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X. 1 Cor. 15: 48, as the earthly, such are the earthly. Gen. 5: 3, Adam begat children in his own likeness [inana


XI. The propagation of this depravity is the natural result of a law of our nature, which is in itself salutary (Gen. 1:28). And the unhappy effects of this law, on the descendents of Adam, can no more be charged on the Author of nature, than that misery can, which, in the course of the operation of these laws, is entailed on the innocent children of such parents as have by their wicked life contracted a hereditary disease.

XII. In no other way than by the natural inheritance of the sinful propensities of parents by the children, could the necessity of dying have been extended to all men on account of the individual act of transgression by Adam (Rom. 5: 15–17). For it was from this one sin, that the sinful disposition of Adam proceeded; and through him this disposition, which involves the necessity of death, was propagated over the whole human family. This is the only interpretation which accords with the declaration of Paul (Rom. 5: 12--19), that auagria [depravity], and through duapria, death, were entailed on the whole human family. 2 Moreover, the doctrine of the propagation of depravity by natural generation from Adam, is closely connected with the important doctrine of the gracious provision of God for the redemption of the human family, and in various points of view, tends to throw much light upon this subject.3

Jost is disposed almost totally to reject the connexion between the propositions δι' ενος ανθρωπου η αμαρτια, και δια της duaotias ó Javaros, i. e. the connexion between the mortality of mankind and the first sin of Adam, through the instrumentality of universal auaotia, “ sin or depravity,” which Paul maintains. He supposes that the object of the apostle in this passage was, to meet the objection which might possibly be urged, that if mankind had actually been reconciled to God through Christ, they would necessarily be delivered from death, it being a punishment of sin ; and to prove that death cannot properly be regarded as a punishment, at least not in every instance; and that men might certainly be mortal without being deserving of punishment. The prominent idea which he supposes to be contained in the 12th and subsequent verses, he expresses thus : “Adam sinned—the punishment of his sin was death, and this became, in some sense, a general punishment which was inflicted on all men, and which could not well be dispensed with, because God had found it necessary to connect it with Adam's

1 Uber den Zweck des Todes Jesu, S. 656. 2 Sup. cit. 651.

3 See 88 55, 59, 65, 73, 116. Compare the Dissertation on the practical importance of the doctrine concerning the gracious influences of the Holy Spirit, ' 8. b.


XIII. See the work on the Object of the death of Christ, p. 653 &c. Note t. and De Maree sup. cit. p. 324–329.

XIV. 2 Cor. 5: 21, he that knew not sin. 1 John 3: 5, there is no sin in him. 1 Pet. 3: 18, Christ suffered the just for the unjust. Here Christ, as the only just person, is distinguished from those for whom he suffered, i. e. from all mankind (966), they being in comparison with him declared not as just, but unjust. 1 Ρet. 1: 19, αμνου αμωμου και ασπιλου Χριστου Christ, the lamb, without blemish and without spot. Heb. 7: 26, όσιος, ακακος, αμιαντος, κεχωρισμενος απο των αμαρτωλων holy, innocent, undefiled, and separated from sinners.

XV. Luke 1: 34 &c. compare Matth. 1: 16—20, 25. See $ 75.

XVI. In the Dissertation on the Object of the death of Christ, it is maintained that the universality of depravity results from the circumstance that all are descended ultimately from one (father) by whom they are begotten [Adam]; and that

therefore this depravity is always traced to Adam, and not to Eve.

$ 56.

More particular view of this innate depravity. This natural depravity (1) consists in inordinate and violent propensities to the objects and pleasures of sense; propensities which “ war” against reason and conscience (2), against that which accords with the law of God and with propriety, Rom. 7: 16, 22, 25. It therefore consists in a preponderance of the propensities of our nature for the objects and pleasures of sense, which may indeed, for a while, remain unobserved; but will immediately manifest itself (3), so soon as our reason and ability to discriminate between right and wrong, begin to be unfolded. This preponderance is evinced by so great an aversion (4) to the law of God (5), that we are enticed by the law itself to resist its injunctions, and are, as it were, challenged to direct our attention and exert our agency in reference to objects, of which we should not have thought, had it not been for the intervention of the law (6); in short, it discovers itself by a decided (7) inclination (8) to that which is sinful and forbidden (9). We must indeed first voluntarily submit (10) ourselves to the dominion of these inordinate propen

(1 There is no word in the English language which corresponds exactly to sinnlich, and Sinnlichkeit in the German Sensual has too much of the idea of carnal, and sensation too little. “ Sense,” as distinguished from reason, in the phrase "pleasures of sense, comes nearest to it; but the German word more distinctly includes the idea that they are of an inferior, sinful nature. S.]

sities, before this unlawful and defective(11) inclination of our nature can be charged to our account; we must first cherish these lawless propensities (12), or evince (13) our voluntary obedience to them by our actions (14). But so great is the influence which this preponderance of the propensities for the objects and pleasures of sense has upon man (15), that it sometimes prevents him from approving and embracing the truth (16), and sometimes, in defiance of his better knowledge, hurries him into sin (17). And even those who, by the grace of God, have been delivered from the dominion of this innate depravity (18), are still subject to this defective inclination of our nature (19); they must carry on a constant warfare (20) lest they relapse under the dominion of this natural depravity. This conflict retards and renders difficult their progress in sanctification (21); and as the result is often so disastrous, frequently affixes many a stain to the piety of the best of men (22).


1. Depravity; n duaçtı.—Rom. 5:12. 7: 8 &c. 6: 12. Man, as far as he is affected with this innate depravity, or as far as it is a fountain of sin in him [οικει εν αυτω η αμαρτια Rom. 7: 17], is called oop flesh. Thus in ch. 7: 25, Paul says, , τη σαρκι δουλευω νομω αμαρτιας «I follow the inclination of my (innate) depravity [oapxi], in as far as I am affected by it." And in V. 18, ουκ οικει εν εμοι, τουτέστιν εν τη σαρκι μου, αγαfov in me, as far as I am caoß [flesh or depraved], dwelleth nothing good.-- Thus also in Matth. 26: 41, Christ calls man caoš, ar tevns, in as far as he is flesh, i. e. weak to that which is good (Rom. 5: 6, cotevns. v. 8, đuaptokos)—weak in spirit πνευμα-weak in the inner man εν τω εσω ανθρωπον or νους (v. 7, 22, 23, 25); and on the contrary, inclined to evil, easily led astray EIS nelpaquov EISEOXETAL (James 1: 4). But this sinful propensity itself, which is the source of sin (Gal. 5: 19), i. e. the duagrid, is called oups 1 flesh; and hence those who obey these lusts are termed fleshly, odpxıxou (Rom. 7: 14), or, which amounts to the same idea, οι κατα σαρκα οντες-οι εν gooxı ortes they that are according to the flesh (Rom. 8:5). As our innate depravity is primarily seated in the body, it is, though the mind is decidedly affected by it, called flesh or body, [gaps or owua]; for these two words are interchanged with one another. Rom 8: 13. comp. Gal. 5: 19, 24.

II. Rom. 7: 15, 17, 19–21, 23, the law in my members wars against the law (or dictates) of my reason.

III. Rom. 7: , 9, when the law came, my depravity revived. See $ 55. Ill. 8.

IV. Rom. 8: 7. 7: 13.

V. Rom. 7:10, 12 &c, the commandment unto life is good.

VI. Rom. 7: 5, 8, without the law sin is dead.
VII. Rom. 7: 18, 23. 8: 7. Gal. 5: 17.

VIII. Gal. 5:16 &c, Eni Vula fapxos the lust of the Hesh. v. 24, η σαρξ συν-ταις επιθυμίαις, the lesh with the lusts. Rom. 7: 5, ta nainuata twv duaptiov the motions or desires of sin. 6: 12. Ephes. 2: 3. 4: 22, ó nahalos aviewπος ο φθειρομενος κατα τας επιθυμιας της απατης, the old man that is corrupted by deceitful lusts. James 11: 14.

IX. Many things have the appearance of being good, and yet, in truth, are inconsistent with the law of God. Such specious works of philanthropy and holiness are rejected by our Saviour, Matth. 5: 1,5; and by Paul, in 1 Cor. 13: 3, and though

1 Gal.

16, 17, 13. Rom. 8: 67.

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