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heard only to say, “ It is hard, when I and my people are trying to make peace for the whites, that we should receive such reward. I can govern my young men and warriors better than the thirteen fires can theirs.” How is it that this man should practise upon the maxims of Confucius, of whom he never heard ? (Do ye to others as ye would that they should do unto you ;) and the monster in human form, in a gospel land, taught them from his youth, should show, by his actions, his utter contempt of them, and even of the divine mandate ?

In 1816, the Reverend Timothy Alden, then president of Alleghany college, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, visited the Seneca nation. At this time, Cornplant lived seven miles below the junction of the Connewango with the Alleghany, upon the banks of the latter, “on a piece of first-rate bottom land, a little within the limits of Pennsylvania." Here was his village, which exhibited signs of industrious inhabitants. He then ownert 1300 acres of land, 600 of which comprehended his town. “It was grateful to notice," observes Mr. Alden, “the present agricultural habits of the place, from the numerous enclosures of buck-wheat, corn and oats. We also saw a number of oxen, cows and horses; and many logs designed for the sawmill and the Pittsburgh market.”. Corn-plant had, for some time, been very much in favor of the Christian religion, and hailed with joy such as professel it. When he was apprized of Mr. Alden's arrival, he hastened to welcome him to his village, and wait upon him. And notwithstanding his bighi station as a chief, having many men under his command, he chose rather, " in the ancient patriarchal style," to serve his visitors himself; he, therefore, took care of their horses, and went into the field, cut and brought oats for them.

The Western Missionary Society had, in 1815, at Corn-plant's “ urgent request,” established a school at his village, which, at this time, promised

Corn-plant received an annual annuity from the U. States of 250 dollars, besides his proportion of 9000 divided equally among every member of the nation.

Gos-kuk-ke-wa-na-kon-ne-di-yu, commonly called the Prophet, was brother to Corn-plant, and resided in his village. He was of little note, and died previous to 1816.t Corn-plant, we believe, was, when living, like all other unenlightened people, very superstitious. Not long since, he said the Good Spirit had told him not to have any thing to do with the whites, or even to preserve any mementoes or relics they had from time to time given him; whereupon, among other things, he burnt up his belt and broke his elegant sword. He often mentions his having been at Braddock's defeat Henry Obeale, his son, he sent to be educated among the whites. He became a drunkard on returning to his home, and is now discarded by his father. Corn-plant has other sons; but he says no more of them shall be educated among the whites, for he says, “ It entirely spoil Indian.”. And although he countenances Christianity, he does not do it, it is thought, from a belief of it, but probably from the same motives as too many whites do. I

The following story, M. Bayard says,Ş was told him by Corn-planter. We have often heard a similar one, and as often a new origin; but never before that it originated with William Penn. However, as our author observes, as we have more respect for truth than great names, we will relate it. Penn proposed to the Indians to sell him as much land as he could encompass with the hide of a bullock. They, supposing he meant only what ground would be covered by it, when it was spread out, and looking upon what was offered as a good price, consented to the proposition. Penn, like Didon, cut the skin into a line of immense length, to the astonishment of the venders, who, in silent indignation, religiously observed their contract. The quantity of land encompassed by the line is not mentioned; but, mure or less, the Indians had passed their word, and they scorned to break it, even

* Formerly called Obaletown. See Pa. Gaz. 1792, and Slanbury's Jour. + Amer. Register for 1816, vol_ii. 226, &c.

Verbal account of E. T. Foote, Esq. of Chatauque co. N. Y. who possesses muca valuable information upon matters of this kind.

ý Voyage dans l'Intérieur des Etats-Unis, et cet. ps. 206. 207.

616

TECUMSEH.

OOK

though they would have been justified by the discovery of the fraud. We do not vouch for the truth of this matter, nor do we believe William Penn ever practised a trick of the kind. No doubt some person did ; and perhaps Corn-planter had been told that it was Penn.

We have now to record the death of the venerable Corn-plant. He died at his residence on the Seneca reservation, on the 7th of March last, 1836 aged upwards of 100 years.

Teaslaegee, or Charles Corn-planter, was a party to the treaty of Moscow, N. Y. in 1823. He was probably a son of Koeentwahk, or Gyantwaia.

CHAPTER VII.

TECUMSEH-His great exertions to prevent the whites from overrunning his country.

His erpedition on Hacker's Creek— Cooperation of his brother, the Prophet-Rise of the difficulties between Tecumseh and Governor Harrison-Speech of the former in a council at Vincennes-Fearful occurrence in that council-WINNEMAK-Tecumseh visited by Governor Harrison at his camp-Determination of war the result of the interview on both sides-Characteristic anecdote of the chief-Determines, in the event of war, to prevent barbaritiesBattle of Tippecanoe-Battle of the Thames, and death of TecumsehDescription of his person-Important events in his lifePUKEESHENO, father of Tecumseh-His deathBattle of Magaugo-Specimen of the Shawanee language-Particular account of EllSKWATAWA, or the PROPHET, Account of RounD-HEAD— Capture and massacre of General Winchester's army at the River Raisin-MYEERAH,

or the Crane, commonly called WALK-IN-THE-WATER -TEYONINHOKERAWEN, or John Norton-LOGAN the Shawanee-BLACK-BIRDMassacre at Chicago—WAWNAHTON-BLACK-THUNDER-ONGPATONGA, or BiG-ELK -PETALESHARO-METEA.

TECUMSEH, by birth a Shawanee, and brigadier-general in the army of Great Britain, in the war of 1812, was born about 1770, and, like his great prototype, Pometacom, the Wampanoag, seems always to have made his aversion to civilization appear a prominent trait in his character; and it is not presumed that he joined the British army, and received the red sásh and other badges of office, because he was fond of imitating the whites; but he employed them, more probably, as a means of inspiring his countrymen with that respect and veneration for himself which was so necessary in the work of expulsion, which he had undertaken.

The first exploit in which we find Tecumseh engaged was upon a branch of Hacker's Creek, in May, 1792. With a small band of warriors, he came upon the family of John Waggoner, about dusk. They found Waggoner a short distance from his house, sitting upon a log, resting himself after the fatigues of the day. Tecumseh directed his men to capture the family, while himself was engaged with Waggoner. To make sure work, he took deliberate aim at him with his rifle ; but fortunately he did not even wound him, though the ball passed next to his skin. Waggoner threw himself off the log, and ran with all his might, and Tecumseh followed. Having the advantage of an accurate knowledge of the ground, Waggoner made good bis escape. Meanwhile his men succeeded in carrying off the family, some of whom they barbarously murdered. Among these were Mrs. it'aggoner and two of her children. Several of the children remained a long time with the Indians.

This persevering and extraordinary man had made himself noted and conspicuous in the war which terminated by the treaty of Greenville, in 1795. He was brother to that famous imposior well known by the name of the Prophet, and seems to have joined in his views just in season to prevent his falling into entire disrepute among his own followers. His principal place of rendezvous was near the confluence of the Tippecanoe with the Wabash. upon the north bank of the latter. This tract of country was none of his. but had been possessed by his brother the Prophet, in 1808, with a motley band of about 1000 young warriors from among the Shawanese, Delawares, Wyandots, Potowatomies, Ottowas, Kikkapoos and Chippeways. The Miamies were very much opposed to this intrusion into their country, but were not powerful enough to repel it, and many of their chiefs were put to death in the most barbarous manner, for remonstrating against their conduct. The maladministration of the Prophet, however, in a short time, very much reduced his numbers, so that, in about a year, his followers consisted of but about 300, and these in the most miserable state of existence. Their habits had been such as to bring famine upon them; and but for the provisions furnished by General Harrison, from Vincennes, starvation would doubtless have ensued.* At this juncture, Tecumseh made his appearance among them; and although in the character of a subordinate chief, yet it was known that he directed every thing afterwards, although in the name of the Prophet. His exertions now became immense to engage every tribe upon the continent in a confederacy, with the open and avowed object of arresting the progress of the whites.

Agreeably to the direction of the government, Governor Harrison purchased of the Delawares, Miamies, and Pottowatomies, a large tract of country on both sides of the Wabash, and extending up the river 60 miles above Vinc nnes. This was in 1809, about a year after the Prophet settled with his colony upon the Wabash, as before stated. Tecumseh was absent at this time, and his brother, the Prophet, was not considered as having any claim to the country, being there without the consent of the Miamies. Tecumseh did not view it in this light, and at his return was exceedingly vexed with those chiefs who had made the conveyance; many of whom, it is asserted, he threatened with death. Tecumseh's displeasure and dissatisfaction reached Governor Harrison, who despatched a messenger to him, to state that any claims he might have to the lands which had been ceded, were not affected by the treaty; that he might come to Vincennes and exhibit his pretensions, and if they were found to be solid, that the land would either be given up, or an ample compensation made for it.” | This, it must be confessed, was not in a strain calculated to soothe a mighty mind, when once justly irritated, as was that of Tecumseh. However, upon the 12 August, 1810, (a day which cannot fail to remind the reader of the fate of his great archetype, Philip, of Pokanoket,) he met the governor in council at Vincennes, with many of his warriors; at wbich time he spoke to him as follows:

“ It is true I am a Shawanee. My forefathers were warriors. Their son is a warrior. From them I only take my existence; from my tribe I take nothing. I am the maker of my own fortune ; and oh! that I could make that of my red people, and of my country, as great as the conceptions of my mind, when I think of the Spirit that rules the universe. I would not then come to Governor Harrison, to ask him to tear the treaty, and to obliterate the landmark; but I would say to him, Sir, you have liberty to return to your own country. The being within, cominuning with past ages, tells me, that once, nor until lately, there was no white man on this continent. That it then all belouged to red men, children of the same parents, placed on it by the Great Spirit that made them, to keep it, to traverse it, to enjoy its productions, and to fill it with the same race. Once a happy race. Since made miserable by the white people, who are never contented, but always encroaching. The way, and the only way to check and to stop this evil, is, for all the red men to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land, as it was at first, and should be yet; for it never was divided, but belongs to all, for the use of each. That no part has a right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers; those who want all, and will not do with less. The white people have no right to take the land from the Indians, because they had it first; it is theirs. They may sell, but all must join. Any sale not made by all is not valid. The late sale is bad. It was made by a part only. Part do not know how to sell. It requires all to make a bargain for all. All red men have equal rights to the unoccupied land. The right of occupancy is as good in one place as in another. There cannot be two occupations in the same place. The first excludes all others. It is not so in hunting or travelling; for there the same ground will serve many, as they may follow each 018

* Memoirs of Harrison.

M'Afee.

TECUMSEH.-CONFERENCE AT VINCENNES. [Book V other all day; but the camp is stationary, and that is occupancy. It belongg to the first who sits down on his blanket or skins, which he has thrown upon the ground, and till he leaves it no other has a right.”*

How near this is to the original is unknown to us, but it appears too much Americanized to correspond with our notions of Tecumseh ; nevertheless it may give the true meaning. One important paragraph ought to be added, which we do not find in the author from which we have extracted the above; which was, “that the Americans had driven them from the sea-coasts, and that they would shortly push them into the lakes, and that they were determined to make a stand where they were.”+ This language forcibly reminds us of what the ancient Britons said of their enemies, when they besought aid of the Romans. “ The barbarians (said they) drive us to the sea, and the sea beats us back upon them; between these extremes we are exposed, either to be slain with the sword, or drowned in the waves." I

Tecumseh, having thus explained his reasons against the validity of the purchase, took his seat amidst his warriors. Governor Harrison, in his reply, said, " that the white people, when they arrived upon this continent, had found the Miamies in the occupation of all the country on the Wabash, and at that time the Shawanese were residents of Georgia, from which they were driven by the Creeks. That the lands had been purchased from the Miamies, who were the true and original owners of it. That it was ridiculous to assert that all the Indians were one nation ; for if such had been the intention of the Great Spirit, he would not have put six different tongues into their heads, but have taught them all to speak a language that all could understand. That the Miamies found it for their interest to sell a part of their lands, and receive for them a further annuity, the benefit of which they had long experienced, from the punctuality with which the seventeen fires (the seventeen United States) complied with their engagements; and that the Slawanese had no right to come from a distant country and control the Miamies in the disposal of their own property.” The governor then took his seat, and the interpreter proceeded to explain to Tecumseh what he had said, who, when he had nearly finished, suddenly interrupted him, and exclaimed, “ It is all false;" at the same time giving to his warriors a signal, they seized their war clubs, and sprung upon their feet, from the green grass on which they had been sitting. The governor now thought himself in imminent danger, and, freeing himself from his arm-chair, drew his sword, and prepared to defend himself. He was attended by some officers of his gorernment, and many citizens, more numerous than the Indians, but all unarined; most of whom, however, seized upon some weapon, such as stones and clubs, Tecumseh continued to make gestures and speak with great emotion; and a guard of 12 armed men stationed by the governor in the rear were ordered up. For a few minutes, it was expected blood would be shed. Major G. R. Floyde, who stood near the governor, drew his dirk, and Winnemak cocked his pistol, which he had ready primed; he said Tecumseh had threatened bis life for having signed the treaty and sale of the disputed land. A Mr. Winas, the Methodist minister, ran to the governor's house, and, taking a gun, stood in the door to defend the family.

On being informed what Tecumseh had said, the governor repliec to him, that she was a bad man—that he would have no further talk with bim--that he must return to his camp, and set out for his home immediately.” Thus ended the conference. Tecumseh did not leave the neighborhood, but, the next morning, having reflected upon the impropriety of his conduct, sent to the governor to have the council renewed, and apologized for the affront offered; to which the governor, after some time, consented, having taken the precintiin to have two additional companies of armed men in readiness, in case of instilt.

Having met a second time, Tecumseh was asked whether he had any other grounds, than those he had stated, by which he could lay claim to the land in question ; to which he replied, “No other." Here, then, was an end of all argument. The indignant soul of Tecumseh could not but be enraged at

* Hist. Kentucky

Mem. Harrison

Seller's England.

the idea of an “ equivalent for a country," or, what meant the same thing, a compensation for land, which, often repeated, as it had been, would soon amount to a country! “The behavior of Tecumseh, at this interview, was very different from what it had been the day before. His deportment was dignified and collected, and he showed not the least disposition to be insolent. He denied having any intention of attacking the governor, but said be had been advised by white men” * to do as he had done; that two white men had visited him at his place of residence, and told him that half the white people were opposed to Governor Harrison, and willing to relinquish the land, and told him io advise the tribes not to receive pay for it; for that the governor would be soon put out of office, and a “good man” sent in his place, who would give up the land to the Indians. The governor asked him whether he would prevent the survey of the land: he replied that he was determined to adhere to the old boundury. Then arose a Wyandot, a Kikkapoo, a Pottowattomie, an Ottowas, and a Winnebago chief, each declaring his determination to stand by Tecumseh, whom they had chosen their chief. After the governor had informed Tecumseh that his words should be truly reported to the president, alleging, at the same time, that he knew the land would not be relinquished, and that it would be maintained by the sword, the council closed.

The governor wished yet to prolong the interview, and thought that, possibly, Tecumseh might appear more submissive, should be meet him in his own tent. Accordingly he took with him an interpreter, and visited the chief in his camp the next day. The governor was received with kindness and attention, and Tecumseh conversed with him a considerable time. On being asked by the governor if his determination really was as he had expressed himself in the council, he said, “ Yes;” and added, “ that it was with great reluctance he would make war with the United States—against whom he had no other complaint, but their purchasing the Indians' land ; that he was extremely anxious to be their friend, and if he (the governor) would prevail upon the president to give up the lands lately purchased, and agree never to make another treaty, without the consent of all the tribes, he would be their faithful ally, and assist them in all their wars with the English,” whom he knew were always treating the Indians like dogs, clapping their hands and hallooing stu-boy; that he would much rather join the seventeen fires; but if they would not give up said lands, and comply with his request in other respects, he would join the English. When the governor told him there was no probability that the president would comply, he said, “Well

, as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great Spirit will put sense enough into his head, to induce him to direct you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be injured by the war. He may sit still in his town, and drink his wine, whilst you and I will have to fight it out.” He had said before, when asked if it were bis determination to make war unless his terms were complied with, “ It is my determination; nor will I give rest to my feet, until I have united all the red men in the like resolution.”

Thus is exhibited the determined character of Tecumseh, in which no duplicity appears, and whose resentment might have been expected, when questioned, again and again, upon the same subject. Most religiously did he prosecute this plan; and could bis extraordinary and wonderful exertions be known, no fiction, it is believed, could scarcely surpass the reality. The tribes to the west of the Mississippi, and those about Lakes Superior and Auron, were visited and revisited by him previous to the year 1811. He had raised in these tribes the high expectation that they should be able to drive the Americans to the east of the Ohio. The famous Blue-jacket was as sanguine as Tecumseh, and was his abettor in uniting distant tribes.

The following characteristic circumstance occurred at one of the meetings at Vincennes. After Tecumseh had made a speech to Governor Har. rison, and was about to seat himself in a chair, he observed that none had been placed for him. One was immediately ordered by the governor, and, as the interpreter banded it to him, he said, “Your father requests you to take

* Memoirs of Harrison.

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