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oratorios at Boylston Hall and the Masonic Temple. On Monday, they held a levee at Faneuil Hall, under the direction of the city marshal, for the especial accommodation of the ladies, which was closed at eleven o'clock, when preparations were made for meeting the governor at the State-House, agreeably to previous arrangements.

As but a very small portion of the community could be admitted to the “ Indian council” in the representatives' chamber, notice was given in the newspapers to such as might expect admission, that “passes” had been provided for them, and were to be had between 9 and 11, A. M., at the offices of the adjutant general and city auditor. These “ passes” were cards, on which was printed, “ Pass to the REPRESENTATIVES' CHAMBER, 30TH OCTOBER, 1837."

Meanwhile, the Sioux left the city, and proceeded on their journey west. It was evidently unpleasant to both parties to meet at the same time and pace, as the war between them, of which we have taken notice, had not ceased, and, for aught they knew to the contrary, the friends of each were falling by the hand of the other, in the country from which they were thus temporarily absent.

The hour having arrived for the Indians to make their appearance in the hall of the State-House, it was crowded to overflowing, as was every avenue leading to it. The governor occupied the speaker's chair, with his aids and council around him, when the chiets came in and took seats in the adjacent area. The governor then arose, and, in explanation, stated the object of their visit. “They are,” said he, “a most respectable deputation from the Sac and Fox tribes, which are in amity with our government. The object of their mission to Washington, was to form a treaty explanatory of the great treaty made in 1836, defining the boundaries between their territory and that of the United States. Their lands are situated between the Mississippi and Missouri. The united tribes comprise about 5000, of whom about 1400 are braves. They are the descendants of the Algonquins, or Lennape, and speak the same language as that anciently spoken by the Indians of this region.". Some persons in the galleries showing a disposition to manifest their ridiculous conceptions, when the Indians came in, the governor observed to the audience, that any such demonstrations by laughing, however seemingly ludicrous any appearance might be, would be highly improper, and the Indians might construe such exhibition of mirth into disrespect.

The interpreter was then requested to inform them that the governor bade them a hearty welcome to the hall of council of their white brethren. “We have,” said he,“ before heard of the Sacs and Foxes, by our travellers; and we have been told the names of their great men and chiefs; and now we are glad to see them with our eyes. We are called the people of Massachusetts ; it is the name of the red people who once lived here. In former times, the red man's wigwam stood on our very fields, and his council-fire was kindled on this spot. When our forefathers came to this country, they were but a small band. The red man stood on the

rock on the sea-side, and looked at them. He might have pushed them off, and drowned them; but he took them by the hand, and said, “Welcome. Our forefathers were hungry, and the red man gave them corn and venison. They were cold, and the red man spread his blanket over them, and made them warm.

We are now grown great and powerful; yet we remember the kindness of the red man to our forefathers.

“ Brothers! our faces are white, and yours are red; but our hearts are alike. You dwell between the Mississippi and Missouri; they are mighty

One stretches out to the east, and the other away to the west, even to the Rocky Mountains; but still they make but one river, and they run together to the sea. Brothers! we dwell in the east, and you live in the far west; but we are one family. Brothers! as you passed through the ball below, you stopped to look upon the image of our great father, Washington; it is a cold stone, and cannot speak; but our great father loved the red man, and he commanded us to love you. He is dead; but his voice made a deep print in our hearts, like the footsteps of the great buffalo in the clay of the prairie."

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676

BLACK-HAWK IN BOSTON.-KEOKUK.

[Bcox V.

Keokuk had his son with him, about 14 years old. The governor alluded to him, when he said, “ May the Great Spirit preserve the life of your son. May he grow up by your side, like the tender sapling by the side of the mighty oak. May you long flourish together; and when the mighty oak is fallen in the forest, may the young tree take its place, and spread out its branches over his people. Brothers! I have made you a short talk, and once more bid you welcome to our council hall."

Keokuk said in reply, “I am very much gratified at the pleasure of shaking hands with the great chief of the country, and others about him. The Great Spirit, as you have said, made us the same ; we only speak different languages. Brother! I am very happy to be able to say, before I die, that I have seen the house where your fathers used to speak with ours, as we now do with you, and hope the Great Spirit is pleased at the sight. I hope he will long keep peace between the white and red men."

WAPELLA next spoke. He said, “I am very happy to meet my friends in the land of our forefathers. I recollect, when a little boy, of hearing my forefathers say, that at this place the red man first took the white man by the hand. I am very happy that this island can support so many white men as have come on to it; I am glad they can find a living, and happy they can be contented with living on it. I am glad to hear the white men call us their brothers; it is true they are the oldest; but where I live my tribe is the oldest among the red men. I shall go home and tell my brethren that I have been to this great place, and it shall not be forgotten by me nor my children."

WAAcASHAASHEE then came forward, and said, “I have just listened to the words spoken by you and my chiefs about our forefathers. I have long wished to see the shores where my fathers took the white men by the hand, and I shall not forget it.”

POWEESHIECK next spoke as follows: “You have heard what my chiefs have to say. They are much gratified with their visit to this town. This is the place where our tribe once lived. I have often heard my father and grandfather say that they once lived by the sea coast, where the white man first came. I wish I had a book,* and could read in it all these things. I have been told that this is the way you get all your knowledge. I think the Americans are among the greatest of the white people, that very few can overpower them. It is so with the Sacs, though I say it. They call me a great man where I live, and I am very happy that two such great men as you and I should meet and shake hands together.”

Next came the Indian who wore a buffalo skin all over him, its head on his own, with horns erect. His name we could not get hold of; but he said, " I am much pleased with the conversation our chiefs have had with you. I am glad you noticed Mausanwout, Keokuk’s son. He will succeed his father, and be a chief. The chiefs who have spoken to you are all village chiefs; for my part, I have nothing to do with the villages; but I go to war, and fight for the women and children."

APPANOSEOKEMAR next spoke: “I am very happy to shake hands with you. I do it with all my heart. Although we have no paper to put down words on, we shall not forget this good council. I am a brave, and have my arms in my bands. They are all my defence; but I wish to leave them in this house for the white man to remember the red man of the far west. My presents may not be agreeable, but they are given with a good heart.” And, divesting himself of all bis clothes, wampum belt, moccasins, &c, except a blanket, he gave them and his arms to the governor.

BLACK-HAWK's turn now came. His voice was very shrill, and he was the only one among them with any of the costume of the whites about him. He began, “ I like very well to hear you talk of the Great Spirit. He made us both of one heart, though our skins are of different complexions. The first white men that came to this island were French. They were our brothers as

* They probably knew no difference in books, and supposed that any book would read as might be desired. They look upon them as a kind of oracle, and suppose one as good as a Thousand, having no idea of their different contents. One might get such an idea from a certain hyinn of Dr. Waits, but it is original with the Indians.

This caused a pleasing sensatiou in the house.

you are. When at the president's village, your people put medals about our necks. The French used to do so by our fathers. The Great Spirit is pleased at our talking together. I am a man. You are a man. None of us are any thing more. I live between the Mississippi and Missouri. I have now got to be an old man. It is surprising to me how so many people can live in so small a place as this village is. I cannot see where they get venison and corn enough to live upon; but if they like it, I am satisfied.** I cannot shake hands with all my friends, but by shaking hands with you, I mean it for all."

Keokuk then presented his son to the governor, who caused his own son to shake the hand of that of the chief apparent. Then came forward a brave, who said his father was a Frenchman; he presented the governor with a pipe. His excellency then informed the Indians that some presents had been prepared for them, in the balcony in front of the hall, and that they should pro- ved there and receive them, which was accordingly done. The presents consisted of guns, swords, trinkets, and clothes for their women and chil. dren, &c. To the son of Keokuk the governor gave an elegant little rifle, and observed that he hoped he would soon be able to shoot buffaloes with it.

All these affairs took up much time, especially the speeches, as the interpreters had to repeat them sentence by sentence, as they were delivered, to both parties of Indians. At the end of each sentence delivered to the Indians, they would simultaneously utter assent to it in an inexpressible sound, something like what might be derived from a peculiar pronunciation of the letters a-ugh-yah, which must be done in the same breath, and a gradual raising of the voice. And there was such a dissimilarity in language between one portion of the chiefs and the others, that two interpreters were necessarily employed.

Agreeably to notice given, the Indians withdrew from the balcony of the State-House to the senate chamber, where they partook of a collation, and then appeared on the common, where they performed a mock war dance, to the great amusement of the immense multitude. In the evening, they visited the Tremont Theatre, where Forrest took a benefit in the “ Banker of Bogota.” The Sioux had before attended the National Theatre. On Tuesday, the 31st, they left the city, taking their journey west.

Indian deputations were things new to this generation, in Boston, and when some began to think they were satisfied with seeing one, another was announced; and, on the 20 November, there arrived in the Providence cars 26 chiefs, from a country far beyond that from whence came the preceding ones. They were said to represent the Grand Pawnees, Pawnee Loupes, and Republican Pawnees, Otoes, and Omahas. The name of the principal chief is Odderussin, a descendant of the ancient Mohawks. They were lodged at Concert Hall also, and the next day visited the navy-yard, theatre in the evening, and on Wednesday left the city. They were dressed entirely in the far forest costume, and fantastically painted; and some of them were of immense stature, and appeared as though they had endured the frosts of countless winters.

Scenes of wretchedness have been recorded in our early pages, occasioned by malignant diseases, among Indians of our own land. We are now to relate the doings of death on a broader scale, in the regions of the Upper Missouri. In October last, (1837,) the small-pox was still raging over that vast country. Up to the first of that month, the Mandans were reduced from 1,600 to 31 souls; the Minetarees from 1,000 to 500, and they were still dying fast. The Ricarees, who had recently joined them, were hunting by themselves, when the disease was raging among their friends, and were not seized by the horrid malady until a month after. They numbered 3,000, and half of them were in a few days swept away, and hundreds of the survivors were killing themselves in despair; some with their own spears and other instruments of war, and some by casting themselves down the high precipices along the Missouri. The great nation of Assinnaboines, 10,000 strong; the Crees, 3,000, are nearly all destroyed. The Black Feet had known no such foe be

* None of the reporters did justice to the old chief s speech; but my ears did not deceive me. These last two sentences were omitted by all.

678
DEATH OF BLACK-HAWK.

[Brox V fore ; it had reached the Rocky Mountains, and swept away the people in a thousand lodges. They were reckoned at 60,000 strong. It is impossible to be accurate in these details, but such are the accounts from the west; and they are to this day, 1841, uncontradicted. Here is a commentary upon our policy of settling the border Indians among the wild tribes in the west! of which we have expressed our opinion in an earlier part of this work.

Proceeding in the order of events, we next find BLACK-HAWK, bis noted son Nasheuskuk, and his wife, a handsome squaw of the Sac tribe, attending a ball, by invitation, at Fort Madison, in Wisconsin, in honor of Washington's birthday, 22 February, 1838. On the 4th of the July following, Black-hawk was again present at the same place, where a celebration was enacted. At the table, Mr. J. G. Edwards honored him by the following sentiment: “ Our illustrious guest. May his declining years be as calm as his previous life has been boisterous from warlike events. His present friendship to the whites fully en illes him to a seat at our board.” To which Black-hawk' made the following very sensible reply: “ It has pleased the Great Spirit that I am here to-day. The earth is our mother, and we are now permitted to be upon it. A few snows ago, I was fighting against the white people—perhaps I was wrong-but that is past, it is buried; let it be forgotten. I love my towns and cornfields on the Rock River,-it was a beautiful country. I fought for it, but now it is yours. Keep it as the Sacs did. I was once a warrior, but I am now poor. Keokuk has been the cause of what I am do not blame him. I love to look upon the Mississippi ; I have looked upon it from a child. I love that beautiful river; my home has always been upon its banks. I thank you for your friendship. I will say no more."

Now we have approached the closing scene of the celebrated BLACKHAWK. How long he had had his camp on the Des Moines, we are not informed; but about this time we find him there, and there he died, on the 3 of October, 1838, aged 73. When it was known that the spirit of the old chief had departed, many, whites as well as Indians, assembled at his lodge, and performed his last request, which was, that he might be buried as all Sac chiefs anciently were, and it was in accordance done. No grave was made; but his body was placed upon the ground in a sitting position, with his cane between his knees, and grasped in his hands ; slabs or rails were then piled up about him. Such was the end of Black-hawk. Here, however, his bones did not long rest in peace, but they were stolen from their place of deposit some time in the following winter; but, about a year after, it was discovered that they were in possession of a surgeon, of Quincy, Ilinois, to whom some person had sent them to be wired together. When Gov. Lucas, of loway, became acquainted with the facts, they were, by his requisition, restored to his friends,

" What fiend could thus disturb the peaceful dead?
Remembrance pointing to what last he said :-
Prepare the hollow tomb, and place me low,

My trusty bow and arrows by my side;
For long the journey is that I must go,

Without a partner and without a guide.'”—FRENEAU.

CHAPTER XIII.

MONAKATTOOATHA, or SCAROYADA, nt Braddock's defeat- His son killed there-His

coolness in battleHis great concern for the frontier settlements after the defeatVisits Philadelphia-Speech to the Gorernor and Assembly-His counsel neglected - His friendship continues— Incidents of the war in Pennsylvania, Murdered people carried to PhiladelphiaJohn Churchman.—TREATY of Fort Stanwil.

Having in a former chapter given but a passing notice of a very prominent chief, we shall in this place proceed with his biography. MONAKATTOOCHA, or, according to Peter Williamson, who knew him, Monokatoathy, was also called SCARROOYDA, and Scaroyada. We believe him to have been a Wyandot, as he, and also a son of his, were often employed upon messages between that nation and the government of Pennsylvania; yet the anonymous author of “ A Brief View of the Conduct of Pennsylvania for the year 1755,” says he was an Iroquois, and bad for a long time lived among “our friendly Indians about Shamokin, and other places on the Susquehannah.” He was one of the tew warriors who escaped the perils of Braddock's bloody field; having fought on the side of the English, he was among those who stood by that unfortunate general to the last. His son, a bold and intrepid warrior, whom we have just inentioned, lost his life there, though not by the enemy, it is believed, but by bis own friends, in their random discharges amongst themselves in their amazed condition. Scaroyada sincerely lamented him, especially as he had been killed by his own people, whom he was faithfully endeavoring to serve. When no more could be done, and a retreat was ordered, finding he had fired away all bis ammunition, he coolly lighted bis pipe, and seating himself under the branches of a tree, began smoking as though the day had gone the other way.

When the border war broke out anew in October, about three months after Braddock's defeat, it excited great alarm throughout Pennsylvania, and although there was a continual domestic warfare between the general assembly and their governor, R. H. Morris, yet Scaroyada was not forgotten by the laiter, who recommended that he and Andrew Montour, an interpreter, should be rewarded to their satisfaction for their trouble and great service.

The friendly Indians were situated between the English and hostile party, and they applied to the governor for liberty to leave their country and go out of the way of the war parties. Scaroyada, Montour, and Col. Conrad Weiser were employed to persuade them to join the English in the war. How the chief viewed the crisis of this period, may better be learned from his own account than from any other source. Several families having been murdered in the most revolting manner, Scaroyada proceeded to Philadelphia with Col. Weiser and two other chiefs. “A mixture of grief, indignation, and concern sat upon their countenances.” Scaroyada immediately demanded an audience of the governor and all the members of the assembly, to whom, when assembled, he thus addressed himselt:

“ Brethren, we are once more come among you, and sincerely condole with you on account of the late bloodshed, and the awful clouds that hang over you and over us. Brethren, you may be assured that these horrid actions were committed by none of those nations that have any fellowship with us; but by certain false-hearted and treacherous brethren. It grieves us more than all our other misfortunes, that any of our good friends the English should suspect us of having false hearts.

“ Brethren, if you were not an infatuated people, we are yet about 300 warriors firm to your interest; and if you are so unjust to us, as to retain any doubts of our sincerity, we offer to put our wives, our children, and all we have, into your hands, to deal with them as seemeth good to you, if we are found in the least to swerve from you. But, brethren, you must support and assist us, for we are not able to fight alone against the powerful nations who are coming against you; and you must this moment resolve, and give us an explicit answer what you will do; for those nations have sent to desire us, as old friends, either to join them, or to go out of their way and shift for ourselves. Alas! brethren, we are sorry to leave you! We remember the many tokens of your friendship to us—but what shall we do? We cannot stand alone, and you will not stand with us.

“ Brethren, the time is precious. While we are here consulting with you, we know not what may be the fate of our brethren at home. We do, therefore, once more invite and request you to act like men, and be no longer as women, pursuing weak measures, that render your names despicable. If you will put the hatchet into our hands, and send out a number of your young men in conjunction with our warriors, and provide the necessary arms, ammunition, and provisions, and likewise build some strong houses for the protection of our old men, women, and children, while we are absent in war we shall soon wipe the tears from your eyes, and make these false-hearted brethren repent their treachery and baseness towards you and us

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