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same loveth little. 1 John 4: 19. v. 16, 9. Heb. 12 : 28. 8: 11, 12.

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XIV. 1 John 4:9-11. John 15: 12--14. Eph. 5:2. Phil. 2: 4-8. Rom. 14: 15.

XV. 1 John 5:3, this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments. John 15: 14, ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you. Heb. 8: 10, 11 &c.

XVI. Rom. 12: 1, 2 compared with 3:21–11: 32. 2 Pet. 1: 4, “God, according to his glorious grace, hath given us great promises, in order that ye may continue to become more like unto him (continue to become more holy as he is holy). "I

$ 120.

Genuine sorrow for sin, and its connexion with faith and refor


The origin of genuine faith is also accompanied by sorrow for sin (1), that is a knowledge of our sinful state (2), accompanied by painful feelings (3). This penitence produces an aversion to sin, and a desire for holiness (2 Cor. 7:11), and thus, if faith be combined with it, promotes a salutary change of mind and reformation of life, uetavolav (4). And faith, or reliance on God and Christ (5), will alike prevent a despair of attaining salvation (6), and excite our zeal in the conflict with

sin (7).

1 On the Design of Christ's Death, p. 417,


1. Repentance and conversion.--It is indeed true, that the word μετανοια change of mind, does signify sorrow, μεταμελεια, (which meaning Michaelis prefers),' not only in pure Greek, but also in Hebraistic Greek. Examples of this are found in Ecclesiasticus 17:24; in Wisdom of Solomon 5: 3; in the version of the LXX, who frequently render the word one by metaVOELV; and even in the New Testament itself, e. g. Luke 17: 4. But when this salutary change in man is spoken of, Metas voca embraces the entire change, including its two constituents, sorrow for sin, and faith, and not sorrow (Aunnv) alone. Thus in Luke 15: 7, 10, this word evidently indicates the entire change of the sinner ;; and the essential parts of this change are, in the parable of the prodigal son, represented as consisting in sorrow (v. 17–19), and faith or confident reliance on his father (v. 18, 20). On the contrary, ustavola change of mind, is represented as the consequence of luan sorrow, penitence, in 1 Cor. 7: 9, 10. Acts 2: 37, 38. But, that penitence or sorrow, MetQuedela, constitutes a part of the entire change of mind, ustavoid, is evident from the expression “ for godly sorrow worketh a salutary reformation never to be repented of,” ustaVOLG Els oornplav austausintos, which is used in 2 Cor. 7: 10, in specific reference to the fact that penitence or sorrow is included in the entire change or reformation. Thus also the change of mind, Metavola, which John the Baptist required Matth. 3: 2, 11, or that change from which a different mode of thinking and acting should result, was at least connected with a knowledge of our sins. v. 8, 10, 6. The command of our Saviour, "METAVOEITE Mark 1:15, requires an entire change of mind, like that which John the Baptist taught. For, the sup-, plementary phrase, “ believe in the Gospel,” is not used for the purpose of showing that ustavolo does not include faith ; its object is, to call our attention to the fact that this petavola change of mind, is produced through the instrumentality of the Gospel, or by faith in the doctrines of Christ ( 121). In the parallel passage, Matth. 4: 17, this word is used alone, because it properly signifies, not merely sorrow for sin, but an entire change of mind.

1 Dogmatik, $ 148. 2 Schleusner's Lex. N. Test. T. II. p. 113. No. 1. 3$ 119, 111, 4. 4 On the Design of Christ's death, p. 394.

The reason why “repentance towards God” and " faith in our Lord Jesus Christ,” are distinguished and mentioned separately in Acts 20: 21, was, the design of the apostle to describe this change with a peculiar reference to Jews and Gentiles (1 Thess. 1: 9, 10). In gentile subjects of conversion, the most striking feature of the change was found in their views concerning God; for, having been idolaters before, they had never properly known and worshipped him. Acts 14: 15. 15: 19. On the other hand, when a Jew was converted, the most prominent part of his change referred to his views of Jesus, and consisted in his conviction that he was Christ the Lord.1

II. The knowledge of our sinful state, with which our salutary change must commence, consists in a conviction that we are guilty,3 miserable creatures, and in a just acquaintance

1 Dissert. in Ep. ad Philem. Note 115.

2 Eph. 5: 13, “He who will suffer himself to be reproved by the light [to be brought to a knowledge and abborrence of his sins, through the admonitions and example of christians], thereby comes forth out of his former darkness (in which he neither knew nor felt his misery). Hence, a certain hymn says; “ If you will suffer yourself to be awakened from the slumber of your indifference, and delivered from your unhappy condition, Christ will daily make you better and happier.” Dissert. in Epp. Pauli minores, p. 23—25. James 4: 9. Dissert. in Epist. Jacobi, Note 147.

3 Luke 15 : 18, 21, I have sinned against heaven and in thy sight &c. Jer. 14: 20. Dan. 9: 5.



with our own situation, which must necessarily be connected with mournful and painful feelings. Luke 18: 13. Ps. 51: 19. Jer. 31 : 19. James 4: 9. But as we are to be saved, not by any merit of our own, but on account of the sufferings of the Redeemer, this sorrow for sin could not be necessary for its own sake, or for the purpose that man might be punished at least with the painful sense of his sins, and thus make some satisfaction for them. But it is the unavoidable consequence of an accurate knowledge of ourselves, which is essentially necessary to the existence of a true conversion, of joy for pardoned sin (James 4:10), and of a genuine and salutary faith (Rom. 4:5 -9). In the passages 1 John 1: 8 &c. Jer. 2:35. 3:13. Ps. 32:5. 51: 5 &c, the proposition is plainly taught, that those only who are conscious of their sins, can obtain pardon. From these considerations it is evident, that no general standard can be settled which shall be applicable to every individual, either for the exact measure to which his sorrow for sin must rise, or for the degree in which those painful feelings must be outwardly manifested. The penitential sorrow of different individuals may be genuine, though there may be a diversity, both in the degree of the feelings themselves, and in the manner of manifesting them; provided, their sorrow be the result of sincere and earnest conviction of their sins, and detestation of them.

III. This conviction of sin and sorrow for it, are essentially necessary. Gal. 3:24. Luke 18: 13. 25: 17-20. If, like the Pharisee of old (Luke 18: 11, 9), we depend on our own morality (ediav dixaloouvrv Rom. 10: 3.), and consequently do not acknowledge our guilt, and the righteousness appointed by God ;t we reject the doctrine of the free grace (pardon] of God, and therefore shall not obtain the pardon of our sins. It is a just sense of his guilt and misery, which awakens in man the desire for the divine favour : “The publican standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast saying, God be merciful to me a sinner.94 The law, from which we derive a knowledge of sin (Rom. 3: 20), and the knowledge of sin itself, lead us to Christ. And the sinner, finding that he cannot depend upon his own merits, now gladly accepts salvation through faith (reliance on Jesus ), and having thus learned the great value of the doctrine of salvation through grace, he embraces it in the most conscientious manner, and frames his life according to its dictates. And a renewal of those painful feelings in the various stages of the christian course, has a tendency to preserve and exalt our faith, and the grateful recollection of the free and gracious mercy of God. Acts 9: 9, 11, 19. Thus Paul's gratitude to God and Christ is renewed in the most lively manner, by the recollection of his former unworthiness. It is this recollection of the past days of his life, which explains the ardour of feeling which he displays when speaking of the pardon of the sinner for Christ's sake, and of his office as messenger of this salvation. 1 Tim. 1: 12.-16. 1 Cor. 15: 8--18.7

1 Luke 15: 17, 24, 32, my son was dead-was lost. Rom. 8:6—8. James 4: 9, tahairwonoata “ Learn to see your great misery."

2 2 Cor. 7: 9, now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorrowful, but that ye sorrowed unto reformation.

1 Rom. 10: 3, being ignorant of God's righteousness.

See the work on the Design of Christ's death, p. 554.

2 Rom. 10: 3, τη δικαιοσυνη του θεου ουχ υπεταγησαν. δικαιοσυνη=ευαγγελιoν, ν. 16 (λογος δικαιοσυνης). Dissert. de sensu vocis dexalos, note 95.

3 Luke 18: 14.
4 Luke 18: 13. 15: 17-26.

5 Gal. 3: 24, δικαιωθωμεν=ζητωμεν δικαιωθήναι 2: 17, 5: 4. Diss. sup. cit. Note 111.

6 2 Pet. 1: 9. $ 119Ill, 7.
7 Dissert. de sensu histor. p. 4 &c.

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