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was regarded only on the mother's side. These mother towns were, according to Sir Alexander, Tannassie, Kettooah, Ustenary, Telliquo, Estootowie, Keyowee, and Noeyeoee. Four of these towns were without kings at this time, they having died. Some towns had princes, as our author called them namely, Tomasso, one; Settecho, one; Tassettchee, one; Iwassee, one; Tel. liquo, two; Tannassie, two; Cannostee, one; Cowee, one.
The chief Moytoy was called emperor, and presided over the seven towns, in 1730. His residence was at Telliquo. On the 3 April, this year, deputies from all parts of the nation met at Nequassie, and in presence of Sir Alexander Cumming and 12 other Englishmen, declared Moytoy emperor; he having been nominated by Sir Alexander. * The nation consented to receive Moytoy as their king, provided he was held accountable to Sir Alexander. At the ceremony of declaring Moytoy king or emperor, by whose order Sir Alexander was placed in a chair, himself and the conjurers standing about him, and a throng of warriors "stroked him with 13 eagles' tails, and their singers sung from morning till night.” After this was done with, he made a speech to the great concourse of Indians; in which, among a good deal besides, he displayed the power and goodness of the king beyond the great water; and “required Moytoy and all the head warriors to acknowledge themselves dutiful subjects and sons to King George,” “all which they did on their knees, calling upon every thing that was terrible to them to destroy them, and that they might become no people, if they violated their promise and obedience.”
The next day, 4 April,“ the crown was brought from great Tannassie, which, with five eagles' tails and four scalps of their enemies, Moytoy presented to Sir Alexander, impowering him to lay the same at his majesty's feet.” The conjurers were well pleased with the English baron, and told him they would follow all his directions. “ That when he left them they would still consider him as present in the person of Moytoy of Telliquo, who would punctually do what he had bid." Sir Alexander was now at Tannassie, 400 miles from Charleston, according to his reckoning, and had but 15 days to arrive there in, to go for England in the Fox man-of war, which was then to sail. He therefore asked Moytoy if the Indians could travel there in so short a time on foot. The chief said it might be done, and that he would have accompanied him, but for the dangerous illness of his wife, and requested him to choose such as he desired from among his people, to go with him. f
Accordingly, Sir Alexander chose, as evidences of what had happened, Skijagusta, 1 the head warrior of Tassetchie, “a man of great power and interest
, who had a right to be a king,” Attakullakullo, and Otassile, or Outacite, a third warrior, Collannah, a fourth; "and from Tannassie, the remotest town of the country, he took Clogoittah and Oukanaekah, s warriors.” About 23 miles from Charleston they met with the warrior Ounakannowine, a friend of these chiefs, “who had just come from the Kattarbe nation, and desired to go along with his countrymen, to which Sir Alexander consented.”
They went on board the Fox, a man-of-war, and sailed from Charleston Bay 4 May, and arrived at Dover 5 June; thus performing a passage across the Atlantic in a month and a day, in 1730, not much inferior to what is done now-a-days. At Dover Sir Alexander “ took post to London, with the crown
* This part of the sentence is upon the authority of a good writer, (Hewatt, Hist. Carolina, ü. 5,) but Sir Alexander does not say quite as much in his account.
Moytoy was a bitter enemy afterwards. In 1758 he went with his warriors to a place called Siatiquo, and killed several whites, without, as was said, any provocation. Hewatt, ii. 220.
1 Or Kitagusta. This chief was one of the seren, as will appear immediately onward, although Sir Alexander, in his communication, does not name him. Neither does he name Attakullakulla, or Outassite; yet it is certain they were both in England, and we believe at this time : they make up the number seven, with those named in his own narrative. That Atlakullakulle was, see Hewatt, ii. 221, and Wynne, ii. 280, n. We can only account for the blanks in the narrative, by supposing that Sir Alerander's amanuensis did not understand him, (for he did not write himself,) and the enumeration of the chiefs which he took with him, is very blundering. Thus, after naming one only, it is set down, “and A third warrior," &r.
Perhaps Ockonostola, who was called the great warrior of the Cherokee nation Hewatt c. 217.
CREEK CHIEFS VISIT ENGLAND.
of the Cherokee nation, leaving the Indians behind to come up with the manof-war. He let the secretary of state immediately know that he had full power from that nation to lay their crown at his majesty's feet, and that he had brought over seven Indian chiefs, as an evidence of the truth. His majesty was graciously pleased to order Sir Alexander to bring in his people to the installation, the 18th of June, where they were extremely surprised at the magnificence of every thing abont them: they compared the king and queen to the sun, the princes to the stars, and themselves to nothing. On the 22d of June, Sir Alexander was introduced to his majesty, and upon his knee, in presence of the court, declared the full power he had received, the Indian chiefs all kneeling at the same time, as a testimony of their submission and approbation. Sir Alexander laid the crown of the Cherokee nation at bis majesty's feet, with the five eagles' tails, as an emblem of his majesty's sovereignty, and four scalps of Indian enemies; all which his majesty was graciously pleased to accept ot."
While in England, they made a treaty with the king, every article of which was accompanied, on his part, with presents of some sort or other : such as cloth, guns, vermilion, hatchets
, knives, &c. This treaty was dated at Whitehall, 7 September, 1730, and from it we get the names of the seven chiefs. It begins, " Whereas you, SCAYAGUSTA OUKAH, chief of the town of Tasseta ; you, SCALILOSKEN KETAGUSTA ; you, Tethtowe ; you, CLOGOITTAH; you, ColAnnah; you, UnnaCONOY; you, OucounAcou, have been deputed by the whole nation of the Cherokee Indians, to come to Great Britain," * &c. After the treaty was, finished, a certified copy was presented to the chiefs by Sir Alexander Cumming ; upon which Skijagustah, in the name of the whole, made the following speech :
“We are come hither from a mountainous place, where nothing but darkness is to be found; but we are now in a place where there is light. There was a person in our country, he gave us a yellow token of warlike honor, which is left with Moytoy of Telliquo, and as warriors we received it. He came to us like a warrior from you. A man he is ; bis talk is upright, and the token he left preserves his memory among us. We look upon you as if the great king were present; we love you as representing the great king. We shall die in the same way of thinking. The crown of our nation is different from that which the great King George wears, and from that we saw in the tower. But to us it is all one. The chain of friendship shall be carried to our people. We look upon the great King George as the sun, and as our father, and upon ourselves as his children. For though we are red, and you are white, yet our hands and hearts are joined together. When we shall have acquainted our people with what we have seen, our children from generation to generation will always remember it. In war we shall always be one with you. The enemies of the great king shall be our enemies. His people and ours shall be one, and shall die together. We came hither naked and poor as the worms of the earth, but you have every thing, and we that have nothing must love you, and will never break the chain of friendship which is between 113. Here stands the governor of Carolina, whom we know. This small rope f we show you is all that we have to bind our slaves with, and it may be broken. But have iron chains for yours. However if we catch your slaves, we will bind them as well as we can, and deliver them to our friends, and take no pay for it. We have looked round for the person that was in our country --he is not here: However, we must say he talked uprightly to us, and we shall never forget him. Your white people may very safely build houses near
We shall hurt nothing that belongs to them, for we are children of one father, the great king, and shall live and die together.”
When Skijagustah had proceeded thus far, he laid his feathers upon a table, and closed as follows:
* Report of the Commissioners (1736) on the Affairs of Georgia, p. 53.—If Altakullakulla were among these chiefs, he went under 'another name, as did also Oracite. See a few pages forward.
† There was at this time no governor, though Robert Johnson was nominally such. In 1729 the government of Carolina was delivered to the crown of England, for about £17,000. Jchon son was reappointed in 1731.
String of' wampum, probably.
« This is our way of talking, which is the same thing to us as your letters in the book are to you, and to you, beloved men, we deliver these feathers in confirmation of all we have said."
In October, the Indians embarked at Portsmouth with Mr. Johnson, the governor of Carolina, for their own country, and in the same ship in which they went over,
Škijagustah, or, as he was sometimes called, Kittagusta, “ was brother of Orucconnostota, or the great warrior, and also chief of Chote. He lived to be very old, and died in May, 1768.
Settlement of Carolina and Georgia–TOMOCHICHI receives the English-Goes to Eng
land with General Oglethorpe-Makes a speech to the King-His death—War with the Spaniards–Ouracitie-MalachtyATTAKULLAKULLA—Indians murdered -ATTAKULLAKULLA prevents retaliation upon whites in his power-Cherokee War begins-Governor Littleton's expedition-Imprisons their Ambassadors— They are massacred—Colonel Montgomery sent against them—Battle near Keowee-Cherokees take Fort London—SILOUCE-Saves the life of Colonel Byrd_Colonel Grant subdues the Cherokees, and they make peace with the whites-Culucco.
The presumption is pretty strongly supported, that Sir Walter Ralegh visited che southern shores of North America. When General Oglethorpe landed in Georgia, in 1732,* O. S., and communicated to the Indians the contents of a journal of Sir Walter's, they seemed to have a tradition of him, which they had fondly cherished ; although, if the person they met were Ralegh, a hundred years had elapsed since he was there. They pointed out to Mr. Oglethorpe a place near Yamacraw bluff, since Charleston, on which was a large mound, in which was buried, they said, a chief who had talked with Sir Walter Ralegh upon that spot. The chief had requested his people to bury him there, that the place might be kept in veneration.
TOMOCHICHI was the principal chief, or Mico, as chiefs were called, of a small band of Creeks and Yamasees, who, having in some way offended their countrymen, fled their country, and “wandered about in the woods some time, until about 1732, when they begged leave of this government to sit down on the high land of Yamacraw, on the south side of Savannah river, at or near the place where the new town of Savannah, in Georgia, is now situated." + They consisted of but 17 or 18 families, and their first chief appears to have been called BocaCHEE. Several chief men, of various tribes, came to welcome the English, immediately after their arrival. “They were as follows: From the tribe of Coweeta, Yahan-lakee, their king, or mico; Essaboo, their warrior, the son of Old-brim, lately dead, whom the Spaniards called emperor of the Creeks, with eight men and two women attendants. From the tribe of Cussetas, Cusseta, their mico; Tatchiquatchi, their head warrior, with four attendants. From the tribe of Owseecheys, Ogeese, the mico, or war_king; Neathlouthko and Ougachi, two chief men, with three attendants. From the tribe of Cheechaws, Outhleteboa, their mico, Thlautho-thlukee, Figeer, Sootamilla, war captains, with three attendants. From the tribe of Echetas, Chutabeeche and Robin, two war captains, (the latter was bred among the English,) with four attendants. From the tribe of Polachucolas, Gillattee, their head warrior, and five attendants. From the tribe of Oconas, Oueekachumpa, called by the Eng; lish Long-king, Koowoo, a warrior. From the tribe of Eufaule, Tomaumi, head warrior, and three attendants.
Many gentlemen in England contributed, in various ways, this year, for the advancement of the colony; some in cauile, some in labor, some in provisions, and others as soldiers. The contribution of one gentleman, for its singularity, shall be mentioned.
* Mr. Hume gave a silver boat and spoon for the first child born in Georgia, which being born of Mrs. Close, were given accordingly."-Commissioners' Report on Georgia Affairs, p. 119. * Report of the Commissioners, ut supra, 11, 116, 117.
TOMOCHICHI AND OTHERS VISIT ENGLAND.
“ The Indians being all seated, Oueekachumpa, a very tall old man, stood, and made a speech, which was interpreted by Mr. Wiggan and Mr. Musgrove, * in which he said all the lands to the southward of Savannah River belonged to the Creeks. He said, the Indians were poor, but the same Power that gave the English breath, gave them breath also. That that Power had given the English the most wisdom. That, as they had come to instruct them, they should have all the lands which they did not use themselves. That this was not only his mind, but the minds of the eight towns of Creeks, who had, after consulting together, sent some of their chief men with skins, which was their wealth. At this period of Oueekachumpa's speech, some of the chiefs of the eight towns brought each a bundle of buck's skins, and laid them down before Mr. Oglethorpe. Then the chief said, “These are the best things we possess, but we rive them with a good heart. I thank you for your kindness to Tomochichi, and ris people. He is my kinsman, and, though he was banished from his nation, he 's a good man and a great warrior. It was on account of his wisdom and justice, 'hat the banished men chose him their king. I hear that the Cherokees have killed some Englishmen. If you (addressing Mr. Oglethorpe] will command us, we will go against them with all our force, kill their people, and destroy their living."
When Oueekachumpa had done speaking, Tomochichi drew near with his men, and, after making a low bow, said,—“ I was a banished man, and I came here poor and helpless to look for good land near the tombs of my ancestors, and when you came to this place: I feared you would drive us away; for we were weak and wanted corn. But you confirmed our land to us, and gave us food.” The other chiefs spoke in the sauve manner as Oueckachumpa had, and then agreed upon and executed an amicalle treaty.
By the assistance of his inter, reter, Mary Musgrove, General Oglethorpe had been able to draw together, at ole time, 50 chiet's from the upper and lower Creek towns, and, by his conciliatory conduct, had secured their friendship. He next resolved to take a deputation of them to England, hoping what they might witness and experience there, would result in lasting benefits to both their nations and the English. Accordingly, measures having been taken for the furtherance of this project, the general and the Indian chiefs embarked for England, in the Aldborough man-of-war, and arrived at St. Hellens, in the Isle of Wight, 16 June, 1734. The names of the Indians were Tomochichi, Senawki, his consort, and TOONAKOWI, the prince, his nephew; also HilliseiLLI, a war captain, and APAKOWSKI, STIMALECHI, SInTouchi, HINGUITHI, and UMPHYCH, five other chiefs, with their interpreter.
Immediately after their arrival, orders were given for preparing proper habits for them, in order to their being introduced at court. This having been done, Sir Clement Cotterel, knight, master of the ceremonies, was sent, August 1, with three of the king's coaches, drawn by six horses each, to the Georgia office, where the chiefs, all except one, were taken in and carried to Kensington, where their introduction to his majesty, King George II., took place. The one left at the Georgia office was sick with the small-pox, of which he died the next day. ToMochichi, after presenting the king with sev. eral eagle's feathers, which were considered, by his nation, the most respectful present they could send, delivered the following speech to his majesty :
“This day I see the majesty of your face, the greatness of your house, and the number of your people. I am come for the good of the whole nation of the Creeks, to renew the peace they had long ago made with the English. 1 am come over in my old days; and, though I cannot live to see any advantage to myself, I am come for the good of the children of all the nations of the Upper and Lower Creeks, that they may be instructed in the knowledge of the English. These are the feathers of the eagle, which is the swiftest of birds, and who flieth all round our nations. These feathers are a sign of peace in our land, and we have brought them over to leave them with you, great king, as a sign of everlasting peace. 0! great king, whatsoever words
* His wife was the interpreter, according to M Call, i. 35, who was a half breed named Mary. Oglethorpe first purchased her friendship with presents, and afterwards allowed her a hundred pounds a year for her services.--Commissioners' Report on Georgia Affairs.
you shall say unto me, I will tell them faithfully to all the kings of the Creek nations." The king's answer, though short, was, in the highest degree, conciliatory, and what was termed gracious.*
When the chiefs were introduced at court, his majesty received them upon his throne, in the presence chamber, attended by the officers of state, and a numerous court. They were introduced by the Duke of Grafton, chamberlain of his majesty's household; and, after the ceremonies, they returned to their apartments, at the Georgia office.
Their first care, after returning from court, was to inter their deceased companion, which was accordingly done with great ceremony, in the burialground of St. John the Evangelist, Westminster, according to the custom of The “Cherokee Creeks,” which was in the following manner :-“The deceased being sewed up in two blankets, with one deal board under and another over him, and tied down with a cord, was placed upon a bier, and carried to the place of interment. There were only present at the time of his being put into the grave, King Tomo, and some of the chiefs, the upper church warden of the parish, and the grave digger. When the corpse was laid in the earth, the clothes of the deceased were thrown into the grave; after this a quantity of glass beads were cast in, and then some pieces of silver; the custom of those Indians being to bury all the deceased's effects with him.”
Although we have the names of all the chiefs given us that went over with Mr. Oglethorpe, we have not the means of knowing which it was that died. Indians often died on their visits to Europe. One of the five Iroquois chiefs died in England, t in 1710, and of bis name too we are ignorant.
Mr. Oglethorpe's chiefs, after having been showed the chief curiosities in and about London, were taken to Spithead, where the English fleet lay, that they might go on board and view the tremendous ship Britannia, and some others of great magnitude. On the 30 October, 1734, a little past noon, they embarked at Gravesend, on board the Prince of Wales, for Georgia.
Of Tomochichi, who was the most prominent character among them, we have yet a little to add. He lived until he had attained his 97th year, and died 15 October, 1739, five years, wanting 15 days, after he sailed from England. He resided, at the time of his death, about four miles from Savannah. He was highly beloved by the English, having always been their particular friend, fought for them in war, and aided them by his counsel in peace. He was aware of the approach of death, and expressed but little desire to live longer, as he should be unable to aid his allies any more against the Spaniards. For General Oglethorpe he expressed the greatest tenderness, and entreated the Indians to bear in remembrance the kindnesses with which the king of England had treated him, and hoped they would always remain his subjects. Having expressed a wish that his body might be buried among the English in Savannah, accordingly, his corpse was there interred in Percival Square, with military parade, and General Oglethorpe ordered a pyramid to be erected over it, with an appropriate inscription. I
Thus are traced the first steps in the history of Georgia, and thus did every thing promise a continuance of that friendship so well begun by General Oglethorpe. Nothing was left undone, while the Creek chiefs were in England, to impress upon their minds exalted ideas of the power and greatness of the English nation. The nobility were not only curious to see them, but entertained them at their tables in the most magnificent style. Multitudes flocked around them, conferring gifts and marks of respect upon them. The king allowed them £20 sterling a week, during their stay, and it was computed that, at their return to America, they brought presents to the amount of £400 sterling. After remaining in England four months, they embarked at Gravesend for Georgia. They were conveyed to the place of embarkation in his majesty's carriages.
in the invasion of Georgia by the Spaniards, in 1743, many Indians were Irawn into the controversy, on both sides. Tocanocowi, || or Tooanohowi, a nephew of Tomochichi, was shot through the right arın, in an encounter with - Harris, Voyages.
+ Kalm's Travels in America, i, 21). M Call, Hist. Georgia, i. 196, 197. g Ib. i. 45.