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§ 58.

The nature of future punishment.

The magnitude of that misery, which those who abandon themselves to the propensities of their sinful nature, entail upon themselves, is evident from the description of the lot which awaits the wicked in the future world. We are told that severe punishments await them (1); punishments which consist partly in the consequences that naturally and necessarily follow (2) a life of servitude to sin, and partly in such external evils as the God and Judge of the human family shall see fit, voluntarily (3) and by his omnipotence, to inflict (4). The latter (positive) punishments include the separation from all holy beings and a union with wicked spirits (5), being situated in a mournful and unhappy place (6), a constitution of our body adapted to suffer pain (7), the body being either raised(8) from the dead, or (in the case of those then yet living) transformed by the divine omnipotence (8 61, 65. Ill. 7) (9). The final punishment of the wicked will, indeed, not begin until the awful (10) day of judgment; but their punishment, in general, begins immediately at their departure from this life (11), and will never terminate through all eternity (12).

cati origine), we read, “ Idem docent, quod post lapsum Adae omnes homines secundum naturam propagati nascantur cum peccato, hoc est, sine metu Dei, sine fiducia erga Deum, et cum concupiscentia, quodque hic morbus, seu vitium originis vere sit peccatum, damnans et afferens nunc quoque aeternam mortem his qui non renascantur per Baptismum et Spiritum Sanctum.” i, e. We teach that after the fall of Adam, all men who are naturally bora, are born in sin, that is, born with evil desires, and without the fear of God, and without faith in him &c. See also Dr Loehman's History &c. of Lutheran church, printed at Harrisburg, 1818.

Dr Mosheim (Elementa Theol, Dog. Vol. I. p. 540) says “ Haec corruptio naturae nostrae, tametsi involuntaria sit, et a parentibus nostris in nos derivata, nobis tamen in foro divino, tanquam peccatum imputatur. Quare si nullum aliud accederet peccatum, propter hanc ipsam corruptionem nos poenis divinis ob noxii essemus, i. e. this depravity of our nature, although it is involuntary in us, and derived from our first parents, is nevertheless imputed to us as sin in the chancery of heaven. Wherefore, if no other sin were added, we should be exposed to divine punishments on account of this depravity itself.”

The sentiments of the divines of New England may be seen in the following extract from Dr Woods's Letters to Unitarians &c. (p. 44, 45). "On this particular point our opinions have often been misrepresented. We are said to hold that God dooms a whole race of innocent creatures to destruction, or considers them all as deserving destruction, for the sin of one man. Now, when I examine the respectable writings of the earlier Calvinists generally, on the subject of original sin, I find nothing that resembles such a statement as this. It is true, exceptionable language has in some instances been used ; and opinions which I should think erroneous, have sometimes been entertained on this subject. But the Orthodox in New England, at the present day, are not chargeable with the same fault. The imputation of Adam's sin to his posterity, in any sense which those words naturally and properly convey, is a doctrine which we do not believe. If any shall say, that " for God to give Adam a posterity like himself, and to impute his sin to them, is one and the same thing, I should not object to such an imputation-But the word imputation has, in my view, been improperly used in relation to this subject, and has occasioned unnecessary perplexity.” S.]


I. The punishment of the wicked.—Luke 16: 23, ó filovσιος υπαρχων εν βασανoις the rich man being in torments. . Μatth. 25 : 46, απελευσονται εις κολασιν αιωνιον they shall depart into everlasting punishment. 2 Cor. 5: 10. 2 Thess. 1: 6, 8. Rom. 2: 5, 6, 8, 9, τοις πειθομενοις τη αδικια θυμος και οργη θλιψις και στενοχωρια επι πασαν ψυχην ανθρωπου του κατεργαζομενου το κακον to them that obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath; tribulation and anguish upon every soul of man that doeth evil. Heb. 10: 27, nyoos Snhos, xoʻLELV MERλοντος τους υπεναντιους a fiery Zeal that shall devour the adversaries. Comp., v. 29, 31. 6: 2. The expressions “zeal “and wrath of God,” Sydos, Supos oorn, signify nothing else but the just punishments of God, which he inflicts upon the wicked ($ 24). Thus, in Rom. 2: 5, "wrath” is used in connexion with “righteous judgment of God,” ocyndixaloxgioia saov; and in Heb. 10: 29, the expression “fiery zeal” is ex

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plained by the word “punishment,” tipwpias, and by the phrase “ hands of the living God,” XELDES TOU TEOU Gorros, “the punitive omnipotence of God.”! As death is the prominent and most evident punishment which befalls depraved man in this world, this word is used to designate the whole punishment to which he is subjected in the present world, as well as that which awaits the impenitent in the world to come. Thus it is called death, and by other names equivalent to it. Matth 10:28, anwhela destruction, “ to be destroyed in hell.” John 3: 15, 17, that he (the believer) should not be destroyed, but have eternal life. Phil. 3: 19, whose end is destruction. 2 Thess. 1: 9, oletos, ruin, "everlasting ruin." Thess. 5: 3,“ sudden ruin cometh upon them.” 1 Tim. 6 : 9. Gal. 6:8, 98000, from the flesh shall reap corruption. John 8:51, Savatos, death, “shall never see death.” John 11:26, shall never die. 6: 50. That part of the future punishment which the wicked shall suffer after the resurrection and transformation of their bodies and the awful judgment of the world, is designated by the peculiar name of “the second death,” DEUTENOS Javatos. Thus the expression is used in Rev. 20: 14, (where, accordingly, are also mentioned the judgment of the world (v. 12, 13) and the general resurrection), and in 21: 8. 20: 6. 2: 11. The origin of this last name seems to be derived from this circumstance : at the time of the general resurrection and final judgment, a new life will indeed begin, which is opposed to death in as far as that consists in a separation of soul and body. But this new existence will not, in the case of the wicked, deserve the name of life, for the reunion of soul and body in them is a new death, a death of soul and body, και ψυχης και σωματος απωλεια. Μatth. 10: 28.

II. See Eckermann's Comp. Theolog. Christianae The oreticae, p. 184; and Steinbart's System of the pure doctrine

1 See note y, on this passage, in the Comment. on Hebrews.


VOL. ll.

concerning the utmost possible happiness, as taught by christianity, $ 81, No. 5. p. 201 &c.

III. The punishments termed POSITIVE, are not therefore merely arbitrary.- It has been proved that the existence of positive punishments, in contradistinction to those which are the natural and necessary consequence of vice, must be admitted.' But it does not follow that positive punishments are merely arbitrary. For, not to mention the beneficial influence which the example of the punishment of the wicked may exert on the more obedient subjects of God; some of the positive punishments, such as the separation of the good from the wicked, are even necessary in order that the blessedness of the righteous may be perfect. Nay, the misery of the wicked would be still greater, if they were totally abandoned to the inordinate passions of each other, if they were entirely given up to the natural effects of these passions, and were not in some degree restrained by the melancholy situation in which they are placed, and by the other punishments which they endure. 3

IV. Matth. 10: 28, τον δυναμενον ψυχην και σωμα απολεOAL EV YEEvvn who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. 2 Thess. 1: 9, δικην τισουσιν-απο της δοξης της ισχυος αυτου (sc. xvolov) they shall suffer punishment_far from the glory of his power. See also Heb. 10: 31. Ill. I.

V. The wicked will dwell together, separated from the righteous.-Luke 16: 26, χασμα μεγα εστηρικται μεταξυ ημων sai vu wv there is a great gulf fixed between us and you; so that they that would pass from here to you, cannot; neither can they from thence, pass to us. Luke 13: 28, υμας εκβαλλομενους εξω (της βασιλειας των ουρανων) you being cast out from the kingdom of heaven. Matth. 8: 12, οι υιοι της βασιλειας εκβληθησονται the Sons of the kingdom shall be cast out. Μatth. 13: 40-43, 48, 50, οι αγγελοι συλλέξουσιν εκ της βασιλειας αυτου παντα τα σκανδαλα και τους ποιουντας την ανομιαναφοριουσι τους πονηρους εκ μεσου των δικαιων the angels will gather together all that offend, and those that do evil—they shall separate the wicked from the midst of the just. Μatth. 25: 32-34, 41, αφοριεί αυτους απ' αλληλων (ο υιος του ανθρωπου) (the Son of man) shall separate them from one another. Rev. 22:14,15, εξω (της πολεως) πας και φιλων και ποιων ψευδος without the city is every one that loveth and maketh a lie. See also Rev. 21: 8. 20: 15, 20.

1 Flatt's Mag. Vol. II. No. 6. 66 Examination of a new Theory of rewards and punishments," in refutation of Abicht and Eckermann, who assert “that external evils can never be regarded as the punishment of guilt." See also Süskind's remarks on the German translation of the Observations on Kant's Philosophy of religion, Note 62. p. 178.

2 See the work on the Object of the death of Christ, p. 607.

3 See Jacobi's Reflections on the wise purposes of God, Pt. I. p. 192 ; and the Easy and satisfactory proof of the existence of God and truth of Religion, p. 252.

VI. In Luke 16: 28, the state of the wicked is called τοπος της βασανου place of torment. Μatth. 25: 41, πορεύεσθε απ' εμου--εις το πυρ το αιωνιον depart from me-into everlasting fire. Mark 9:44, 46, 48, η γεεννα του πυρος, όπου– into the hell of fire, where (their worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched). The mournful nature of the residence of the wicked, is described by various figurative expressions : "outer darkness-I am tormented in this flame-furnace of fire-unquenchable fire, where their worm dieth not—the blackness of darkness-shall be tormented in fire and brimstone and the smoke of their torment ascendeth the lake of fire that burneth with brimstone.” Matth. 8: 12. 22: 13. 25: 30, σκοτος εξωτερον. Luke 16: 24, οδυνωμαι εν τη φλογι ταυτη, (comp. Μatth. 25: 41.) Matth. 13: 50, 42, καμινος του πυρος. Mark 9: 43-48, πυρ ασβεστον, όπου ο σκωληξ αυτων ου τελευτα. Jude 13, ζοφος του σκοτους. Comp. Rev. 14: 10, 11, βασανισθησεται εν πυρι και θειω-και ο καπνος του βασανισμου αυτων αναβαινει. 19: 20, λιμνη πυρος καιομενη εν θειω. 20: 14. 21: 8. The figure

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