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APRIL 1, 1890.

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all into confusion, of, at least, to pro- deed, the farmers could sell their dear duce misery indescribable.

corn' to somebody else - besides the Manufacturers, in such a state of people of England, tho gains of the things, must depend on commerce, land would go to be laid out for the and commerce is, exchanging one arti- benefit of manufacturers. But, the cle for another. It is folly to suppose, high price is to be paid by the rest of that other nations will buy of us to a

this same community ; so that, upon greater extent than we buy of them. The thing can very seldom happen

the general scale, nothing is added to for any length of time. And, if it the national means by the high price, happen at one time, it must be com

while, if the ports were open, somepenisated for at another time. This is thing would be added to those means a matter which has nothing to do with by the exchange of food for labour, passion or prejudice, with friendship which would prevent a large portion or enmity : it is a matter of necessity : of the poor-rates that now exist. it is a thing that must be so : and, to : If a ran live as he ought to live, attempt to controul it by restrictive he will consume about 250 pounds laws is whólly useless. If we do not of flour and 200 pounds of pork receive a given quantity, or amount,

in a year, or some other food equal of the products of America, for instance, she will not, because she can. in point of nutriment. Now, here not, take from us a similar amount of is a weaver at Coventry, who our products. So that the Corn-Bių, makes ribbons, when he can get as far as it operates as a check to the work. Let him get this quantity importation of American flour and of flour and pork from America, meat and timber, also operates as a and the Americans will take the check to our manufactures ; and, if

amount out in ribbons. Is not we take the dead stock of inactive

this "an advantageous thing to duces a loss enormous.

? ' Whether it would be a good thing and he never troubles the parish. if this body of manufacturers were His labour produces flour and not in existence, is a question that it pork as much as the farmer's man's would be useless to discuss. They labour produces flour and pork. are in existence. They are alive, and His loom enables him to draw his have a right to live: At any rate food across the Atlantic, and to set they cannot be gotten rid of. And the plough and the flail going while this is the case, every thing there. But, if you will not suffer that tends to prevent articles from being bought in to be exchanged for the American to bring the four the work of their hands is, and must and the pork, the American'canbe, unrise and mischicrous. If, ino! not take the ribbons, his wife and

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machinery into view, this check pro England ?" The man lives well

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daughters must do without these proportion. He cannot be bene. fineries; and, the ribbon-weaver fitted by high prices so long as his must do without the American landlord has the power of aug. > flour and pork; he must have half menting his rent, and so long as work or less, and must be half-labour rises with the rise in the sterved.

produce of the land. But, there Aye, say the Corn Bill wise are the taxes. These continue acres; but, if FARMER GRIPUM, stationary. To face them it must my lord's tenant, get a high price be best to have high prices. This for his corn and meat, he will have is very true; but, then, observe, the money, which the American the rest of the community, being farmer would otherwise have, to compelled to submit to this high buy ribbons with. Yes, he would; price, will be less able to pay

taxes but, then, this high price being than they were before. That which paid by the rest of the community, they pay, in addition, for their the rest of the community would food, they cannot have to pay -3 have just as much less as GRIPUM taxes with and to lay out in ma. would have more, money to buy nufactured goods. ribbons with. The fact, however, Thus, then this famous Corn Bill, is, that GRIPUM would not have which you, Sir, say was opposed more money to buy ribbons, or by popular delusion, to which you any thing else, with. His poor disdained to listen, was manifestly, rates would be augmented, and as I think, founded, in foolish

gree: his rent would be augmented; and, diness; and has, as I'know, proif gain rested any where, it would duced prodigious mischief. It

17 rest with the owner of the land, proceeded (where the motive was and not with the farmer. And, not sbeer greediness)upon a wrong indeed, this Bill was a Bill wholly notion as to the cause of the disia favour of landlords, though the tress of the farmers ; as to the native greediness of the farmers cause of their inability to pay rent made them, and still makes them, and taxes as before. This cause

was, not the "superabundant prove Take things upon an average of duce," as poor Mr. Western years, it is impossible, that high called it; bat, the diminution, price can be beneficial to a genting which had then taken place in the farmer; because all his out-goings quantity of the paper-money; in are high, and must be high, in the consequent rise of the value of

eager for it.

56 the

was a

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APRIL 1, 1820.

(174 that money; and the consequent brood of chickens. Do you still additional real demand made on hope to gain over to you the farmer for taxes, and also for “ Gentlemen of England 2'' What, rent; in case of a lease extending to begin with, do you think of the beyond the year. This was the twelve, whom you had the honour cause of the distress ; and, how to address at Leicester? Where,

cause like this to be coun- then, is your reliance? On the teracted by a Corn Bill ?

Fox-hunters ? They may, as to This doctrine, which I alone held most other matters, be stupid at the time, is now generally ac- enough; but, let them but get knowledged to be

be true; and, the slightest scent of you on the therefore, it is, at this time of reform track, and they will show day, a little too much to hear you you, that they are as cunning as putting forward, as a merit, your the animal they live to pursue. baving treated the opposition to They are, nine out of every ten, the Corn Bill as having proceeded tyrants in their very nature; and from popular error and delusion! all their familiar bawling and

You may talk, Sir, of parlia- boozing do not diminish their armentary reform, as long as you rogance and insolence towards

please; but, you will never make those whom they are able to op· me believe, that you are sincere, press. until I see you propose some mea Who, then, are you to persuade sure likely to lead to it. How is to join you? I cannot imagine,

it to be obtained? By force of for my I part, any project more - arms? That you are anxious to wild., ReForm will never take

disclaim; and well you may, place, until the paper-fabrick be when you look at the military at well shaken; and, if you would titude of those who wish not to hasten a reform, you must attack have a reform. How, then? By that fabrick, and this, as you, "soft persuasion? By speeches never yet have attempted it, so, I made by you, Mr. Hobhouse, fear, you will not now attempt it. young Mr. Whitbread, Sir Ro. There are too many ties that bind bert Wilson, and Mr. Lambton ? you, and all the new beroes, to Alas! go, first, and try your ha. the system. These ties you might rangues upon wolves in a sheep break, if you would; but you fold; or upon a kite that has just cannot break them, without an inade a successful dash amongst al effort, such as I have no hope of

the paper

by you,

seeing you make. I 'know, that, from that day to this, has made fabrick will

go

to this truth more and niore evident. pieces. Reform will then come; A thousand pounds, therefore, exbut, it will not have been brought pended, in order to get young Mr.

and you will not, it is iny WHITBREAD into parliament, opinion, have much to “say in the though it may be very proper so to final settlement of the affair. expend it, will do nothing to

The way to go work now, is, to wards restoring the country to propose some distinct measure, le- freedom, unless we should, to our velled directly al the paper-fabrick. agreeable surprise, find that this It would not be instantly adopt- young man has something to pro. ed; perhaps never. But, it would pose to shake the stock-jobbing be discussed; and by discussion concern; and that he has the the minds of men would be pre- ability and industry to produce a pared for the event. But, as to great impression on men's minds speeches about reform, what are by the matter that he brings for. they now to produce? For, who ward. If he do no more than his is there in the whole world, that father did, of what use will he be ? can possibly believe, that this na- He may inake very pretty speechtion is to be restored to prosperity es, and may rail against Ministers merely by a change in the mode of in good round sentences; but, it electing Members of Parliament? he produce no effect; if hé mereThat change is, indeed, necessa- ly obtain the applause of the unry to the restoration of prosperity;{thinking; if the Syslem be wholly but the change cannot take place, unshaken by him, his efforts will until the paper-fabrick be shaken; be as useless, and nearly as riand as to keeping up this fabrick diculous, as a dog's baying the after a reform has taken place, the moon. very thought ought to consigo a I should very much like to have man to Bedlamı,

from you, Sir, an answer to this I bave no hope of any change, plain question : Do you wish the which does not emanate from this interest to continue to be paid lo the

Paine said, in 1796, full to the fundholders.? If I had that the question was, not how your answer to this question, I long the Borough system would should, at once, be able to say, last, but, how long the Funding | whether any hope can be entersystem would last: and, every day, tained of you, or not. You may

source.

say, that is a question to be here- cannot be much longer paid with

after discussed. By no means. It out a resort to extraordinary r is the preliminary question. means; and one man has actually

Without coming to a decision proposed to take away the sixth on that, it is nonsense to talk

nonsense to talk part of every man's real property. about a Reform of the Parliament; Under such circumstances, is it because this latter never can take likely, that you and Mr. Hobo place as long as, by no matter house and Sir Robert Wilson and what means, that interest shall be young Mr. Whitbread will be paid to the full. If I was a fund- able, by soft persuasion, to preholder, and had my interest duly vail in the great families to make paid me, and had to depend on

a Reform that would put their this for my living at my ease, estales into the hands of men, would I listen to any proposition chosen by the people at large ? for changing the managers of the

You take a wrong viow of the nation's affairs? I believe not in. matter, if you proceed upon the ac deed! There are about three notion, that public opinion has el hundred thousand fundholders. now its former weight. Since

These, or the far greater part of 1816, this has been gradually be them, bate the Sinecure and Pen- coming of less and less conse

sion Gentry as much as I do; but, I quence with those who have the more they are embarked in the same management of the system. A

boat: they must swim along with military force, co-operating with those they hate, or sink : and, a magistracy armed with new and therefore, they are strenuously op- extraordinary powers, and the posed to any change in the system. whole more completely organized The Seat-owners would, doubtless, than almost anything in the

their mere power with re. world ever was; these have di. luctance. But, do you think, that vested the rulers of all care about they never look at their estates, any thing, except the Debt, its and consider how far they are appendages and corsequences.

pledged for the payment of the These, therefore, are the grounds had Debt? The fundholders have fre to work on; and, if well worked

quently reminded them, that these on in parliament, a prodigious estates are so pledged. It is easy effect would be produced in a very to see ; nay, every body now says short time. While, with regard it, that the interest of the Debt to Reform, the old story, without

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