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42, εγείρεται εν αφθαρσια- (εν δοξη-εν δυναμει). V. 50, 52. Luke 20: 36, ου γαρ αποθανειν ετι δυνανται. Phil. 3: 21, σωμα συμμορφον τω σωματι της δοξης αυτου (Χριστου). comp. Rom. 6: 9, Χριστος ουκετι αποθνησκει.

VHI. The body is sown a natural (sensual, animal) bodyit is raised a spiritual—we shall bear the image of the heavenly -God will destroy it (the stomach)—they neither marry nor are given in marriage, for they are like unto the angels, they are the sons of the resurrection. 1 Cor. 15:44-49, σπείρεται σωμα ψυχικόν, έγειρεται σωμα πνευματικών-φορεσομεν την ει κονα του επουρανιου. Phil. 3: 21 (ΙΙΙ. 7). 1 Cor. 6: 13, ο θεος την κοιλιαν καταργησει. Luke 20: 35, ουτε γαμουσιν, ουτε εκγαμισκονται, ισαγγελοι γαρ εισιν οι υιοι της αναστασεως.

IX. All those in the graves-(shall hear his voice)-that they should not be made perfect without us. John 5: 28, παντες οι εν τοις μνημείοις.

Ηeb. 11: 39, 40, ένα μη χωρις ημων τελειωθωσι.

X. The exceptions which are specified in Matth. 27: 52, 53, and Rev. 20:4, imply that in all other cases the general remark holds good. In reference to the first passage, it is remarked, in the New Apology for the revelation (§ 27), that the first resurrection, αναστασις πρωτη, ν. 5, 6, cannot be a symbolie resurrection, because it is placed in opposition to the resurrection of all the other dead, which will occur a thousand years terward.

XI. The hour cometh--at the last trumpet—the time of the dead—the seventh angel sounded--(God) hath appointed a day. John 5: 28, ερχεται ωρα. 1 Cor. 15: 52, εν τη εσχατη σαλπιγγι. Comp. Rev. 11: 18, ο καιρος των νεκρων. ν. 15, ο έβδομος αγγελος εσαλπισε. See $ 3. ΙΙΙ. 4. No. 1. Acts 17: 31, εστησεν ημεραν. Comp. $ 65.

XII. John 6: 39, 44, 54, αναστησω αυτoν εν τη εσχατη


rusoo I will raise him at the last day. 1 Cor. 15: 23, 24, ELTA TO talos then cometh the end. Then will come the time of the resurrection, when the human family shall no longer either be propagated by generation, or diminished by death (Mark 12: 25. Luke 20 : 35, 36); when the new order of things, o alov EXELVOS v. 35, shall take the place of the old, alwvos toutov in a word, the end of the present terrestrial life of man, ev in ouvTEMELỢ TOV alwvos. Matth. 13: 39, 49.

XIII. If the resuscitated body were not the residence (2 Cor. 5: 1) of the same spirit to which it was formerly attached (v. 10), it would not be the body of the blessed, to whom it had previously belonged ; nor would it be the same persons, who are raised from the dead (John 5: 29, oi ta eyata noinCAVTES. 6:40, oi nuotEVOAVTES) viz. those that do good—that believe; nor could it be called their resurrection. 1 Cor. 6:14. 2 Cor. 4: 14 &c.

Those who reject the idea of the resurrection of the human body, regard the expressions “resurrection,” “raising the dead, &c, partly as figurative representations of immortality, taken from the Jewish language and Jewish notions, (such are Des Cotes, Ammon, Tieftrunk, and Eckermann); and partly as signifying a moral resurrection of the unreformed. John 5 : 21, 24, 28. In Hammer's Dissertation entitled, Mortuorum in vitam revocatio sermonibus Christi historicae interpretationis ope vindicata, Leipsic, 1794, the literal interpretation is defended against Ammon, with the following arguments :--1. EJELDELV TOUS vExpovs xal SWOTOLELV to raise the dead and to make alive, is predicated of the Father, in its proper literal sense, in v. 21; and the same must also be applicable to the Son, for the works of the Father are attributed to him. — 2. The expressions “in the graves, " “the resurrection of life” (v. 28), could not well have been

1 Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek, B. III. S. 374.


understood by the hearers, in an allegorical sense ; as the whole discussion is neither poetic nor allegorical. - 3. Christ classes the resurrection of the dead, with his usibova soya or greater works, in reference to his healing on the Sabbath day. v. 516. These "greater works " must necessarily have been such as were subjects of ocular observation, such as the Jews expected of their Messiah. - 4. The supposition, that Christ intended to describe the moral resurrection, with figures drawn from Dan. 12:2, is not only destitute of proof, but is actually improbable; for there is not a single word which gives the least intimation of such an allusion; moreover, the words are not those of Daniel, nor is Daniel, in the passage to which we refer, at all speaking of a moral resurrection.?

In Fichte's Critique on all Revelations, the resurrection of the body is represented as an instance in which the divine Word condescends to the comprehension of man; and in order to render our future existence comprehensible to us, represents it in all its present relations and circumstances. In reply to this, Süskind has observed, 2 « The supposition that Jesus himself meant nothing more by resurrection, than the immortality of the spirit, because the proof adduced by him against the Pharisees (Luke 20: 38) is said to refer only to immortality and not to the resurrection,” is removed by the following interpretation 3 of this text: “Concerning the resurrection of the dead, which has been denied by you (Pharisees), upon the ground that the dead have no longer any existence at all, I would remind you of that passage in which God declares that he is the God of Abraham who had been dead a long time. The dead therefore most certainly do still exist, and therefore their bodies also can be raised to life again, εγείρονται.»

1 Opusc. Acad. Vol. III. p. 141. &c. 153.

2 Süskind's Appendix to the translation of the Annotationes in Kantii philos. de religione doctrinam, p. 176. Note 61.

3 Dissert. de Vita Beata, Note. 56.

XIV. John 5: 29. ($ 58. IN. 7). Rev. 20: 15.

XV. 1 Cor. 15: 51, ημεις (οι ζωντες) αλλαγησομεθα we (the living) shall be changed. Thess. 4: 15–17.

XVI. Change of the earth.--Rom. 8: 23. comp. v. 19. According to this


“the deliverance of the creature [of creation) from the bondage of corruption,” will fall within the time of “the revelation [glorious liberty, sonship] of the sons of God. Rom. 8 : 23. comp. 19 &c, chevtEpwois ans XTLOEDS απο της δουλειας της φθορας-αποκαλυψις (ελευθερια της δοξης, υιοθεσια) των υίων του θεου.

According to Rev. 20: 12 (comp. v. 11), the resurrection of the dead will fall within the time in which the earth shall vanish before him that sits upon the throne, Equyev vyn. After the resurrection, there will be a new earth xaivan yn 21: 1. This transformation in Heb. 12: 27, is called ustasois a change, transmutation.

The different later explanations of the word *TLois creature or creation, on the meaning of which the sense of the whole passage, Rom. 8:23, depends, are the following :- 1. The whole visible creation, nature. This explanation is here assumed, and is also adopted by Koppe. — 2. Irrational creatures—Michaelis. - 3. Jews and Gentiles in general, who had not yet professed christianity;l or the Jewish and pagan inhabitants of the city of Rome and the surrounding country.- 4. Mankind in general, as far as they are sensual. 5. Unbelieving Jews.4 — 6.

1 Nachtigall in Henke's Mag. 2t Bd. Pt. 2. p. 272.
2 Bauer ebenddas. IV, Bd. Pt. 2. p. 379.
3 Berger's versuch einer Einleitung ins N. Test. Th. III. S. 60 ff.

4 Findeisen Abhandlung über Rom. 8: 23. in Velthusen, Kuinöl, und Ruperti Com. Theol. Vol. IV. 260 ff.

no. 3.


Gentile and Jewish Christians.-Schleusner, Lex. art. XTIOIS

7. Gentile christians, 8. The Jewish christians in Palestine,

Several of the older explanations may be found in Nachtigall's Dissert. on Rom. 8: 19-24.3 The objections against the explanations Nos. 4 and 8, are stated in Flatt's Dissert. Annotationes ad loca quaedam Epistolae ad Romanos. The author there proves, that those explanations are not only founded on an unauthorised meaning of the word xtious, but that the predicates also which are applied to atlois (v. 19-22), are inconsistent with the sense adopted in those explanations. And the same objections may in general be urged against all the above explanations excepting that of No. 1.

XVI. The consummatio seculi."--This great change is not confined to the earth, but also extends to that heaven in which the stars are placed. I will shake not only the earth but also heaven--the earth and heaven fled away--the present heavens and earth are reserved for the fire--the heavens and the elements; or rather sun, moon and stars, as Bengelius has proved in his Gnomon. Heb. 12: 26, OELW OV uovov tnu ynu αλλα και τον ουρανoν. Rev. 20: 11, εφυγεν η γη και ó

ουρανος. . 2 Pet. 3: 7, οι νυν ουρανοι και η γη τεθησαυρισμενοι εισι πυρι και comp- with ν. 10, οι ουρανοι-στοιχεια.

If the parts of the new world are to be connected together, it is very probable that no great revolution could occur in the earth without affecting also at least those heavenly bodies which are in immediate connexion with it. This remark may serve as an argument against the explanation of OTOIXELA (elements, constituent parts of the earth), given by Henke, as meaning

No. V. p.

1 Noesselt Comment. ad loc. Pauli Rom. 8: 19 &c. Opusc. Acad. Vol. I.

111. 2 Gockel in Augusti's monatschrift. für 1801. No. I. p. 51. 3 Henke's New Magazine, Vol. II. 2.

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