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APRIL, 1860.


PLYMOUTH HARBOR AND BREAKWATER. contains more than 4,000,000 tuns of stone, be

sides two and a half millions of feet of granite,

etc., for fencing and facing, etc., the cost being For JOR the fine view of this celebrated seaport of seven and a half millions of dollars. At one

England and its almost equally-celebrated end is a handsome light-house. Menie and I breakwater, we are indebted to a valued friend took a boat and went to the breakwater and up now making a temporary residence there. The to the top of the light-house a few days ago. letter of our friend is more lifelike, and will The view is most charming all around. About give a better idea of the place, its scenery and fourteen miles from this is the Eddystone lighthistory, than any thing we could produce. We, house in the Channel, ninety-four feet high, up therefore, lay it under contribution:

which the waves roll, and sometimes ascend to We have been here about five weeks. I have twice its hight, and then break over it in a tretaken a house for a year by way of trial. So far mendous cataract of spray and foam. we like this town and the neighborhood very well Mount Edgecumbe is the seat of Lord Mount indeed. Plymouth, together with Stonehouse and Edgecnmbe, and is separated from Plymouth and Davenport, two towns adjoining and connected from the “Hoe" by a bay running between the by streets, constitute one rather large town of town and the Mount, to the left of the engraving. over 100,000 inhabitants. There are many forts The park belonging to the Earl is extensive and and barracks and crowds of soldiers here. It is very beautiful-open to the public on Mondays, also one of the principal naval stations of the accessible from Plymouth and Stonehouse by a Kingdom, having many large men-of-war and ferry. It is a favorite resort of parties of pleasgun-boats in the barbor, and the docks and ship-ure, and affords most charming views of the yards are on a magnificent scale, near a thousand sound and the adjoining country. In the old men being employed in them in the construction records the Hoe is termed the “Haw.” I conof all kinds of navy works. Plymouth Sound is jecture that formerly the ground thereabouts was a noble arm of the British Channel, and at th covered with the bush called "haw," which may head, where the town stands, is a fine elevated, have given rise to the name. The first stone of open space of many acres, between the water and the breakwater was laid on the Prince Regent's the town, which is used as a promenade and birthday-afterward George IV-August 12, 1812. place of general recreation for the inhabitants. Between the end of it and the shore on the east The Marine band performs here several times a side is a passage for ships of about a mile in week, and other bands belonging to the different width; at the western end another about a mile regiments perform in other spaces of the same and a half in width. kind at Stonehouse and Davenport. “The Hoe" The mackerel and pilchard fisheries here are is the name given to the promenade ground at of great importance. Often as many as half a Plymouth.

million mackerel are brought into port in one About three miles off there has been con- day, selling for $10,000 at wholesale prices. structed a breakwater for the protection of the Sometimes five hundred tuns are sent off to difshipping. This structure is a mile long, and ef- ferent markets in a day. Some of the pilchard fectually keeps out the fearful rush of the tide, shoals cover a surface of six or seven square miles, which rises more than twelve feet, and formerly extending two hundred feet in depth. A thoudid immense damage to merchant ships, etc. It sand hogsheads have been captured in one shoal.

VOL. XX.-13

This is a lively, clean town, and the climate enterprise of conveying fresh water into the town; of this part of England is said to resemble that the leat' and reservoirs having been constructed of the South of France. The air is very salu- bim.” The “leat” is a water-way conveying brious and exhilarating, and the market well excellent soft water from Dartmoor, ten or twelve supplied with almost every good thing, though miles off, to the town. we miss the water-melons, and pine-apples, and In the Plymouth Guide it is stated that “in pumpkins, and other fruits of America. Toma- 1583 the King of Portugal was at Plymouth, and toes are not much used, and are high in price in the same year Sir Walter Raleigh is said to Indian corn is not known in the market; peaches have sailed from this port, and three years later are scarce, but apples, pears, plums, grapes, and Drake sailed with twelve merchant ships and all common regetables except beets, are plentiful. several barks and pinnaces to cruise against the

The town is interesting, especially to Ameri- Spaniards, and returned after destroying several cans, from its having been the port from which of their vessels. On the occasion of the threatthe Pilgrim Fathers sailed. I have walked | ened Spanish Armada, in 1588, the Queen's fleet through the older streets near the landing places of about one hundred and twenty sail assembled from the sea, and have thought, Perhaps the Pil- at Plymouth, under the command of Lord Howgrims have been here, perhaps they stopped at ard, of Effingham, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir these old public houses while detained in the John Hawkins, and sailed to meet the 'invincitown, or may have had friends who occupied ble Armada,' which was soon seen from the Hoe these quaint old buildings, and who gladly enter- on its way up the Channel, and where by the tained them as Christian brethren and sisters-bravery and energy of Drake and his companwho sympathized with them in their great under- ions it was shortly afterward completely routed taking and wished they could accompany them and defeated, although it is said that so certain to the new world.

of success was the Spanish admiral, that he had By the Saxons Plymouth was called “Tameor- already decided upon making Mount Edgecumbe worth”-—"Tamer” being the name of one of the his home." streams on which the town stands, and dividing It is said that in 1600 twenty-two chests of Devonshire from Cornwall. This stream unites Pope's bulls and pardons were burnt in the with the “Plym,” on which last-named river there market place. In 1625 King Charles I, with his is a very ancient borough called “Plympton”. queen and court, remained several days at Plymfive miles from Plymouth—now a mere village. outh for the purpose of dispatching the royal On one of the hills, once included in the town, fleet. In 1634 a regular post, being a running are the ruins of a castle, supposed to have been foot post, was first established between Plymouth erected in William the Norman's time. Plym- and London. In 1768 Captain Cook sailed from onth, being close upon the sonnd, has drawn Plymouth in the Endeavor, in 1772 in comaway all the business from the older boro, and mand of the Resolute and Adventure, and again left it a wreck in the midst of an exceedingly. in 1776. In 1786 and the following year Prince beautiful surrounding country. Previous to the William Henry, afterward William IV, embarked year 1439 the government of the town of Plym- and landed here on his way to and from America. outh was in the hands of the prior and convent In 1789 King George III, Queen Charlotte, and of Plympton.

the Princesses were here. They visited the dockSeveral historical events of importance in their yard, "the handsome cutter of Lords Chesterday occurred here between 1416 and Henry the field, Howe, and Chatham, rowed by six fine Eighth's day. A notice of Plymouth by Leland, young women and steered by a seventh, all habin the reign of Henry VIII, is as follows: “The ited in loose, white gowns, with nankeen safemouth of the gulph where the shippers of Plym- guards and black bonnets, each wearing a sash outhe lyith is waullid on eche side, and chained across her shoulders of royal purple, with ‘Long over in tyme of necessitie; on the south-west live their Majesties,' in gold, accompanying the side of the mouth is a block-house, and on a royal barge.” “In 1815 the Emperor Napoleon rocky hill hard by it is a stronge castle quadrate, arrived at Plymouth in the Bellerophon, and lay having on each corner a great round tower. It in the sound for eight days awaiting that bitter seemeth to be no very old peace of worke.” and unexpected sentence of banishment and life

Sir Francis Drake was a native of the neigh- long imprisonment which was the fate of this boring town of Tavistock. On his return from great general, and during which time the town the South Seas in 1580 it is said he brought was thronged with thousands of visitors." In home with him “great store in gold and silver in 1849 the South Devon railway was opened from blocks." In 1582 he was mayor of Plymouth, Exeter. In 1852 the town was visited by Queen and to him the town is indebted for the "grand Victoria and Prince Albert.


We expect to remain here till September, 1860,

so absorbed in his subject, and so forgetful of and perhaps longer. Can you not, with Mrs. time, that he spoke two and even three hours, Clark, come and see us? Be assured that we and then sat down amid the groans and tears of shall be much pleased to have you with us; and the awakened and penitent. His naturally frail you could easily go from this place to London constitution was so shaken by these labors that by boat or by rails when you wish to change your the conference of 1819 thought it best for him to quarters, or to travel through the country. fill a vacancy in Dublin instead of attempting

Our esteemed brother will pardon the free use the regular pastoral work. He still abounded in we have made of his letter. It inclosed at once labors, and his reputation continued to spread a picture for an engraving and material for its still wider both in Ireland and England. accompaniment. We have given our readers Following the fortunes, or, perhaps we should the benefit of both. We should enjoy richly the say, the misfortunes of his father, and what he visit proposed, and know full well the hospitality, seemed to regard as the leadings of Providence, as well as the literary and social aid that would he set sail for America, December 12, 1820, and be lavished upon us.

But we see little prospect on the 17th of the following March landed in the of release from the stern duties of life to enable city of New York. us to enjoy so great a luxury.

Though broken down in health, he immediately commenced his ministerial labors. On the 10th

of May, at the fifth anniversary of the American JOHN SUMMERFIELD.

Bible Society, he was one of the speakers, and delivered an address of such wonderful pathos

and power that he at once became recognized as A

GENUINE orator-one whose soul is gifted a true orator. At the ensuing session of the

with the eloquence of thought and whose New York conference he was admitted into the lips are inspired with the eloquence of expres- traveling ministry and stationed in the city of sion-rarely appears upon the stage of action. New York. His popularity soon became great Indeed, a few only of such stand upon record in beyond all precedent. People of all denominaall the world's history. The honey of Hymettus tions crowded to hear him. Long before the is tasted by few. But the tongue it has sweet-hour of service arrived multitudes would throng ened speaks to be heard-speaks to touch the the streets and crowd around waiting the opening heart, to inform the intellect, to move the will. of the doors of the church. Often the churches The trees of the forest do not more naturally were so densely packed that the speaker was bend before the sweep of the mighty gale than compelled to find entrance to the pulpit through men before the power of true eloquence. In the windows. this royal band—“the elect immortal”-Sum- The student of oratory would like to know merfield occupies an unquestioned place. The something of the manner and habit of Summermemory of this wonderfully-gifted man, like some field. The poet, James Montgomery, who was a blessed fragrance wafted from the better land personal friend and admirer, thus speaks of him: and carrying the thoughts thither, yet lingers “He came to the pulpit with the whole scheme among us with a freshness rendered only more of the discourse clearly and succinctly marked sacred by the lapse of years.

out in his mind. Then he was indeed in the He was born in Preston, Lancashire, England, spirit'—warmed, exalted, and inspired with the 1798. His early advantages were limited. His divinity of his theme, the chain of premeditated oratory was the product of native genins, warmed ideas, link by link, in seemingly extemporaneous and toned by divine grace, and not the result of succession, would be developed, while every the culture of the schools. At the age of twenty thought, emotion, and appeal would body itself he preached his first sermon in the city of Dub-forth in the most vivid and appropriate language. lin. Six years later his work was done; the Then truly would his bow abide in strength, and servant had been released from his labor and en

every shaft which he sent from the string, like tered upon his reward. In that brief period he the arrow of Acestes of old, would take fire in had won a deathless fame on earth, for his purity, its flight, shine through the clouds, and vanish simplicity, and eloquence.

in the immensity of heaven.” After having been licensed to preach, April 23, We can not forbear another extract from the 1818, he soon began to be recognized as a man same pen. After speaking of the difference beof unwonted power, and crowds waited upon his tween the effect of Summerfield's productions as ministry. During the year he preached in Dub- heard and read, he adds: “In fact, every attempt lin, and Cork, and the neighboring cities—often

to present on paper the splendid effects of impreaching seven times a week. Often he became passioned eloquence, is like gathering up dew


drops which appear jewels and pearls on the of New York, and here ended his earthly career, grass, but run to water in the hand; the essence June 13, 1825. Thus passed away one of the and the elements remain, but the grace, the great lights of the Christian Church. sparkle, and the form are gone. But Summer It is now almost thirty-five years since his defield's memory needs no monument of his handi-parture. Most of those who knew him, who work to endear and perpetuate it; nor is it any waited upon his ministry, were witnesses of his derogation from his talents, to say that he has living, breathing, inspiring eloquence, have passed left no posthumous proofs of his power to divide away. A new generation has sprung up in the with his Maker the glory of what God was pleased Church, to whom his form and appearance are to do by him, in the faithful exercise of them. unknown. To call back his precious memory, to Brief indeed was his career, but brilliant and contribute something toward the enkindling of triumphant. Like one of the racers in the an the same seraphic spirit in the hearts of the cient

game, wherein he who ran with the greatest gifted and the young, we have caused his portrait speed, carrying a blazing torch unextinguished to adorn our pages, and gathered a few memorito the goal, was crowned as victor—he so ran

als of his life and eloquence. that he soon obtained the prize; and his light, not extinct even in death, shall be a guide, a comfort, and an example to thousands, who never

MADELIN. witnessed its living coruscations.” Early in the spring of 1822 Mr. Summerfield

In a lowly cabin visited Baltimore and Philadelphia, and preached

Of the woodland wild, to immense concourses of people. We may get

Erst a little maiden a further idea of the elements of his oratory from

Ope'd her eyes and smiled; a notice of one of the sermons delivered while

And the dying mother on this tour. Says the writer: "The discourses

Clasped her fingers thin, of this wonderful man are not formed upon the

Praying Heaven's blessing model of orators, ancient or modern. They are

On her Madelin. not made up according to the prescriptions of

O'er the mother's slumbers rhetoricians of great or lesser name; they owe

Many springs had smiled; nothing to the magnificence of words, or the

Tost the golden tresses studied graces of manner; but they are deeply

Of her fairy child; imbued with the living spirit of thought, and are

Like a very snow-fake

In a world of sin, dependent for their intluence alone upon the om

Bloomed the forest maiden, nipotence of truth and the irresistible energy of

Sunny Madelin. genius. His gestures are without affectationfew, but fearless and appropriate. His words

Through the crashing wildwood,

When the whirlwind broke, spring free and spontaneous from his thoughts,

Fell the stalwart woodsman and these gush on with one continued flow from

'Neath the threshold oak; the deep and unfailing fountain of a spirit, whose

From the rustic cabin source is in nature and in God."

To the great world's din, At the session of the New York conference in

In her sylvan beauty, 1822 Summerfield was ordained deacon and re

Went sweet Madelin. turned to the city. But his health was too broken

There a vision blest herfor effective work. For a long time he hovered

Woman's dream of lifeon the verge of the grave in Philadelphia. Bish

One, o'er all beloved, ops M'Kendree and George, in the fall of that

She, his gentle wife; year, gave him permission to visit the West India

Vows, how lightly spoken, Islands, hoping that his health might be im

Thrill her heart and win; proved by the change. His purpose, however,

Vows, how lightly broken

Trusting Madelin. was so far changed that he sailed for the south of France. His health was not materially im

In the land of shadows, proved by his sojourn of one or two years in Eu

Wbere the dreamless rest; rope. In fact, his physical force was exhausted

Where sweet Auburn seemeth and broken forever. In 1824 he appears upon

Araby the blest; the Minutes as a missionary to labor within the

Where the gentle night-birds bounds of the Baltimore conference, and the

Saddest lays begin, next year was appointed to the city of Baltimore.

In her blighted beauty In March of this year he returned to the city

Sleepeth Madelin.

A REVOLUTIONARY RELIC—THE BEEKMAN Here Washington and his staff, with distinHOUSE.

guished officers of the American army, such as

Lafayette and others, were often hospitably enBY REV. W. P. STRICKLAND, D. D.

tertained. Here were held councils of war, and N the north side of Fiftieth-street, near the here plans were devised of resistance to the en

O an

there is a fine view of East river and Blackwell's cupancy of Long and Staten Islands. It was Island, with its large public edifices, stands an doubtless in the spacious drawing-room of this old mansion, which from its historic associations, venerable mansion that Washington and his reaching back a hundred years, and embracing council, on the 7th of September, 1776, determthe dark and stormy period of the Revolution, is ined on retaining the city, notwithstanding the looked upon with an interest bordering upon the threatening aspect on the border; and it was romantic. No feudal castle, in the most stirring here that on the 12th, five days after this determand eventful times of English history, had more ination, this council revoked that order, and reimportant or exciting scenes transacted within solved on evacuation. Consequent upon this its walls than have transpired within the walls action, the main body of the army removed to of the Beekman House.

Mount Washington and King's Bridge, and WashMore than one hundred years ago its original ington took up his headquarters at the deserted proprietor, Mr. James Beekman, a merchant, and mansion of Colonel Roger Morris, a loyalist who a stanch republican of the old school, then resid- had fled to the Highlands. ing in Hanover Square, now Pearl-street, pur- This is an elegant mansion, and remains unalchased a small farm, which he called Mount tered to the present day. It stands upon the Pleasant, with a view of erecting thereon a suit- high rocky bluff of the Harlem river, a short disable residence as a summer resort. In due time tance below the High Bridge, and commands one a neat edifice was erected, the grounds laid off, of the most beautiful and picturesque views of the garden planted, and all the other necessary any position on the island. Like the Beekman appointments made to render it a desirable abode | House it has a history, and many wonderful during the heats of summer. Successive addi-things, if tradition is to be relied upon, have tions and improvements were made to the house transpired beneath its roof. Its present owner is from time to time. A large conservatory was the widow of the celebrated Aaron Burr, better erected in the midst of a garden laid out with known, however, as Madame Jumel, the name of the greatest taste, and ornamented with every her former husband. Unlike the Beekman variety of trees, plants, and flowers. The whole House, however, though connected as it is with was traversed by beautifully-graveled walks, the struggles, trials, and triumphs of the Revolutraces of which remain to the present day. It tion, and which should thereby be accessible to was only till recently a traditional story that such an appreciating public, we are told that it is shut & garden existed. So much had been said of its out, not only from the citizens of New York, but walks and its bowers that it was looked upon in all the rest of mankind. It belonged to a loyalthe same fabulous light as the garden of the ist, the rival of Washington, and it has fallen Hesperides. The present proprietor, Mr. S. W. into legitimate hands. Dunscomb, who, with great taste, has repaired the It was not long till Howe crossed over from old mansion, rearranged the grounds, and graded Brooklyn and invaded the city, and Washington, and Macadamized that portion lying west of the hearing the cannonading from the Morris mansion, house, finding it necessary to transfer to this could not be restrained from leaping into his place the sod from the site of the old garden, saddle and hurrying to the scene of action. He brought to light what had so long been hidden, found the rear guard, under Brigadiers Parsons and the clear white-pebbled walks were exposed and Fellows, flying from the enemy at Kip's Bay, to view, showing all their graceful curves and where they had landed, at the foot of Twentywindings. The green-house, some portion of the Third-street. He tried in vain to rally them, and, walls of which remains, contained the rarest ex- despairing, threw his chapeau on the ground, otics, and was a place of fashionable resort for and drawing his sword, spurred toward the enethe aristocracy of that day. Nothing is left to my. One of his aids seeing his imminent danproclaim its ancient glory but some lime and ger, caught the reins of his horse and saved his lemon trees, which are in possession of a florist life. The Americans then retreated to the midat Astoria. The old Stuyvesant pear-tree, which dle of the island, and encamped upon the Inclestands at the corner of Thirteenth-street and berg, an eminence between the present Fifth and Third Avenue, is a cotemporary with these Sixth Avenues and Thirty-Fifth and Thirty-Eighth trees.

streets. From thence they marched to Fort

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