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of the benevolent purposes of God for the welfare of mankind, and betrayed no premature desire (3) for that greatness and dignity which his union with the divine nature authorized him subsequently to expect, and the possession of which was at least possible at an earlier date (4). On the contrary, he voluntarily assumed an humble station (5), conducting himself not as Lord but as a servant (6); nay, he even humbled himself beneath other persons, even such as were in the lowest temporal circumstances, and finally he endured the most excruciating sufferings, and submitted voluntarily to the most disgraceful death (7).


I. Christ's obedience to God.-Rom. 5: 19, by the obedience of one. John 6: 37 &c, I came down from heaven to do the will of him that sent me. Phil. 2: 8, having become obedient. John 14: 31, as the Father gave commandment, even so I do. 18:11. 10:17. Matth. 26:39, not as I will but as thou wilt. v. 42, thy will be done. Heb. 5: 8, though he was the Son of God), yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered. 10: 7–9, lo- I come to do thy will, O God.

II. His love to mankind.-Phil. 2: 4. 2 Cor. 8: 9, for ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be made rich. Matth. 9: 11-13. Luke 9: 54, 56, the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them. Matth. 20: 26–28, the Son of man came to minister [to serve) and to give his life a ransom for many. John 10: 11-15, I lay down my life for the sheep. 15: 13. 1 John 3: 16.

III. Christ's humility.--Phil. 2:6, ovy đonoquov vynouto to sivai iou te &c. “Who (Christ Jesus) being in the form

of God,) did not make an ostentatious display of his equality with God.”

IV. The humiliation of Christ was voluntary. Just as in Phil. 2: 4, it is attributed to the benevolence of Jesus and not to a necessity, that he did not display his divine dignity; so also in 2 Cor. 8: 9, the poverty of him who might have had all things in abundance, is ascribed to his goodness (xapıtı], which aimed at the welfare of man. πλουσιος ων who might have been rich. So also Phil. 2:6, ev uopgun Jeov Únagyov although he might have been in the condition of God. On the word Trhovoros applied to spiritual things, see 2 Cor. 6: 10. James 1: 5. Luke 22: 33–35. 18; 22.

V. Phil. 2: 7, čavrov ELEVWOE—this may either be translated thus : " he wished to do without (abstain from) the splendour of the divine glory-vacuus esse, carere voluit” (comp. HEVOS Luke 20: 10); or thus : He wished to be in a condition less exalted (i. e. more humble) than that in which he might have been” (REVOS—Actos tenuis,—695. Jud. 11: 3).2

VI. Mορφην δουλου, 8c. θεου, λαβων.--As Jesus after he had attained to years of maturity, was so willing to do the work assigned him (John 4: 34), he clearly proved that he was perfectly satisfied with the ordinary condition, “the form” of man, in which God suffered him to be born, and that he was well pleased to live in this state of humility. 3 VII. Phil. 2:8,

sua sponte et voluntate humillimam conditionem pertulit,” i. e. he voluntarily and of his own accord submitted to the most humble condition. Comp. 2 Cor. 11:7. John 10: 18, no man taketh it (my life) from me, but I lay it

1 See De Wette's Translation. Storr's Dissert, in Epist. ad Philipp. note, c.

2 See Dissert. in Epist. Pauli minores, p. 26.
3 Reinhard's Dogmatik, \ 98. No. 1.


down myself; I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again.

§ 82.

But even in his state of humiliation, the influence of the divine

nature on the human nature of Christ manifested itself.

The dignity which was conferred on the man Jesus by his union with the divine nature, had, even in his state of humiliation, at least this effect, that it gave to the obedience and sufferings of this exalted man, who was so closely united to the Deity, an efficacy of an entirely peculiar nature (1). But the influence of the divine nature on the human nature of Christ, was also evinced in other ways. Even in the earlier years of Jesus an instance is recorded in which he acted from the peculiar impulse of his divine nature, or (§ 44) by the express command of his invisible Father (2). Nor is it improbable that the extraordinary improvement made by Jesus in his childhood (Luke 2: 40, 47) was promoted by that divine nature with which his human nature was united; but promoted in a manner which did not interfere with the plan, according to which his physical and intellectual abilities were, like those of other men (3), gradually to increase (v. 52). And when he entered on the duties of his prophetic office, his divine nature and the Holy Spirit who was so closely united (4) with his human nature, exerted on the man Jesus (5) such an influence as was required by his office as teacher, and effected in and through Jesus, every thing which was requisite to the accomplishment of the design of his office as teacher. Hence, what

ever the man Jesus taught, he taught not at the instigation of his own feelings, nor according to his own views (6), but because he was prompted to it by his divine nature, and by the Father and Holy Spirit (8) who are most closely united to him, and he taught also in the manner (7) which they suggested to him (9). All the miracles which were requisite for the establishment of the divine origin of the doctrines of Christ (§ 8), were wrought by the omnipotence of his divine nature (10), which is one with the omnipotence of the Father (8 44) and of the Holy Spirit ($41), through the instrumentality of the man Jesus (11). In short the divine nature in the man Jesus effected every thing which was requisite to the accomplishment of the design of his destination, in a manner suited to his person; e. g. it gave him the most profound knowledge of the persons with whom he had intercourse (12). And so entirely did he depend on the will of that divine nature which was united with him, that he undertook and desired nothing, but what was suggested to him or wrought in him by this divine nature (13).


1. The efficacy of Christ's merits dependent on his twofold nature.--The salvation bestowed on us, or our participation in the happiness of Christ, was the reward of the obedience of Christ. But this reward Jesus could confer on us, only because he himself, in consequence of his original union with the Godhead, was incapable of any increase of personal happiness as a reward. But the difficulty of the bestowment of salvation, and the holiness of the punitive sanctions of the divine law, are placed in a clearer light, the more dignified the person was in whom such fearful sufferings were requisite to the accomplishment of this noble design. When the man Jesus is called the author of our salvation (John 6: 51, 53), it is not the mere man Jesus who is alluded to, but that man who was most closely united to him that was in heaven (v. 62, 19, 11, 9), that man who, on account of his union with God, could perform works which mere human power could never produce ;' in short the allusion is to the greatness and the worth? of that man who, on account of his union with the divine nature, is the only Son of God (976). This great man and this one alone is our Redeemer. Col. 1: 13, 15--19. comp. 14, 20—22. John 3: 13—17. 1 John 4: 9, 10. Rom. 8: 3, 32. Heb. 1: 3. 5: 8, 9.

Notes. 1. In the Dissert. II. in Libros N. T. historicos, p. 69, it is remarked, that in John 19: 11, above referred to, Jesus alluded to his union with God by the word avatav from above, whilst his explanation at the same time affords a reply to Pilate's question “whence art thou” (v. 9).

2. To this place belongs the genus apotelesmaticum communicationis idiomatum, which embraces those propositions in which the person of Christ is the subject, and some act belonging to his mediatorial work, the predicate.3

II. Luke 2: 49, “ Know ye not that I have another father than Joseph, the performance of whose injunctions must engage my attention ?

ειναι εν τοις του πατρου μου.4 III. Phil. 2: 7 &c, He was made in the likeness of men -and found in fashion as a man. Heb. 2: 17, it behooved him in all things to be like unto his brethren.

1 John 6: 63. comp. 0 78. Ill. 1.

2 1 Pet. 1: 19. See the work on the Design of Christ's death, p. 603. Heb. 12: 3, reflect, who he is that suffered so much contradiction.

3 Sartorii Compend. $ 239. 4 On the Object of the death of Christ, p. 599.

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