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the house, divided by mats,) where they found hominy,* boiled venison, and roasted fish; and, as a desert, melons, boiled roots, and fruits of various sorts. While they were at meat, two or three of her men came in with their bows end arrows, which made the English take to their arms. But she, perceiving their distrust, ordered their bows and arrows to be broken, and themselves to be beaten out of the gate. In the evening, the English returned to their boat; and, putting a little off from shore, lay at anchor; at which she was much concerned, and brought their supper, half boiled, pots and all to the shore: and, seeing their jealousy, she ordered several men, and 30 women, to sit all night upon the shore, as a guard; and sent five mats to cover them from the weather.”+ Well hath the poet demanded, “Call ye them savage ?" If the wife of Granganemeo was savage, in the common acceptation of the term, where shall we look for civilization ?
Sir R. Greenvil, having arrived on the coast in 1585, anchored off the island Wokokon, 26 May, and, by means of Manteo, had some intercourse with the inhabitants. At Hatteras, where they staid a short time, soon after, Granganemeo, with Manteo, went on board their ships. This was the last visit he made to the English, for he died very soon after.
This must close our account of the excellent family of Granganemeo, and would that the account of the English would balance as well,—but they exhibit their own,-and one item more from it, and we close the comparison. For a small kettle they took 50 skins, worth in England £12 108. sterling. I We have now arrived at the most interesting article in Virginia history. PowHATAN was, of aħl the chiefs of his age, the most famous in the regions of Virginia. The English supposed, at first, that his was the name of the country; a common error, as we have seen in several cases in the previous books of our biography, but, in this case, unlike the others, the error prevailed, and a part of his people, ever after the settlement of the English, were called the Porchatans. A great river, since called the James, and a bay received his name also. S He had three brothers, Opitchepan, Opekankanough, and Catatanugh, and two sisters. His principal residence was at a place called Werowocomoco, when the English came into the country; which was upon the north side of what is now York River, in the county of Gloucester, nearly opposite the mouth of Queen's Creek, and about 25 miles below the fork of the river. ||. He lived here until the English began to intrude themselves into his vicinity, when he took up his residence at Orakakes.
Powhatan was not his Indian name, or rather original name; that was Wahunsonacock. He is described as tall and well-proportioned-bearing an aspect of sadness-exceedingly vigorous, and possessing a body capable of sustaining great hardships. He was, in 1607, about 60 years of age, and his hair was considerably gray, which gave him a majestic appearance. At his residence, he had a kind of wooden form to sit upon, and his ornamental robe was of raccoon skins, and his head-dress was composed of many feathers wrought into a kind of crown. He swayed many nations upon the great rivers and bays, the chief of whom he had conquered. He originally claimed only the places called Powhatan, (since named Haddihaddocks,) Arrohattock, (now Appomattox,). Youghtanund, Pamunky, Mattapony, Werowocomoco, and Kiskiak; at which time, his chief seat was at Powhatan, near the falls of James River. But when he had extended his conquests a great way north, he removed to Werowocomoco, as a more commodious situation.
At the termination of his warlike career, the country upon James River, from its mouth to the falls, and all its branches, was the boundary of his country, southerly—and so across the country, “ nearly as high as the falls of all the great rivers, over Potowmack, even to Patuxent, in Maryland,” and
* “A food made of Indian corn, or maize, beaten and carefully husked, something like urmety in England; and is an excellent dish various ways." + Stith's Hist. Virginia, 10, 11.
Smith's Hist. Virginia. These, according to Heckewelder, Philos. Trans. 31, should have been called Powhathan, "which would signify the river of progeny, fruitfulness, the fruitful river."
| About two miles below where Richmond now stands. The farm of a gentleman of the name of Mayo included the site of a part of his town, in 1813.-Campbell's Virginia.
some of the nations on the north shore of the Chesapeake. His dominions according to his law of succession, did not fall to his children, but to his brothers, and then to his sisters, (the oldest first,) thence to the heirs of the oldest ; but never to the heirs of the males.
He usually kept a guard of 40 or 50 of the most resolute and well-formed men about him, especially when he slept; but, after the English came into bis country, he increased them to about 200. He had as many, and such women as he pleased ; and, when he slept, one sat at his head and another at his feet. When he was tired of any of his wives, he bestowed them upon such of his men as most pleased him. Like the New England chiefs, he had many places where he passed certain seasons of the year; at some of which he had very spacious wigwams, 30 or 40 yards in extent, where he had victuals provided against his coming.
In 1608, he surprised the people of Payankatank, who were his neighbors and subjects. Captain Smith, in the account, "writ with his own hand,” says, “ the occasion was to vs vnknowne, but the manner was thus.” He sent several of his men to lodge with them the night on which he meant to fall upon them; then, secretly surrounding them in their wigwams, commenced a borrid slaughter. They killed 24 men, took off their scalps, and, with the women and children prisoners, returned to the sachem's village. The scalps they exhibited upon a line between two trees, as a trophy, and the werowance (their name of a chief) and his wife Powhatan made his servants.
Up to the year 1607, every attempt to settle a colony in Virginia had failed; and, at this time, would have failed also, but for the unexampled perseverance of one man. I need but pronounce the name of Captain John ŚMITH. The colony with which he came did not arrive until the planting season was over; and, in a short time, they found themselves in a suffering condition, from want of suitable provisions. Smith, therefore, undertook to gain a supply by trafficking with the Indians back in the country, who, being acquainted with his situation, insulted him and his men wherever they came; offering him but a handful of corn, or a piece of bread, for a gun or a sword. “But seeing by trade and courtesie there was nothing to be had, he made bold to try such conchisions as necessitie inforced, though contrary to his commission.” So he fired upon them, and drove them into the woods. He then marched to their village. There they found corn in abundance, which, after some manæuvring, he succeeded in trading for, and returned with a supply to Jamestown.
Smith, soon after, proceeded to discover the source of the Chikabamania. When he had passed up as far as it was navigable for his barge, he left it in a wide place, at a safe distance from the shore, and ordered his men not to go on shore on any condition. Taking two of his own men and two Indians, he proceeded to complete his discovery. As soon as he was gone, his men went on shore; one was killed, and the rest hardly escaped. Smith was now 20 miles into the wilderness. Opekankanough, with 300 warriors, having learned, from the men they had just taken, which way he was gone, followed after bim, and came upon the two Englishmen belonging to his company, and killed them both while asleep, he being absent to shoot some fowls for provisions ; they then continued their pursuit after him. He was not far from his canoe, and endeavored to retreat to it, but, being hard pressed, made a shield of one of his Indians, and, in this manner, fought upon the retreat, until he had killed three, and wounded divers others. Being obliged to give all his attention to his pursuers, he accidentally fell into a creek, where the mud was so deep that he could not extricate himself. Even now, none dared to lay hands upon him; and those whom their own numbers forced nearest to him, were observed to tremble with fear. The Indian he had bound to bis arm with his garters, doubtless saved him from being killed by their arrows, from which, owing to his Indian shield, he received but very little hurt, except a wound in his thigh, though his clothes were shot full of them.
When he could stand no longer in the mire, without perishing with cold, he threw away his arms, and suffered them to come and take him. After pulling him out of the mire, they took him to the place where his men had just been killed, where there was a fire. They now showed him kindness, rubbing his benumbed limbs, and warming him by the fire. He asked for their chief, and Opekankanough appeared, to whom he gave a small compass. This amused them exceedingly. “Much they marvelled at the playing of the fly and needle, which they could see so plainly, and yet not touch it, because of the glass that covered them. But when he demonstrated, by that globe-like jewell, the roundnesse of the earth, and skies, the spheare of the sunne, and moone, and starres, and how the sunne did chase the night round about the world, continually—the greatnesse of the land and sea, the diversity of the nations, varietie of complexions, and how we were to them antipodes, and many other such like matters, they all stood as amazed with admiration!: Yet, notwithstanding he had such success in explaining to them his knowledge of geography and astronomy, (how much of it they understood we will not undertake to say,) within an hour after, they tied him to a tree, and a riultitude of them seemed prepared to shoot him. But when their bows were bent, Opekankanough held up his compass, and they all laid down their weapons. They pow led him to Orapakas, or Orakakes, a temporary seat of Powhatan, on the north side of Chikahominy swamp, in what is now Gloucester county on York river.* Here they feasted him, and treated him well.
When they marched him, they drew themselves up in a row, with their chief in the midst
, before whom the guns and swords they had taken from the English were borne. Smith came next, led by three great men hold of each arm, and on each side six more, with their arrows notched, and ready, if he should attempt to escape. At the town, they danced and sung about him, and then put him into a large house, or wigwam. Here they kept him so well, that he thought they were fatting him to kill and eat. They took him to a sick man to cure him ; but he told them he could not, unless they would let him go to Jamestown, and get something with which he could do it. This they would not consent to.
The taking of Jamestown was now resolved upon, and they made great preparations for it. To this end, they endeavored to get Smith's assistance, by making large promises of land and women; but he told them it could not be done, and described to them the great difficulty of the undertaking in such a manner that they were greatly terrified. With the idea of procuring something curious, Smith prevailed upon some of them to go to Jamestown; which journey they performed in the most severe frosty and snowy weather. By this means, he gave the people there to understand what his situation was, and what was intended against them, by sending a leaf from his pocket-book, with a few words written upon it. He wrote, also, for a few articles to be sent, which were duly brought by the messengers. Nothing had caused such astonishment as their bringing the very articles Smith had promised them. That he could talk to his friends, at so great a distance, was utterly incomprehensible to them.
Being obliged to give up the idea of destroying Jamestown, they amused themselves by taking their captive from place to place, in great pomp and triumph, and showing him to the different nations of the dominions of Powhatan. They took him to Youghtannund, since called Pamunkey River, the country over which Opekankunough was chief, whose principal residence was where the town of Pamunkey since was ; thence to the Mattaponies, Piankatanks, the Nautaughitacunds, on Rappahanock, the Nominies, on the Patowmack River ; thence, in a circuitous course, through several other nations, back again to the residence of Opekankanough. Here they practised conjurations upon him for three successive days; to ascertain, as they said, whether he intended them good or evil. This proves they viewed him as a kind of god. A bag of gunpowder having fallen into their hands they preserved it with great care, thinking it to be a grain, intending, in the spring, to plant it, as they did corn. He was here again feasted, and none could eat until he bad done.
Being now satisfied, having gone through all the manœuvres and pranks with him they could think of, they proceeded to Powhatan. “ Here more than 200 of those grim courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had been a monster,
* Buncroft's Hist. U. States, i. 146.
POCAHONTAS SAVES THE LIFE OF SMITH.
till Pouchalan and his trayne had put themselves in their greatest braveries. He was seated before a fire, upon a seat like a bedstead, having on a robe of raccoon skins, “and all the tayles hanging by.” On each side of him sat 3 young woman; and upon each side of the house two rows of men, and with as many women behind them. These last had their heads and shoulders painted red-some of whose heads were adorned with white down; and aboui their necks white beads. On Smith's being brought into the presence of Powhatan, all present joined in a great shout." The queen of Apamatuck was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought him a bunch of feathers, insind of a towel, to dry them.” Then, having feasted him again, “after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan —then as many as could lay hands on him, dragged him to them and thereon laid his head, and being ready, with their clubs, to beat out his brains, Pccahontas, the king's dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail,
Powhatan was unable to resist the extraordinary solicitations and sympathetic entreaties of his kind-hearted little daughter, and thus was sa the ife of Captain Smith ; a character, who, without this astonishing deliverance, was sufficiently renowned for escapes and adventures.
The old sachem, having set the sentence of death aside, made up his mind to employ Smith as an artisan; to make, for himself, robes, shoes, bows, arrows, and pots; and, for Pocahontas, bells, beads, and copper trinkets. Powhatan's son, named Nantaquaus, was very friendly to Smith, and rendered him many important services, as well after as during his captivity.
“Two days after, Powhatan, having disguised himself in the most fearfullest manner he could, caused Captain Smith to be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there, upon a mat by the fire, to be left alone. Not long after, from behinde a mat that divided the house, was made the most dolefullest noyse he ever heard ; then Powhatan, more like a Devill than a man, with some 200 more, as black as himselfe, came unto him, and told him, now they were friends; and presently he should go to Jamestowne, to send him two great gunnes, and a gryndestone, for which he would give him the country of Capahowosick (Capahowsick), and forever esteem him his sonne, Nantuquond. So to Jamestowne, with 12 guides, Powhatan sent him. That night they quartered in the woods, he still expecting, (as he had done all this long time of his imprisonment,) every hour to be put to one death or another." Early the next morning, they came to the fort at Jamestown. Here he treated his guides with the greatest attention and kindness, and offered Rawhunt, in a jesting manner, and for the sake of a little sport, a huge mill-stone, and two demi-culverins, or nine pound cannons, to take to Powhatan, his master ; thus fidfilling his engagement to send him a grindstone and two guns. This Rawhunt was a sachem under Powhatan, and one of his most faithful captains, and who, it seems, accompanied Smith in his return out of captivity.
“ They found them somewhat too heavie, but when they did see him discharge them, being loaded with stones, among the boughs of a great tree loaded with isickles, the yce and branches came so tumbling down, that the poore salvages ran away half dead with fear. But, at last, we regained some conference with them, and gave them such toyes, and sent to Powhatan, his women, and children, such presents, and gave them in generall full content.” *
Powhatan was now completely in the English interest, and almost every other day sent his daughter, Pocahontas, with victuals, to Jamestown, of which ney were greatly in need. Smith had told Powhatan that a great chief, which was Captain Newport
, would arrive from England about ihat time, which coming
to pass as he had said, greatly increased his admiration of the wisdom of the English, and he was ready to do as they desired in every thing, and, put for the vanity and ostentation of Newport, matters would have gone on well, and trade flourished greatly to their advantage. But he lavished so many presents upon Powhatan, that he was in no way inclined to trade, and soon
* This is Captain Smith's own account, which I shall follow minutely; adding occasionally from Stith, to illustrate the geography of the country.
began to show his haughtiness, by demanding five times the value of an article, or his contempt for what was offered.
By Neroport's imprudence and folly, what had cost Smith so much toil and pains to achieve, was blown away by a single breath of vanity. Nevertheless, his great mind, continually exercised in difficult matters, brought the subtle chief again to his own terms. Himself, with Newport, and about 20 others, went to Powhatan's rcoidence to trade with him. “Wherein Powhatan carried himself so proudly, yet discreetly, (in his salvage manner,) as inade us all to admire his natural gifts.” He pretended that it was far beneath his dignity to trade as his men dià. Thus his craft to obtain from Newport his goods for whatever he pleased to give in return. Smith saw through Powhutan's craft, and told Newport how it would turn out, but being determined to show himself as dignified as the Indian chief, repented of his folly, like too many others, when it was too late. Smith was the interpreter in the business, and Newport the chief. Powhatan maile a speech to him, when they were about to enter upon trading. He said, “Captain Newport, it is not agreeable to my greatness, in this peddling manner, to trade for trifles; and I esteem you also a great werowance. Therefore, lay me down all your commodities together; what 1 like I will take, and in recompense give you what I think fitting their value.” Accordingly, Newport gave him all his goods, and received in return only about three bushels of corn; whereas they expected to have obtained twenty hogsheads. This transaction created some hard thoughts between Smith and Newport.
It' it add to raise Powhatan in our admiration, it can detract nothing from the character of Smith, to say, that he was as wily as the great Indian chief. For, with a few blue beads, which he pretended that he had shown him only by accident, and wbich he would hardly part with, as he pretended, because they were of great price, and worn only by great kings, he completely got his end, at this time, answered. Tantalization had the desired effect, and Powhatan was so infatuated with the lure, that he was almost beside imself, and was ready to give all he had to possess them. “So that, ere we departed,” says my relation, “ for a pound or two of blew beades, he brought over my king for 2 or 300 bushells of corne."
An English boy was left with Powhatan, by Captain Newport, to learn the language, manners, customs and geography of his country ; and, in return, Pouchatan gave him Namontack, one of his servants, of a shrewd and subtle capacity, whom he afterwards carried to England. Powhatan became offended with Captain Smith, when Newport left the country, in 1608; at whose departure he sent him 20 turkeys, and demanded, in return, 20 swords, which were granted. Shortly after, he sent the same number to Smith, expecting the like return; but, being disappointed, ordered his men to seize the English wherever they could find them. This caused difficulty-many of the English being robbed of their swords, in the vicinity of their forts. They continued their depredations until Smith surprised a number of them, from whom he learned that Powhatan was endeavoring to get all the arms in his power, to be able to massacre the English. When he found that his plot was discovered, he sent Pocahontas, with presents, to excuse himself
, and pretended that the inischief was done by some of his ungovernable chiefs. He directed her to endeavor to effect the release of his men that were prisoners, which Smith consented to, wholly, as he pretended, on her account; and thus peace was restored, which had been continually interrupted for a coösiderable time before.
On the 10th of September, 1608, Smith was elected governor of Virginia. Newport, going often to England, had a large share in directing the affairs of the colony, from his interest with the proprietors. He arrived about this time, and, among other baubles, brought over a crown for Powhatan, with directions for bis coronation ; which had the ill effect to make him value himself more than ever. Newport was instructed to discover the country of the Monacans, a nation with whom Powhatan was at war, and whom they would assist bim against, if he would aid in the business. Captain Smith was sent to him to invite him to Jamestown to receive presents, and to trade for corn. On arriv. ing at Werowocomoco, and delivering his message to the old chief, he replied, * If your king have sent me presents, I also am a king, and this is my land.