal, Pombal, of the mother country could have made it, was Choiseul, Aranda, Louis XV, Madame de Pom- the proper instrument to permanently secure the padour, Charles III, and the like may have extension of the boundaries of New Spain." applied all the asperities of their respective (Pape 477.) It was surely a great pity that the languages to depreciate the Jesuit influence, Spanish Government did not perceive this, and but on this side of the Atlantic their work was that the word Jesuit about this time should holy," and in support of which affirmation he have become synonymous with rebel in every quotes Montesquieu and Voltaire. The Lieuten- court of Europe. Lieutenant Page, however, ant, indeed, may be a lay brother himself. The though late, has corrected history on this pointfollowing sentence, found on page 467, strongly how effectually time must determine. indicates education in that school: "Then let The following pathetic paragraph upon the
persecutions and devastations of the missions by In their whole history we meet with scarcely a the Paulistas is worthy of note: “What fortu- disloval act, though we trace their course through nate traveler will be the first to find his way into a succession of popular commotions and revolts this old province of Guayra, and, descending in among a wildly-scheming and adventurous peohis canoe the almost fabled river of Paranapané, ple. Often had they taken up arms in the servgaze upon those interesting ruins which tell of a ice of the king, never against him, and it may civilization due to the sacrifices and Christian be safely added that by no other people, order, devotion of Jesuit missionaries? Or, perhaps, or body of men were Spanish interests ever so time may have effaced every lingering vestige. advanced on the American continent.” (Page It is sad that the servants of God should have 548.) These extracts are sufficient to indicate met with such rewards, and a foul blot to Spain the heartiness and thoroughness with which and Portugal to have permitted the inhuman Lieutenant Page defends the Jesuit fathers and depredations here practiced. An industrious their holy work against all calumniators past or and peaceful population was in a moment of present. time swept from the land. It has been estima That the Jesuits were wonderfully successful ted by several good authorities that no less than in extending their influence over the Indian sixty thousand Indians were sold in the public tribes of Paraguay is undeniable, but that they square of Rio Janeiro between the years 1628 obtained or maintained this influence by “ holy” and 1630, the period of this succession of inva- or Christian means is very questionable. In sions, and it was not the savage Indian that suf- their view the end justified the means, and the fered thus, but men who had received the light fathers were unscrupulous as to the means; of the Gospel and come within the pale of Chris- fraud or force, truth or lies, heavenly or earthly tianity." (Page 479.) Thank Lieutenant Page promises were all sanctified in their hands in for this honest outburst against slavery and the accomplishing their "holy work on this side the slave-trade. We hope that the morality of it is Atlantic.” And these things come to light even not determined by its locality, whether north or under the guardianship of Lieutenant Page. south of the line.
We have already quoted the admitted pious On the subject of their expulsion our author fraud in reference to the apostle St. Thomas. says: “Their removal was neither wise nor He thus describes the establishment of the mispolitic.
In driving them from the mis- sion of St. Joachim: “Wishing to establish a sions of Chiquitos, of the Parana, of the Uru- mission among this branch of the Guarini famguay and all others, we perceive an inconsider- ily, the fathers first sent them by Indians of their ate, uncharitable, unchristian aim at their com own reductions offerings of some trifling value plete extinction almost without a purpose. The pleasing to Indian fancy. This preliminary aged Pope Clement designated the order as use- treating was repeated several times before taking ful, pious, and holy, and these three qualities more decisive steps. These gifts they were told were to be found in the missionary reductions of came from a Jesuit who loved them much and South America, however wanting elsewhere." was desirous of living among them; that if so (Page 549.) In the very act of expulsion he permitted the father would bestow upon them finds the praiseworthy virtue of loyal obedience. things of far greater price, that they might live "Nor are we inclined to suppose that the meshes without labor. He would bring them cattle, of Bucaielé were so well laid as to have forced iron, and every useful article; he would build upon them the alternative of tame submission. them houses, give them clothing, attend to the The Jesuits were not out-Jesuited and check- sick, and extend to the whole people every care. mated at last; they had all the prudence, the Such conditions were tempting; they flattered foresight, and sagacity, and natural means that too much the natural indolence of the Guarini they ever had, and, more, a large and considera-' to be disregarded. . Thus an entrance ble force to sustain the power that had so long was effected.” Provisions must be abundant, continued in their grasp. No coup de main or for to satisfy the palate was indispensable in diplomatic trickery on the part of the viceroy view of successfully administering healthful spirbrought them to the humble terms under which itual food. He who was fed the best was generthey yielded up their persons and their goods. ally the most speedily converted to the true faith We conceive their whole conduct to have been and made the best Christian-at least in the governed by a sense of simple obedience to a way of telling beads and in submitting to Jesuit decree of the Spanish monarch, and we must authority. He who was neglected in this respect with justice incline to their cause and sympa. preferred aboriginal independence and subsistthize in their misfortunes. From the outset we ence obtained by his bow and arrow. Hence the discover no evidence of a contrary movement. flocks and fields required the same constant
watchfulness as those of the Church. Says résumé, 'all life and soul upon the occasion.' Dobrizhoffer* quaintly, “If, according to St. To render the pageant more imposing they Paul, among other natives faith enters by the assembled wild beasts from the forests and fishes ear, with the savages of Paraguay it can only be from the neighboring rivers. Lions and tigers thrust in by the mouth.” (Page 497.)
were chained at different points, and huge vases Another method is thus given: "The Mbayas, of piscatory specimens added to the general ena warlike tribe, discovered no charms in the livenment,” etc. mission community life. The fathers' eloquence We can not wonder at the influence exerted had no power over them. The Caciques were over the minds of savages by such displays unwilling to share with others their authority as this. Such a religion undoubtedly had its over the people. But the Jesuits were not to be charms. And a part taken in these performanout-Jesuited in their holy work. So, under the ces being all that was required, according to the plea of concluding a treaty with the Chiquibos, holy teaching of the fathers, to make them among whom there was at this time numerous Christians, they were made by thousands and missions, the fierce chiefs—Mbayas—opposed to tens of thousands. To pious fraud, physical the cause of the Church were enticed beyond the force, false promises, dazzling display, and imconfines of their territories. The most cordial posing ceremonies, we may add, on the part of reception awaited them on the part of the reduc- the Indians, the fear of slavery from the Paulistion Indians. Numbers of friendly allies flocked tas and of oppression from the Spaniards, proto greet them; bands of music were in continu- tection against both of which were promised and ous attendance, and every kind of native amuse- furnished by the Jesuits, and we have the whole ment or festivity was called into requisition that secret of their success. The modicum of Christhe welcome might admit of no distrust. Thus tianity was small indeed. That their influence the snares were well laid. The unsuspecting over the natives was beneficial to a great extent chiefs manifested unbounded gratification, while we cheerfully admit, but that their establishments the secret plans of the Jesuits for securing their were Christian missions in the proper sense person were being brought to maturity. Sud-thereof we utterly deny. The principles upon denly in the night, and at the sound of a bell, which they were founded, the means by which their universal signal, the Mbaya Caciques were they were sustained, and the fruits produced by attacked, bound hand and foot, thrown into them, all prove that whatever else they were, prison and not released till the final expulsion they were not Christian missions. of the order"--some seven years after. (Page In connection with the brief review of Lieu498.) Thus was the mission in Belen founded. tenant Page's book, we will give a succinct hisHoly work, all for the glory of God!
tory of the Jesuits in South America, where We find another secret of their success in the they have acted so conspicuous a part in politiimposing ceremonies gotten up to captivate the cal as well as ecclesiastical affairs. untutored savage. On page 502 we find this The first Jesuits entered the viceroyalty of description: “Fond of music and the dance, Buenos Ayres in 1586 in the province of Salta. given to martial display, gay and lively in dispo- Soon after others arrived at Cordova, which city sition as were the Guarini, it is not astonishing became the center of their vast operations. In that the fétes of the Church should have been 1588 two Jesuit missionaries penetrated into the events in the Paraguay reductions, celebrated by Guarani country, and after two months' travel long and dazzling processions, and by the rejoic and labor they returned to Asuncion, Paraguay, ings of the whole people. That of the sacra and reported that they had left behind them two ment appears to have eclipsed all others. The hundred thousand converts ready for the rite of zoölogy and the botany of these fruitful regions baptism. In 1595 a college of Jesuits was estabof creation were represented on such occasions. lished at Asuncion. This was their first seat The matting which covered the way was strewed of learning in this country, and was approbated with evergreens; arches were erected at short by the greatest enthusiasm on the part of the distances apart, not decked with banners and inhabitants, the Spaniards of rank, men and devices, but green branches; tropical plants and women, being ambitious to perform manual superb flowers enriched the atmosphere with labor in its erection. The Jesuits were in great their fragrance; attached to these were birds of favor, having unbounded influence over both every kind and color with sufficient scope allowed colonists and natives. them to fly free in the air. “Nature appeared, In 1602 the general of the Jesuits recommendif I may so speak,' says Charlevoix, by way of a ed to the South American missionaries to form
fixed settlements of their couverts instead of * A Jesuit missionary.
pursuing them as wandering tribes through the
deserts. It is a disputed point whether the credit year the number was largely increased by anof originating settled communities of Indians, other reinforcement from Europe. In the mean even in Paraguay, belongs to the Jesuit fathers. time their missions and populations had greatly Senor Azara disputes it, and his account of the multiplied. missions is one of the earliest written. He wrote This increase has been attributed by some wrialso from personal observation, being in the coun ters in a great degree to the influence of terror try. It is very certain that the similar establish- upon the minds of the Indians, inducing them to ments found in Mexico, and which have been seek the protection of the missions against their credited to the Romish Church, existed long be- Spanish oppressors and Paulista invaders. A fore the Spaniards conquered that country. brief notice of these Paulistas will be in place
In 1609 father Diego de Tonez, who had just in this sketch. They were Portuguese, banished arrived from Rome with a recruit of fifteen Jes- from Portugal for their crimes, or persons esuit priests, obtained from the Governor of Par-caped from the persecutions of the Inquisition aguay full power to collect their converts into for heretical opinions. They founded, far up townships and govern them independently in the among the mountains of St. Vincent, a province King's name. He immediately dispatched two in Brazil, remote from jurisdiction and civilfathers, Cataldino and Mazeta, into the Guarani ization, a town called St. Paul. Hence their country, and formed the first mission town under name, Paulistas. They were also called Mamthe name of Loretto. It is said that these mis-alukes. It became the center of a most vicious sionaries made a tour of about two hundred and banditti. They intermarried with the Indian woforty miles, in which they found twenty-three men, and led a most dissolute and savage life. small villages already existing, many of the in- They threw off all allegiance to Portugal and dehabitants of which were already Christians. clared their independence. They lived by robThese they persuaded to unite in a general com- bery, carrying desolation in their excursions even munity at Loretto. Here was the commence to the confines of Peru. A principal object with ment of those vast Jesuitical establishments in them was the capture of slaves. These people the wilds of South America, among hordes of were a great terror to the Indian tribes, and the wilder savages, which have been the subjects of Jesuits promised them protection against their so much political and religious discussion. depredations on condition that they joined their
This effort, under the sanction of the provincial communities. And in time they made their government, was so wonderfully successful; their promise good. There can be no doubt that this settlements increased in number and population influenced large numbers to join the missions. so rapidly that the Jesuits soon conceived the idea It has been calculated that these Paulistas deof establishing a Christian republic, which should stroyed some two millions of the native inhabembrace the whole southern continent Accord-itants of these countries. ingly they made application to the King himself To protect themselves against these enemies for authority to establish an independent govern. was the just plea of the Jesuits, for the privilege ment, promising that their Indians should acknowl- of putting into the hands of their neophytes Eu
edge directly the King of Spain for their sovereign. ropean weapons of war; and, notwithstanding the 1 Philip III approved of their proposal, and issued extreme jealousy of the Spanish-American au.
receipts of authority, which were confirmed by his thorities against it, in 1639 the privilege was successors. The Jesuits pleaded that the Christian granted. Under the instructions of some lay religion was rendered odious to the Indians, and brothers of the society they soon presented a the dominion of Spain was detested by them be- military character equal to their circumstances, cause of the licentious behavior of the Spaniards; and became in their turn a most formidable and that, before they could undertake to convert power. The Paulistas were soon taught to avoid the Indians to the faith of Christ, it was neces contact with a Jesuit mission. After being thus sary to give them authority by which they might trained and armed they were frequently called secure all their proselytes, both from the exer upon by the Spanish governors to aid in difficult cise of the tyrrany and from the influence of the and distant enterprises. But they were always example of the Europeans. Whatever the de- led by the Jesuits. Here was the beginning of sign covered by this plea may have been, the their political importance. truth of its statement has been verified in con In 1642 their towns or townships in the two nection with every mission from that day to this. provinces of Parana and Uruguay numbered The influence of nominal Christians has been an twenty-nine, and the form of their government injury to the cause of Christ.
had attained a perfection which was the enemy In 1615 there were one hundred and nineteen of every other in Spanish America. Schools Jesuits in the province, and in the following 'were established in every town for teaching read
ing, writing, music, and dancing, and the Indi- Kallo, one of whose pictures, presented in the ans were found apt scholars in every thing they temple of Venu's, was declared the perfection of undertook. Latin was taught in some instances, art, and the fair painter celebrated by the muse but the Spanish language was entirely interdicted, as being no less beautiful than her own work; of to prevent, it is supposed, intercourse with the Cirene, whose painting of Proserpina was preSpaniards as much as possible. In every town, served; of Aristarite, the author of a picture of also, there were workshops, under the direction Esculapius; of Calypso, whose portraits of Theof the priests, for carpenters, painters, sculptors, odorus, the juggler, and a dancer named Acisgilders, locksmiths, silversmiths, watch-makers, thenes, were greatly celebrated, and to whom etc., including indeed almost every mechanical has been ascribed the authorship of a celebrated branch of industry. It is said they manifested picture transferred from the ruins of Pompeii to no talent for invention, but possessed in a su- Naples, and now called “A Mother Superintendperior degree that of imitation. Upon bare in- ing her Daughter's Toilet;" and of Anaxandra, spection they would imitate the most-admired enjoying munificent royal patronage on account organs, astronomical instruments, Turkey carpets, of her skill in art. A few other names might be and other curious manufactures.
added to this catalogue, but these are sufficient [CONCLUDED IN OUR NEXT.]
to show that woman had to do with Grecian art. And any one will cease to wonder at the few
names that have come down to us when they reWOMEN ARTISTS OF THE EARLIER PERIOD.* | member how few of the other sex have been pre
served in history.
The Romans in the palmy days of the empire MODERN writer says that "man has not were a nation of soldiers, and ruled the world. A
grudged woman the wreath of literary fame. But the elegant arts were not at home there as No history of literature shows a period when her in their Hellenic birthplace. Heroic women they influence was not apparent and when literary had; but in the domain of the fine arts one only honors were not awarded to her.” In the realm of stands out irradiated with the halo that encircles art she may not shine with so bright a luster, yet genius. And even she was of Greek origin and art as well as literature is indebted to her genius. education. We refer to Laya, who exercised her Unconsciously she has been the inspiration of skill in Rome a hundred years before Christ. art. Not only does her native grace and beauty She was a pioneer in a department of art just present the models which it is the artist's highest now, after the lapse of nearly two thousand year merit to copy, but as the type of the ornamental passing into disuse. We refer to miniature paintin life she has in all ages been the source of his ing. Laya excelled in her miniatures, especially inspiration
those upon ivory. She surpassed all others in the We know little of the practice of the arts by rapidity of her execution, and in her a ze was women in ancient times. Her degraded condi- placed by the side of the most distinguished tion rendered devotion to art impossible. Yet painters. Pliny makes honorable mention of even then artistic ideas were not wanting. They her, says that her life was devoted to art, and showed themselves in the beautiful designs and that she was never married. A large picture in colors of the webs they wove and the ornaments Naples is said to be the only production of hers they wore.
to popular apprehension in female form, thus recog under the mild sway of the Christian religion nizing the influence the sex had in all ages ex
than in the school of classical antiquity. Woman, erted over the beautiful in art.
gradually rising above the condition of slavery, Several names of female artists have come began to preside over the elements that formed down to us from the age of Alexander the Great the poetry of life. and his successors in empire. One belonging Germany has the honor of producing the first to this age was Helena, who is said to have female sculptor of whom any thing is knownpainted for one of the Ptolomies the scene of a Sabina von Steinbach, the daughter of Erwin battle in which Alexander vanquished Darius, a von Steinbach, who in that wonderful work, the picture which is thought to have been the original cathedral of Strasburg, has reared so glorious a of a famous mosaic found in Pompeii. Among monument to his memory. The task of ornawomen celebrated in Grecian art we hear also of menting this noble building was in great part
intrusted to the young girl, whose genius had # Women Artists in all Ages and Countries, by Mrs. already exhibited itself in modeling. Her sculpEllet. New York: Harper & Brothers. 12mo. 377 pp. tured groups, and especially those on the portal