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the effect to render the expectation of its future augmentation, not an impatient, but a pleasing and confident expectation which shall enhance the value of our present enjoyment. Similar to this will be the progressive improvement in moral excellence in the world to come (§ 62). In this case also the pleasure arising from the consciousness of our moral attainments will be enhanced by the expectation of future growth in virtue, and will at least never be disturbed by reproaches of conscience for neglect of duty. No blessed spirit will be dissatisfied at not having yet attained the highest degree of moral perfection, but will much rather rejoice at his regular and constant ascent from one grade of moral perfection to another. Finally, the disapprobation of the sins of our present life, will be divested of pain, by our increased knowledge and enjoyment of the Redeemer and his merits ; so that our confidence in divine grace will render that penitent recollection rather pleasing than painful. 1

XII. In 2 Cor. 5:6-8, the “ being absent from the Lord"2 during our residence in the body, is derived (yao) from “ walking by faith and not by sight." The“ being at home with the Lord,"4 on account of which the "departure from the body"5 is desirable, is therefore by virtue of the antithesis, “a walking by sight and not by faith,” [περιπατειν δια ειδους ου δια πιστεws].

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1 See Dissert. de Vita Beata, p. 30. Opusc. Acad. Vol. II. p. 108. Vol. III. p. 41.

2 2 Cor. 5: 6-8, εκδημειν απο του κυριου.
3 2 Cor. 5: 7, δια πιστεως γαρ περιπατουμεν, ου δια ειδους.
4 2 Cor. 5: 7, ενδημησαι προς τον κυριον.
5 2 Cor. 5: 8, εκδημησαι εκ του σωματος.

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§ 61.

The resurrection of the body, and changes of our world. But those effects, also, which death has on the body, shall be removed (1). For the same (2) body which was exposed to corruption, and which experienced a dissolution of its particles (3), while the soul was in a state of happy existence, shall be raised by the power of God (4), and be brought to a state of renovated life (5). Being changed to other (6), to immortal (7) bodies, which are perfectly adapted to that higher life (8) which is to come, and is totally different from the present animal life, the bodies (9) of all (10) the saints shall, at a particular appointed (11) time,“ at the last day,” (12) be raised from the dead and be reunited to their happy spirits (13). At the same time, the bodies of the wicked also shall be raised (14), and the bodies of the persons then living shall suddenly be transformed into a state similar to that of those arisen from the dead (15). Simultaneously with this universal transmutation of all human bodies, a similar transmutation of the earth will occur (16), which will also extend to other worlds (17). The visible world shall be consumed with fire (18); that it may no longer be subject to decay (19), and that in its renovated form (20), it may constitute a part of heaven or (21) the glorious kingdom of God (22, 23). Those citizens, therefore, of the celestial kingdom (24), who belonged to the human family, shall receive, not only their bodies in a renovated state, worthy of the heavenly kingdom (25), but also their former residence (26) in such a condition (27) as shall be perfectly adapted to the dignity and the happiness which they shall then possess. Rom. 8: 19-21.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

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I. 1 Cor. 15:20--26, εσχατος εχθρος καταργείται ο θαvatos the last enemy that shall be destroyed, is death. v. 54, 57, κατεπoθη ο θανατος εις νικος death is swallowed up in victory.

II. Who shall change our vile body (literally, our body of vileness)—that which thou sowest, is not quickened, unless it die--God giveth to every seed its own body. Phil. 3:21, μετασχηματισει το σωμα της ταπεινωσεως ημων. 1 Cor. 15: 36, συ ο σπειρεις, ου ζωοποιειται, εαν μη αποθανη. V. 38, ο θεος διδωσι έκαστο των σπερματων το ιδιον σωμα. .

Just as herbs come forth from the seed, and in their nature correspond to the seed that was sown ; thus, from the dead body shall the future body arise, to owua yevnoouevov, v. 37. But, just as the seed, which contains the germ of the future herb, must experience a great change, anotavelv, and receive to itself many foreign particles (v. 37, 38); so also will the future body not consist exclusively of the constituent particles of the dead body." In 1 Cor. 15 : 53, we read, del to Ivntov TOUTO Evdvoaotai atavagiav this mortal must be clothed in immortality; and Rom. 8: 1, ζωοποιησει τα θνητα σωματα υμων he shall quicken your mortal bodies.

III. It is sown in corruption—in dishonour—in weakness -all who are in the graves.

1 Cor. 15: 42, ONELQETAL EV 990ρα-εν ατιμια-εν ασθενεια. John 5: 28, παντες οι εν τοις μνηMELOLS.

IV. By the power by which he is able to subject all things unto himself--the power of God—God shall raise us up by his power-Christ was raised from the dead, by the glory of the Father--the working of his mighty power which he exerted in

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1 Michaelis'

p. 729-731.

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Christ, when he raised him from the dead. Phil. 3:21, xata την ενεργειας του δυνασθαι αυτον και υποταξαι εαυτω τα παντα. . Matth. 22: 29, duvauis tou geou. Acts 26 : 8. 1 Cor. 6: 14, ο θεος εξεγείρει ημας δια της δυναμεως αυτου. Rom. 8: 11, comp. with 6: 4, ηγέρθη Xριστος εκ νεκρων δια της δοξης του πατρος. Εph. 1: 19, 20, ενεργεία του κράτους του ισχυος αυτου ην ενηργησεν εν τω Χριστω, εγειρας αυτον εκ νεκρων. must know God, the Almighty, if we are to believe in the resurrection.--He is the Author of the new life of our bodies." Rom. 4: 17, 21. 1 Cor. 15: 38.1

V. All the living and the dead shall be transformed.”— Phil. 3: 21, μετασχηματισει. 1 Cor. 15: 51, παντες αλλαγησοusta. Now, as those who shall be living at the time of the resurrection, will not cast off their bodies entirely (2 Cor. 5:2— 4), as their bodies will only exchange their old properties for new ones, επενδυσασθαι ένα καταποθη το θνητον υπο της ζωης, and they thus retain the same body, with new properties (1 Cor. 15: 53); it follows, that the dead also will receive their old bodies, only in a renovated form. In both cases there is a renovation. In both cases, in the dead and the living, the corruptible must put on incorruption, δει το φθαρτον τουτο ενδυσασθαι την αφθαρσιαν. .

In the Dissert. de Vita Beata, the passage 2 Cor. 5: 2, 4, is explained thus : “As it is the natural desire of our spirits, to inhabit a body; our groanings under the sufferings to which we are exposed in our present frail body, extort from us the wish, not only to be delivered from the present sufferings of the body, but to receive a body of a different structure, to receive a heavenly body (v. 1) instead of the earthly one; and especially, to receive it in such a manner, Evdugaofat, v. 3, that we might

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never be without a body; that we might receive it without laying off our earthly body (ETTEVDUO2ofa v. 2, 4), without dying, (that mortality might be swallowed up in life). In such a change we should never be divested of body; and thus the desire of our nature would be fully gratified.” Kant, in his “ Religionslehre” (S. 183), in opposition to the resurrection of the body in the future life, has remarked, "reason can see no advaptage in the supposition, that a body, which, however much it

may

have been purified, is still to be formed substantially of the same materials; a body, to which we have never been rightly attached in this life, should be dragged after us through all eternity. Nor can reason comprehend what would be the use of this body, which consists of earth, in heaven, i. e. in another part of the universe, in which probably other substances than matter are necessary to the existence and preservation of living beings.” In reply to these remarks, it may be observed that no reason can be assigned why we should have a decided aversion to a future union with our bodies; for it cannot be denied that the body affords the spirit very great advantages; and we have no reason to expect that the sufferings which result from the structure of our present body, will be concomitant on the future renovated body. Nor can it be maintained, as Kant has asserted, that the most minute particles of our bodies, the ultimate elementary principles of which it consists, which no chemical science has ever been able to reach, are of such a nature as to disqualify it for existence in our future residence, the nature of which is totally unknown to us.

VI. 1 Cor. 15:37, 39-50.

VII. It is raised in incorruption--in glory--in power--for they cannot die any more-that our body may be formed like unto Christ's glorious body--Christ dieth no more. I Cor. 15:

1 Annotat. ad Kantii Philosoph. de rel. doctrinam, II. p. 6.

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