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belongs to him as a man. The great end of life is its own increase and the degree of life to which anyone attains is always determined by the range of his sympathies and capacities, his mental vision, his moral satisfaction. His profession or occupation, that by which he gains a livelihood or expresses his energy in some particular direction, is not the end but means to the end, like the leaves in nature which contribute to the development of the full corn in the ear. The legitimate fruitage of life is the unfolding of its own vital energies, which in man are the energies that bring him into correspondence with the large world of human interests and enjoyments. Take one, for instance, whose life issues almost wholly in business ability, who has cultivated only those faculties which belong to the world of trade. win fortune and the distinction which belongs to it, and the power which fortune yields, and yet without the broader interests and sympathies of the intellectual and spiritual life his world is necessarily narrow, the range of his thought, his susceptibilities, his satisfactions limited. He is a stranger among men who rejoice in large liberty of life. With all his ability to make money and with all his money he is shut out from much of their world. He is blind where they see.

He is deaf where they hear. He is irresponsive where they are profoundly stirred.

The same is true of the professional man whose training has been almost wholly within the lines of his profession. However distinguished he may become, however successful by professional tests, the range of his life is small. He has missed his inheritance as a man, whatever he may have gained as an engineer or chemist or physician, Intellectually and spiritually he is as partially developed, as much a cripple as is another physically whose legs are shriveled though his arms are round and strong.

The principle I wish to emphasize is this, that the true theory of education comprehends the development of all the capacities and powers that belong to one as a man, bringing him into correspondence with the largest possible world. He is to be educated as a man, and because he is a man and not because he is also to be a merchant or machinist or lawyer. This, as I have said, is a fundamental truth in all discussion of educational problems. It alone justifies, and it justifies completely those studies whose end is not so much increase of technical knowledge and skill as refinement of life, the culture of sympathies and susceptibilities, and which therefore a narrow utilitarianism rejects. The weights and measures of commerce, the common standards of professional success, have no spiritual adjustments, and life is spirit.

I would not seem to imply by anything that I have said that the life of the successful tradesman or professional man is necessarily narrowed by the very conditions of success, only that it will be thus narrowed and must be thus narrowed if his preliminary training has been limited to meet these conditions, or if his conception of the good to be gained from life is confined to such success. On the other hand, if from the beginning his thought of life has been large and his training correspondingly liberal, his very success in his chosen calling contributes to the realization of his broader purpose. In this way the technical knowledge of the physician links itself with other knowledge, leads to other truth; his reputation gives him influence in other fields; his money is made to minister to his mind, his soul; his manhood, is enlarged by his work and achievements as a physician; not only are his delights multiplied, but his usefulness is increased as a citizen and a patriot. Take the single acquirement of correct and forceful speech. It may not be important for his practice indeed there is a theory that the less a physician talks the greater will become his reputation for profound wisdom among his patients—but who cannot see the power it gives him in such a gathering as this, as a physician among physicians, or in the world at large as a man among men.

Let this suffice for our statement of the need in general of liberal culture, but there is another side of this truth which should not be overlooked. In this age, at least, such culture is demanded by the conditions of highest attainments in any specific calling or profession. There are few who will question that the broader one's intelligence the greater is his ability when his energies are applied in any one direction; but beyond this general principle modern progress has increased the range of every science, or at least the intellectual require ments. Nowhere is this more evident than in the science of medicine, which has been practically revolutionized within the last century by new discoveries and new theories. What this means in the way of larger knowledge and more thorough training is shown by the persistency with which you have demanded the lengthening of the course of professional instruction; so that to-day four years are required where but a little while ago two seemed ample, but what I would emphasize is this, that even the four years now fixed by law do not meet the need because they are devoted exclusively to purely technical studies and ignore other studies of vast importance in the training of any professional man, the studies, for instance, which are peculiarly fitted to enrich the mind and discipline the faculties. I will not say that there is no disciplinary value or no fertilizing influence in purely professional studies, but this I do say, that in these respects they do not compare with other studies which find no place in your curriculum. It will be admitted by all that what is needed for the successful prosecution of any professional course is intellectual vigor, mental grasp, ability to comprehend statements, to follow a line of reasoning, to think clearly and closely. I will venture the assertion that lack of this ability is the greatest difficulty encountered by the teachers in your medical schools, and it is not due to the natural dullness of the students, but to the absence of such preliminary training as makes a man master of his own intellectual forces, giving him the power to concentrate thought and hold his mind to a subject till it is understood. If anyone says that this ability can be acquired during the four years of professional studies I can only answer that while it can be and may be it is not at all likely that it will be, in many instances, at least to any marked degree, because that is not the specific purpose of professional studies, as it is of others. They are in their very nature advanced studies, demanding at the outset the intellectual training which I have outlined. Granting that this ability comes before the four years are over, think of all that has been lost in the meantime. Now in all this we are facing not a theory, but a condition, or the testimony of many whom I have consulted is valueless. Great as has been the gain to your profession in lengthening the course in your medical schools, one of the greatest needs has not yet been met—the need of liberal and thorough preparatory


training. The importance of this no one will deny. An attempt, however, has been made to meet it in the present requirement of a high school diploma for admission to any medical school in this State. This is an undoubted advance over the former condition which practically insisted upon nothing beyond the desire to study medicine. A high school diploma has a more or less distinct educational value, but how far does it answer the demand for preliminary training.

Upon this I can speak with some authority, as it is virtually the requirement for admission to college. We have learned from experience that these diplomas are of unequal value, not so much because of the relative merits of the different schools that issue them as because of relative merits of the different courses of study for which they are granted. The elective system has invaded our high schools to an unwarranted extent, and while under the supervision of the Board of Regents the election is confined for the most part to courses rather than to subjects, still these courses are of such varied disciplinary value as to call into question the wisdom of the whole system. Theoretically an English course with foreign language, ancient or modern, with a minimum of mathematics, some history, science, civics and stenography may be equal if not superior to a course putting special emphasis upon languages and mathematics, but we who have to deal with the graduates know that it is not, and we know further that a course with mathematics and one modern language is not equal to a course with mathematics, a modern language, and Latin, and that the latter course is not equal to a course with mathematics, Latin, and Greek. If it is asked, how do we know all this? I can only answer, "By their fruits ye shall know them"_by the simple test of ability to do college work. Two students come to us from the same school; they have spent the same number of years in study, have enjoyed the same companionships, the same general privileges, but have pursued different courses of study, and almost invariably the one who has given the most of his time to mathematics and languages is found to be superior in mental grasp, intellectual appreciation, power of concentration. The difference is not due to native ability, for it is scarcely conceivable that the brightest minds naturally should uniformly choose the same course. It must be due in large measure to the superior educational value of one course as compared with another. We may not be able to account for this superiority, but it is a fact which we are forced to recognize by the test of practical results. It does not seem to me difficult, however, to account for it. Mathematics is an exact science. It calls for logical and accurate processes of thought. The student cannot guess at results; he must reason up to them. It calls into exercise very different faculties from those required in the mere acquisition of facts. The mind is trained to think, to understand and explain, not simply to accept statements. While it is possible to make every subject of study disciplinary in this way, no other subject demands of necessity such an exercise of logical powers as does mathematics. The only reason that boys dislike mathematics is that they cannot think accurately, but that is a primary condition of sound education. Every profession calls for ability to solve problems, to solve them by processes of thought, not by brilliant guesses. If therefore natural dislike of mathematics leads a student early in his course to choose other subjects instead, he almost inevitably misses the training most important for further progress, and the lack becomes painfully evident in all his subsequent work.

The influence of language study is different, but quite as essential. Its effect is to stimulate and enrich the mind. A language is the residuum of the thought of a race. It is the deposit of the intellectual life of centuries, and for this reason has a wonderfully fertilizing quality. Words are full of suggestiveness, pregnant with thought. This is enough to indicate the peculiar importance of the study of a foreign tongue. The mind is thereby quickened into greater productiveness. Ability to use an alien language does not determine the value of the study of that language. Because of this the ancient languages are quite as valuable, to say the least, as the modern. That they are more valuable would seem to be proved by the vigor and richness of the intellectual life that expressed itself in these languages. When we have found a nation the current of whose intellectual life is broader and deeper and stronger than were that of the Greeks we shall have found a language with greater stimulating power

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