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written high upon the portals of the temples of Æsculapius, and while men seek health and fear death the followers of the art and science of medicine will pause ere they reverently enter. These men have placed common humanity of all nations and ages under a perpetual tribute of gratitude for the benefits and blessings they have conferred.

The statesman, the reformer and the religionist find inexhaustible inspiration to heroic aspiration and endeavor in looking forward to the time when the evils they combat shall be completely subjugated. But who may look to a surer, brighter era of triumph or at least to a larger part in the glory of bringing about the ultimate enfranchisement of humanity from its defaults and pains than the physician? Where is there a more thrilling vision of apocalyptic promise than that which the annals of modern medical science reveals ? The marvelous story of the past and the actual experience of the present warrant the assured anticipations of the future, for a continued process of decline and even extinction of disease. The study of the causes and conditions of disease proves that they are all in varying manner and degree preventable and gratuitous, that with perhaps a few exceptions they are generated by conditions that need not exist and are amenable to control and suppression.

The plague or black death and other medieval epidemics cannot enter the realm of modern medicine, and a large number of diseases which were the heritage of a few generations ago, such as agues, remittent, relapsing and typhus fevers, leprosy and cholera are practically vanquished and in their epidemic form excluded by effective sanitation.

Diseases which account for more than one-fourth of our total mortality, scarlet fever, measles, chicken pox, diphtheria, typhus and typhoid fevers, infections, and diarrhoeal disorders, and others are now included under the positive technical designation · Preventable Diseases." It is demonstrated that “Constitutional Diseases "as rheumatism, gout, tuberculosis, scrofula, etc., even when involving hereditary taint, may be combated or fostered in the individual by his manner of living and in the course of a few generations at least, may be bred out of the system altogether by hygienic culture, inhabitation and discreet marriage selection. Food diseases vanish in supplying the lack in dietary and hygienic conditions; so of "surgical diseases:" erysipelas, tetanus, purulent inflammation and others are routed by the Listerian teaching.

In general it may be said that diseases of all kinds are declining both in prevalence and virulence and that the general standard of health in the nation is being raised. Statistics show that in each successive decade of the last fifty years there has been a steady and progressive decrease in the rate of mortality upon that of the preceding ten years.

Sanitarians confidently assert that if they might enforce the laws and conditions which are known and practically feasible they would abolish half the disease and death of our age and bring down the mean annual death rate of 20 or 22 per 1000 to io or 11 per 1000 as has indeed been done in certain localities of Christendom. It is true that nervous diseases, and certain local diseases which may be traced to them, as insanity, diabetes and functional heart disease, are alleged to show a tendency to increasing prevalence in these latter days. But the undoubted explanation that this is due to the increased nervous strain on account of the interior stress of the struggle for existence, the keener competition and the growing complexity of modern life only adds cumulative confirmation to the assumption that these affections are also preventable. But why dwell on these facts so well known to most of my hearers? I recall them simply that I may remind our young brethren who to-day step into the medical arena, that it is a sphere of strenuous life upon which they enter.

Gentlemen of the Graduating Class of 1900: Wonderful as has been the advances in the healing art, it is evident that the conquering march has only begun, and glorious opportunities are before the aspiring and the consecrated in the vistas of the alluring future. The discoveries have not all been made, and each one of you may be enthused to contribute his share for the alleviation of human suffering and hastening the authoritatively predicted Saturnian of medical triumph when “There shall be no more thence an infant of days nor an old man that hath not filled out his days, for the child shall die an hundred years old."

Your graduation to-day does not signify that your studies are ended and your responsibilities demitted. Your diploma indeed attests your diligence and faithfulness in the past, but its special significance and value lies in the fact that it is a certificate of character and competence introducing and commending you to a higher course of study, a more practical field of responsibility, and a wider sphere of opportunity in the future. It only marks your promotion to another grade in the immortal life-school of many departments. May you so have apprehended and fulfilled the high standard requirements of that curriculum that when having finished your course you shall at last appear before the “Great Physician ” on the final graduation day he may confer on each one of you the diploma which he has especially prepared for the medical man and whereon he has written:

Come ye blessed, * * * for I was sick and ye visited me, * * * inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these."

The members of the Class of 1900 were present in a body, and rose as the President addressed them at the conclusion of his address, and received them into membership in the Association.

Dr. F. T. Clarke moved a vote of thanks to the President for his interesting address, a copy of which he was requested to furnish for publication. Ex-President Maben put the motion to a vote, and declared it unanimously carried.

President Mitchell then resumed the chair.

The Historian of the Association, Dr. Pearse, was absent in Europe, and had forwarded his annual report, which was presented by Dr. MacFarlane.

REPORT OF HISTORIAN, DR. HARRY SEYMOUR PEARSE. Mr. President and Fellow Members of the Association:

It is with keen pleasure and satisfaction that we note the development of the spirit of friendship and the desire of amicable intercourse among the graduates of our "Alma Mater." The class ties seem to clinch more firmly than in former years, the bonds of devotion to our College grow stronger and members are now forming separate societies, anxious to annually renew old associations and keep alive the good fellowship so happily created in their college days.

In addition to the mother Association, there are now two small and promising children. The older and larger, “The Albany Medical College Alumni Association of Greater New York,” was organized in December, 1895; has had five annual meetings and banquets and a short time previous to its last meeting in January, 1900 had eighty-two members. The younger, “The New England Branch of the Alumni Association of the Albany Medical College," was organized in May, 1899 and held its first annual meeting at Hartford, Conn., in September of the same year, The number of alumni who go out into the field which it covers should insure a steady growth and make it a strong adjunct of the Association proper.

At our last meeting in April, 1899, the records of twelve of the members who had served in the Spanish-American war had been obtained and were published in June, '99, number of the ALBANY MEDICAL ANNALS. At the present time the Historian has a list of twenty who served and the records of sixteen. It will require considerable time to secure a full list with complete records. The records of the following have been obtained during the year: Dr. John V. R. Hoff, U. S. A.,/71; Dr. James P. Kimball, U. S. A., '64; Dr. Garrett Vander Veer Johnson, '96 and Dr. Adolph R. V. Fenwick, '99.

It is my sad duty to present the history of the class of '40. This class has passed out of living history and it is the first and only class of the sixty-one which have gone out to be without a known living representative. There were seventeen members graduated; of this number ten are known to have died, of the remaining seven there are no records. The last known death was that of Dr. David S. Beardsley of Pultneyville, N. Y. in March, '97 at the ripe old age of 87, Thus, with the dying century, there is effaced a mile-stone from the history of our cherished Association The history of the class of '50 is presented by Dr. Bradley S. McCabe, of Greenville, N, Y.; of '60 by Dr. DeWitt C. Wade, of Holly, Michigan; of '70 by Dr. William Hailes, of Albany, N. Y.; of '80 by Dr. Clinton B. Herrick, of Troy, N. Y.; of '90 by Dr. E. V. Colbert, of Albany, N. Y.

[Signed.] HARRY S. PEARSE,

Historian, A. A., A. M. C. The Recording Secretary stated that biographical notices of deceased members of the Association had been published in the ALBANY MEDICAL ANNALS during the year, and requested mem

bers of the Association to forward biographical sketches of deceased alumni. He then read the following:

NECROLOGY. Dr. Willard G. Davis ('41), at Dunnsville, N. Y., May 16, 1899, aet. Dr. Henry S. Case ('53), at Albany, N. Y., June 14, 1899, aet. Dr. Robert Loughran ('57), at Kingston, N. Y., April 11, 1899, aet. 64. Dr. John E. Pritchard ('57), at Baltimore, Md., March 1, 1899, aet.

Dr, Martin Luther Mead ('59), at Highlandlake, Col., September 5, 1899, aet. 65.

Dr. Ira D. Brown ('65), at Weedsport, N. Y., June 23, 1899, aet. 68.

Dr. Henry C. Van Zandt (65) at Schenectady, N. Y., February —, 1900, aet.

Dr. Francis M. Hamlin ('68), at Willard, N. Y., March 11, 1900, aet.
Dr. Irving C. Schureman ('69), at Tom's River, N. J,, August 6, 1899.

aet. 59

Dr. Charles E. Jones ('73), at Albany, N. Y., December, 1899, aet. 50. Dr. Robert A. Linendoll (79), at Fort Edward, N. Y., July 9, 1899,

aet. 53

Dr. James E. Brennan ('89), at Waterford, N. Y., March 23, 1900, aet. Dr. Charles DeLaMontanye ('90), at Port Ewan, N. Y., July 23, 1899,

aet. 33

Dr. Daniel D. Donovan ('95), at Troy, N. Y., October 27, 1899, aet. 23.

Information has also been received of the deaths of Dr. George W. Chittenden ('46), which occurred May 28, 1899, and of Dr. Robert F. Cart ('55), which occurred at Argenta, Ill., March 13, 1893.

The committee appointed to nominate officers presented the following report, which was read by its Secretary, Dr. W. W. Scofield:

For President,
Dr. Thomas D. CROTHERS ('65), Hartford, Conn.

For Vice-Presidents,
DR. CHARLES E. WITBECK ('66), Cohoes, N. Y.
DR. MAHLON FELTER ('59), Troy, N. Y.
DR. GEORGE CONKLING ('71), Durham, N. Y.
DR. WILLIAM C. Wood ('80), Gloversville, N. Y.
DR. WILFRED S. Hale ('94), Albany, N. Y.

For Recording Secretary,
DR. J. MONTGOMERY MOSHER ('89), Albany, N. Y.

For Corresponding Secretary,
DR. ANDREW MACFARLANE ('87), Albany, N. Y.

For Treasurer,
DR. WILLIAM G. LEWI ('92), Albany, N. Y.

For Historian,
DR. HARRY S. PEARSE ('92), Albany, N. Y.
For Members of the Executive Committee (term three years),

DR. JOHN C. Brown ('92), Albany, N. Y.
DR. C. HARPER RICHARDSON ('97), Albany, N. Y.
DR. CHARLES H. MOORE ('87), Albany, N. Y.

DR. WILLIAM H. GEORGE ('94), Albany, N. Y. ŠOn motion of Dr. M. J. Lewi, the report was accepted and adopted, and the Recording Secretary was instructed to cast a ballot in behalf of the Association for the gentlemen nanied therein. The ballot was cast, and those named in the report were declared by the President duly elected officers of the Association for their respective terms.

The Corresponding Secretary, Dr. A. MacFarlane, read the following letter:

HARTFORD, CONN., April 27, 1900. My Dear Dr. MITCHELL:—I am directed to inform you officially that at the annual meeting of the New England Alumni Association of the Albany Medical College, Dr. John O'Flaherty, Treasurer of the Association and myself as President, were appointed delegates to the alumni meeting next week. We shall take great pleasure in being present, and not only renewing our old acquaintance but making many new ones, not the least of which will be to meet you. Hoping this occasion may be both pleasant and profitable to all, I am,

Very truly yours,


Dr. Crothers, President-elect, was introduced to the Association and thanked the members present for the honor conferred upon him, and assured them of his desire to do all in his power to promote the prosperity of the Association.

The Recording Secretary read the following notice: A meeting of the Association of Resident Physicians of the Albany Hospital will be held in the Chemical Lecture Room, immediately after adjournment of this meeting. All ex-house physicians are requested to attend.


Vice-President. The Recording Secretary announced that a reception and lunch would be held at the Albany Hospital immediately after adjournment, when opportunity would be given for inspection of the new institution. Carriages had been provided and awaited the mem

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