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a new fact, and without a singlet hat the estates of the great fami. ! petition to back you, what can be lies as well as of every body else, done?

are, as the common notion 'is, 2. There must arise, and, perhaps, pledged to pay the interest due to! during this next session of parlia- the fundholders : or, in other ment, this question: Whether the words, are mortgaged to the fund. land-owners shall give up part of holders. There is a great arrear their estates to the Fundholders; or, of interest; or, at least, the inwhether the latter shall be ruined; terest can no longer be duly paid, while the former retain all their pos- without producing an unbearable sessions. Indeed, this question weight of national misery, and has been mooted already, even in causing a degree of national feeblethe House. I beg you to believe, ness which wholly disables the naSir, that this mighty question must tion from daring to think of war, be discussed, and that, too, at no however just and necessary. This distant day. I had my project, is the state of the case; and the i which, if I had not been opposed question is, shall this load be: by cut-throats, at Coventry, I shaken off, or not? Shall the mort ! should have offered to the parlia- gage bond be literally enforced ; ment in four days after its meet- shall the mortgagees enter, and ing. Mine was a very extensive send the present occapiers on project, at any rate. I must now their travels; or, shall the occube a mere spectator; but, this piers be protected against the great question between the land and mortgagees, and leave these latter the funds must come to be discussed; to live on air? This is the true and, whenever it shall come to be and only question now to be dis. discussed, you will, unless you cussed. Until it be settled, it is duly and diligently consider the quite useless to make speeches matter beforehand, find yourself against the corruptions at Gram. in greater difficulty than you have pound. Never, until this ques. erer yet experienced. The thing tion be settled, will there be any will end in a Reform of the Parlia. Reform of Parliament. In short, ment; but, your future character the question is not how long and fate will depend, not upon the Borough system will last, any talk about Reform, but upon “but how long the Funding system the part that you shall take as to will last"; and, therefore, those this great question. The fact is, who appear anxious about the

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former, and say and do nothing at and as nothing more. But, the all about the latter, must, in my money question; that which comes view of the matter, be wanting home to the heart and soul of either in sincerity or understand. every person of property, be his ing.

property, of what nature it may, I can draw no very favourable awakens thought and feeling in conclusion from your silence, the most stupid and the most selduring the spring session of 1819, fish. On this subject, you would when, after repeated discussions, have been attended to by the the parliament adopted a measure whole nation. It was here that which has produced, and is pro- you might have commanded the ducing, calamities so great as not attention even of those, whom to be described. They did not you call “the Gentlemen of Eng. mean to do this. It is impossible land"; and who will

and who will never, for to believe, that the Ministers like one single moment, listen to you to see people miserable. They on the subject of Reform, until would have listened to you, if you the money-watter be brought to a bad made a stand against that crisis. measure. It was the fairest and The matter was so plain, too : finest opportunity that ever pre- it was so clear, that the present sented itself of doing good; or, sum of taxes never could be col. at least, of showing a disposition lected from a quantity of circuto do good. If you had spoken lating medium, which would be frequently, seriously, and ably (as small enough to enable the Bank you always can), upon that occa- to resume cash-payments. And sion; if you had, in a strain of the absurdity of collecting such a seriousness and of generous sacri- sum from a circulating medium of fice of all personal dislikes, be gold and silver was so palpable, sought the Ministers to desist from that one wonders how you could their pursuit, with what advantage let pass the occasion of making a would you now have come before great figure in an assembly, where the parliament ! With what you must desire to make such a weight of character; with what figure. It was evident to me, that confidence from your friends; and the ministers were forced into that with what awe in your enemies ! measure. Their language clearly Reform is, and will be, by many, shewed, that they did not approve. considered as a matter of theory, i of it. Lord CASTLERBAGE spoke



of it in a very equivocal way; rising above her. lo much less Mr. CANNING said, it was a sub- than ten years, if this system could ject he did not understand ;- and, continue, she would not be a Mr. Pers., though he spoke with match, on the ocean, for the United great ability, as he always does, States of America single-handed. spoke in a way, that showed him France will either undergo ano. to have nothing better than faint ther Revolution, or 'will remain hopes of success. This, therefore, tranquil under her present not was the great occasion for you to very bad government. In either interpose;. and yet, not a single case she will recover fast. Spain, word did you say upon the all-im- in all human probability, will be portant subject.

on the rise. While, under the

present system, it is impossible You do not, Sir, appear to me that this country should not go on to have any thing like'a correct declining. This country cannot notion of the real state of the hold a middle course. She cannot country, taking into view all the be moderately powerful. She must consequences that we may expect be great or nothing. She cannot to see come to pass. It is not only quietly and silently enjoy me. the misery of the people that you ought to look at. These are not diocrity. She cannot be indepenall; there are the resources of the dent by permission. She must conntry, the basis of its power, its exist in defiance or not escist at all. menns of defence; these are pass

In this state of the country, ing away! And, passing away, too, se manifestly as to be seen

what is the part that

you ought even by vulgar eyes. The nation to act? Why, cast aside, rgotcom. is sinking faster, and a hundred pletely from your mind, every times faster, than ever it rose. If feeling of private pique against this system could last for 10 years, every man engaged in public' mala this country would be the scorn of ters. Bend all your talent, weight the world." She is, at this very and influence to assist in tearing moment, literally fulfilling a pre off the load that presses your di ,tion, which the ABBE RAYNAL country downwards. There must putinto print more than thirty be sacrifices, and very great sacri. years ago. Every nation is fast fices, not on the part of the middle


April 1,

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classes and the labourers, for they go to your prison, if it should, have sacrificed all; but; on the contrary to all our wishes, be final. part of the high and rich; and ly determined to send you thither,

accompanied with universal grawhỏ so well and effectually as you

titude and with most earnest could preach the precept and set

prayers for


health and your the example? It is not, Sir, by

restoration to liberty. electioneering and dinnering, and obtaining little paltry triumphs

But, I must reluctantly confess, over such poor things as Mr.

that your praises of the ministry of LAMB and Mr. Mellish, that

Mr. Fox, as you called it, in your you can assist in saving England. speech at Leicester, gave me A coalition with the Whigs, who, but little hope as to your future God knows, are a strange sort conduct. You know, Sir, as well even of Whigs! A getting toge as I do, that Mr. Fox was not “at ther of a little band to squabble the head of that ministry. You and special plead against the Mi. know well, that he had no real nisters is a thing that you ought power in it. You know, too, tha to despise. You have been long the acts of that ministry were even enough in public affairs to under- more odious(considering the length stand well the state of the coun. of time) than those of any other try; and, if you were, during the ministry that had preceded it; short time, that will, perhaps, be and you know, too, that “ the allowed you, to come forward, Whigs,” to a coalition with whom looking for support to no' one, this compliment of yours' was but standing on your own character, too palpable an overture, have and propose in a tone and manner been, and are, as strongly opposed of which you are complete mag- to Reform as their political oppoter, some great measure of salva- nents are. These circumstances, tion for the country, accompanied connected with your uncommon with a solemn warning to the par activity in supporting Mr. Whit: liament and the people, you would BREAD, an object, in my opinion,

wholly unworthy of your atten- | the score of the multitude, espetion, have gone far towards con cially with the present laws in vincing me, that nothing great is force. intended by you; while I am certain, that nothing in the old, de.

But, tranquillity is not prospericlamatory style will have the

ty. Tranquillity will not pay reats smallest tendency to produce good

and taxes. Tranquillity will not to the country

prevent the fatal effects of unproThe course which I think will ductiveness in labour. Tranquillity be pursued is this : the people are will not prevent the pressure of put down. There is a body of taxation from sapping the foundahorsemen in each county, called tions of wealth and power. “ The yeomanry, who are, at all times, repose” of agriculture is death to ready to come forth. There is a it as completely as the repose of regular army, very judiciously dis


is death to a plant or tree. tributed all over the kingdom, All is suffering and perishing unwith the deposits of arms, ammu:

der this pressure. This is now nition and artillery. And, observe, that the ragings of actual starva) acknowledged on all hands. Some tion are provided against in Eng. propose to lessen the pressure by

lopping off a part of the debt: land in the poor-rales. Hence it

others to make the land share in is, that we hear of never-ending fightings in Ireland, while we hear

the lopping off: others, to lessen

the of none in England. Io time men

pressure by again augmenting learn to live upon little, and that the quantity of the Paper-money, little very bad food. The lascars and, thereby, lessening the real at SAINT HELENA eat rats and amount of the taxes. mice with their rice; and seem, I To resort to the last of these am told, very well contented. schemes, would, as an expedient, Therefore, all is perfectly sale on be the easies!; but, then, it would


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