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them in some respects.” This opinion is maintained by the author of a Historico-critical Dissertation on the declarations of Jesus concerning the Messiah's kingdom. It is refuted in 13, Ill. 2.-III. “Jesus himself was somewhat attached to the erroneous ideas of his contemporaries, relative to the nature of the Messiah's kingdom; and in his declarations concerning his second coming and the circumstances connected with it, he was indeed sincere, and uttered the sentiments of his heart; but in these matters he cannot be our guide.” This opinion is advocated in the Dissertation entitled, Historico-exegetical Scepticism in relation to the declarations of Jesus concerning the Messiah's kingdom as expected by the Jews. It is refuted by the evidences of the unlimited authority of Jesus which are considered in $$ 6–8.

VIII. Eph, 1:6, 7, he hath made us accepted, [ExQQITWOEV bestowed his grace upon us] through the beloved (Christ), by whom we have redemption, through his (Christ's) blood. Rom. 3: 24. 5: 1, 2.

IX. 1 Cor. 15:21. Rom. 5:1, 11-19, 21. Compare $59.

X. 1 Cor. 15: 48, &c, as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall bear the image of the heavenly also.

§ 66.

The salvation purchased by Christ, is intended for all men.

The purpose of God, not to consign men to punishment (1), but to bestow salvation on them through Christ, is just as universal as is that mor

1 Henke's Mag. Vol. V. No. 3, p. 520-556.

tality which is derived from Adam (Rom. 5: 12– 19). Accordingly, God intended salvation through Christ, deliverance from the innate depravity of our nature and the evils connected with it (such as the terrors of death, $ 60—64), not only for a few individuals or nations, but for the entire mass of mankind (2), not excepting even those who had died before the advent of Christ (3).

ILLUSTRATIONS. I. 1 Thess. 5: 9, God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ.

II. Christ tasted death for every man; the atonement is general.--In the passages, Matth. 26: 28. 20: 28. Heb. 9: 28. Rom. 5: 15,-- the word mollor many, does not presuppose another part of the human family to whom the declaration contained in those passages, cannot be applied. But the object of this word, is, to remove a limitation of the declaration to a few, or to any particular people; such as was the limitation of the Old Covenant to a single nation, in opposition to the New. Matth. 26: 28. Heb. 9: 15, 18. 8: 6. That this is here the signification of the word many, is evident from other passages, in which“all” is used instead of it (Rom. 5:15, 19); as is the case in ν. 18, εις παντας ανθρωπους εις δικαιωσιν ζωης (even so, by the righteousness of one, came) unto all men justification of life. 1 Tim. 2:1-6, who (God our Saviour) will have all men to be saved and to come unto the knowledge of the truth. 4:10, for therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men and especially of them that believe. Tit. 2:11, for, the grace of God that bringeth salvation (i. e. the saving grace of God) hath

) appeared unto all men. 2 Cor. 5: 15, and that he (Christ) died for all. v. 19, God, through Christ, reconciled the world unto himself. 1 John 2: 2, and he is the propitiation for our sins, and

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not for ours only, but for the whole world. John 6: 51, I am the living bread, which came down from heaven; if any man eat of this bread, he shall live forever; and the bread which I shall give, is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. 3: 16, for God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that every one who believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life. 1: 29, the next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. Heb. 2: 9, but we see Jesus, who was, for a little while, put lower than the angels, who for the suffering of death, was crowned with glory and honour, that according to the gracious purpose of God, he might taste death for all men.

III. The atonement was made for those also who died before the death of Christ. This is evident from the universality of the atonement, which is equal to the universality of death and all the miseries entailed on us by Adam. Rom. 5: 18, 19. comp. v. 12--14. Hence it is certain, that by “ the sins that are past” (Rom. 3: 25), and “the transgressions under the first Covenant (Heb. 9:15), are meant, not only the sins of persons then living, but in general the sins of those who had lived before that time. The same doctrine is taught also in Heb. 9: 25, 26, “ Christ was not under the necessity of offering himself frequently since the beginning of the world, or of bringing a particular offering for every age; but now, once for all, be hath appeared at the end of the world, to offer himself a sacrifice, that the punishment of sin might be removed." God, in his goodness and mercy, bestowed pardon and salvation on those righteous also, who died before the time of Christ's sufferings ; but their judicial or legal liberation from the punishment of sin, and their legal admission to the eternal inheritance, they did


ee the work on the Object of the death of Christ, p. 562-567.

not receive until after the death of Jesus. To this subject refers also the passage 1 Pet. 3: 18-20,in reference to which

1 The work on the Object of the death of Jesus, p. 562—567.

. [2 of this very difficult passage, we shall give the views of several eminent critics, and leave the reader to make his own choice. The first is that of the learned and pious Hebrew scholar, Schoettgen, who, regarding the phrase nopevtEis Exnovčev as a Hebraism (similar to tiba 3177?-by the LXX, 2 Sam. 5: 10, xai dienoQEVETO daßid Topevoueνος και μεγαλυνομενος); πνευματα as meaning men in general ; φυhaxn as referring to civil oppression and servitude to Satan ; and placing a period after antalonoaoi ; and reading oti, with the Geneva edition, Erasmus, and others; gives the following sense : 6. For, it is better, if such be the will of God, that yo suffer for well doing than for evil doing. For Christ also once suffered for our sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in his human nature, but made alive in his divine, in which he continued (by his apostles) to preach unto the enslaved and unbelieving minds of men. For, once before, in the times of Noah, God waited with longsuffering, for the repentance of men, while the ark was building, in which (as they did not repent) only a few, namely, eight souls, were saved from the water. But, now there is a different kind of flood, namely, baptism, (which does not destroy us, but) which saves us (and which is not the putting away of the filth of the filesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ.”--Another version is this : “ For it is better, if it be the will of God, that ye suffer for well doing than for evil doing; for Christ also once suffered for our sins, the just for the unjust, thạt he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh (i. e. bis human nature), but raised (in spirit, with a spiritual body,) in glory, in which he went and proclaimed (his death and glorious resurrection) to those ransomed spirits in the days of Noah, who were at first incredulous for a while, whilst the longsuffering of the Lord delayed (the punishment), during the time the ark was building, (but who afterward, when they saw the waters rising, repented before they were drowned,) in which, few, that is, eight persons were saved from the water. In like manner, now also it (water) saves us in baptism, which resembles it (the flood), and is not the mere washing away of the filth of the flesh, but access to God with a good conscience through the resurrection of Christ.” This is, in substance, the interpretation of Dr. Storr; and for the grounds on which it rests, the reader is referred to his invaluable work on the Object of the atonement. But both these versions deviate considerably from the common acceptation of some of the words in the original. A version which should be better supported by usage and accord equally well with the context, would be preferable. Such the following appears to be: "For it is better, if such be the will of God, that ye suffer for well doing than for evil doing; for Christ also once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit ; in which also he went to make proclamation to the spirits in the place of keeping, who were formerly incredulous, when the longsuffering of the Lord waited, in the days of Noah, and while the ark was preparing, in which, few, that is, eight persons, were saved by water ; by

we remark, that Jesus would not have gone to announce the joyful news (4: 6, Evayyahoon) of his death and glorious resurrection, to those ransomed (ev quhaxn) spirits (who repented after the deluge had begun, before they were drowned), if they were not interested in these events, if they had not belonged to those adıxous unjust (v. 18) for whom he died.

§ 67.

Though salvation is provided for all, some do not attain it.

But it does not follow that all men actually attain this salvation ($ 58, 65). For, though God, in mercy, made provision that the depravity and misery to which mankind were, without their fault subjected, should not of itself, prove a permanent injury to any individual ; nevertheless, his justice, required, that, though the blessings of salvation were provided without distinction for all, even for those (1) who through their own fault fail ultimately to attain them (2); no one should actually obtain possession of them who had continued, until the hour of death, until the time of actual admission to the enjoyment of the heavenly blessings purchased by Christ, to be unfaithful in the use of those talents which, notwithstanding the universal weakness of men, were still entrusted to him (3). Still, by virtue of the same love which prompted God to provide salvation for all men, he wills that no one may be found guilty of unfaithfulness (4).

which now we also are saved, in the antitype, baptism, which is not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but access to God, with a good conscience through the resurrection of sus Christ. S.]

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