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being six in pumber, leaving our heroes to pursue their object. Thus their preservation was due to Quanapohit; and is the more to be admired, as they were in so far destitute of the means of defence. Captain Quanapohit had himself only a pistol, and one of his men a gun without a flint, and the other no gun at all.*

It was about the time these events occurred, that Captain Tom, of whom we have spoken, his daughter, and two children, were taken by a scout sent out by Captain Henchman, about 10 miles south-east of Marlborough. They appear to have been taken on the 11 June, and on the 26 of the same month Captain Tom was executed.

CHAPTER VII.

Of the Indians in New Hampshire and Maine precious to their wars with the rchites

Dominions of the bashaba-Perishes in war—PASSACON AWAY-His dominionsHis last speech to his peopleHis life-His daughter marries Winnapurket-Peti. tions the court of MassachusettsLunds allotted to himEnglish send a force to disarm him— Their fears of his enmity unfoundedthey seize and illtreat his sonHe escapesPassaconaway delivers his arms, and makes peace with the EnglishTraditions concerning-Life of WANNALANCET-His situation in Philip's war, Messengers and letters seni him by the English-Leaves his residence-His humanity - Fate of Josiah NOUEL-Wannalancet returns to his countryHis lands seized in his absence- He again retires into the wilderness-Mosely destroys his village, &c.Imprisoned for delt-Farors ChristianityA speech-WEHANOwnowit, sachem of New HampshireROBINHOOD-His sales of land in Maine-MoNQUINE -KENNEBIS-AssIMINASQUA-ABBIGADASSET— Their residences and sales of land -Melancholy fute of Chocorua.

Some knowledge of the Indians eastward of the Massachusetts was very early obtained by Captain John Smith, which, however, was very general ; as that they were divided into several tribes, each of which had their own sachem, or, as these more northern Indians pronounced that word, sachemo, which the English understood sagamore ; and yet all the sachemos acknowledged subjection to one still greater, which they called bashaba.

Of the dominions of the bashaba, writers differ much in respect to their extent. Some suppose that his authority did not extend this side the Pascataqua, but it is evident that it did, from Captain Smith's account.f Wars and pestilence had greatly wasted the eastern Indians but a short time before the English settled in the country; and it was then difficult to determine the relation the tribes had stood in one to the other. As to the bashaba of Penobscot, tradition states that he was killed by the Tarratines, who lived still farther east, in a war which was at its heighit in 1615.

PASSACONAWAY seems to have been a bashaba. He lived upon the Merrimack River, at a place called Pennakook, and his dominions, at the period of the English settlements, were very extensive, even over the sachems living upon the Pascataqua and its branches. The Abenaques inhabited between the Pascataqua and Penobscot, and the residence of the chief sachem was upon Indian Island. Fluellen and Captain Sunday were early kaown as chiets among the Abenaques, and Squando at a later period; buit

Gookin's MS. Hist. Praying Indians. + " The principal habitations I saw at northward, was Penobscot, who are in wars with the Terentines, their next northerly neighbors, Southerly up the rivers, and along the coast, we found Mecadacul, Segocket, Pemmaquid, Nusconcus, Sagadahock, Satquin, Aumaughcawgeu and Kenabeca. To those belong the countries and people of Segolago, Pauhunlanuck, l'ecopassum,,Taughtanakagnet, Wabigganus, Nassaque, Masherosqueck, Wawrigwick, Moshoquen, Waccogo, Pasharanack, &c. To those are allied in confederacy, the countries of Aucocisco, Accominticus, Passataquak, Augawoam and Naemkeek, all these, for any thing I could perceive, differ litue in language or any thing ; though most of them be sagamos and lords of themselves, yet they hold the basbabes of Penobscot the chief and greatest ainongst them.” 3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 21, 22. Williamson's Hist. Maine, i. 4.

278

PASSACONAWAY.

(Book III.

of these we shall be more particular bereafter: the first sachem we should notice is Passaconaway. He “lived to a very great age; for," says the author of my manuscript, “I saw him alive at Pawtucket, when he was about a hundred and twenty years old."* Before his death, he delivered the following speech to his children and friends: “ I am now going the way of all flesh, o) ready to die, and not likely to see you ever meet together any more. I will now leare this word of counsel with you, that you may take heed how you quarrel with the English, for though you may do them much mischief, yet assuredly you will all be destroyed, and rooted off the earth if you do ; for, I was as much an enemy to the English, at their first coming into these parts, as any one whatsoever, and did try all ways and means possible, to have destroyed them, at least to have prevented them setlling doun here, but I could no way effect it; therefore I advise you never to contend with the English, nor make war with them.” And Mr. Hubbard adds, “ it is to be noted, that this Passaconawa was the most noted powow and sorcerer of all the country.”

A story of the marriage of a daughter of Passaconaway, in 1629, is thus related. Winnepurket, commonly called George, sachem of Saugus, made kaown to the chief of Pennakook, that he desired to marry bis daughter, which, being agreeable to all parties, was soon consummated, at the residence of Passaconaway, and the hilarity was closed with a great feast. According to the usages of the chiefs, Passaconaway ordered a select number of his men to accompany the new-married couple to the dwelling of the husband. When they had arrived there, several days of feasting followed, for the entertainment of his friends, who could not be present at the consummation at the bride's father's, as well as for the escort; who, when this was ended, returned to Pennakook.

Some time after, the wife of Winnepurket, expressing a desire to visit her father's house and friends, was permitted to go, and a choice company conducted her. When she wished to return to her husband, her father, instead of conveying her as before, sent to the young sachem to come and take her away. He took this in high dudgeon, and sent his father-in-law this answer: “When she departed from me, I caused my men to escort her to your dwelling, as became a chief. She now having an intention to return to me, I did expect the same." The elder sachem was now in bis turn angry, and returned an answer which only increased the difference; and it is believed that thus terminated the connection of the new husband and wife. f

This same year, (1662] we find the general court acting upon a petition of Passaconaway, or, as his name is spelt in the records themselves, Papisseconeway. The petition we have not met with, but from the answer given to it, we learn its nature. The court say: “ In answer to the petition of Papisseconeway, this court judgeth it meete to graunt to the said Papisseconeway and his men or associates about Naticot, | above Mr. Brenton's lands, where it is free, a mile and a half on either side Merremack Riuer in breadth, three miles on either side in length : provided he nor they do not alienate any part of this grant without leave and license from this court, first obtained."

Governor Winthrop mentions this chief as early as 1632. One of his men, having gone with a white man into the country to trade, was killed by another Indian " dwelling near the Mohawks country, who fled away with his goods ;” but it seems from the same account, that Passaconaway pursued and took the murderer. In 1642, there was great alarm throughout the English settlements, from the belief that all the Indians in the country were about to make a general massacre of the whites. The government of Massachusetts took prompt measures “to strike a terror into the Indians.". They therefore “sent men to Cutshamekin, at Braintree, to fetch him and his guns,

* Gookin's Hist. of Praying Indians. This history was drawn up during the year 1677, and how long before this the author saw hirn, is unknown; but there can be no doubt but he was dead some years before Philip's war. Nevertheless, with Mr. Hubbard and our text before bim, the author of Tales of the Indians has made Passaconaway appear in the person of Aspinquid, in 1682, at Agamcntacus in Maine.

+ Deduced from facis in Horton's N. Canaan. † Another version of Nahum-keag.

CAAP. VII.] WANNALANCET MADE PRISONER BY THE ENGLISH. 279 bows, &c., which was done; and he came willingly: And being late in the night when they came to Boston, he was put into the prison ; but the next morning, finding, upon examination of him and divers of his nen, no ground of suspicion of his partaking in any such conspiracy, he was dismissed. Upon the warrant which went to Ipswich, Rowley and Newbury, to disarm Passaconamy, who lived by Merrimack, they sent forth 40 men armed the next day." These English were hindered from visiting the wigwam of Passaconaway, by rainy weather," but they came to his son's and took him.” This son we presume was Wannalancet. This they had orders to do ; but for taking a squaw and her child, they had none, and were ordered to send them back again immediately. Fearing Wannalancet's escape, they “led him in a line, but he taking an opportunity, slipped his line and esraped from them, but one very indiscreetly made a shot at him, and missed him narrowly.” These were called, then, “unwarranted proceedings," as we should say they very well might have been. The English now had some actual reason to fear that Passaconaway would resent this outrage, and therefore " sent Cutshamekin to him to let him know that what was done to his son and squaw was without order,” and to invite him to a parley at Boston; also, * to show him the occassion whereupon we had sent to disarm all the Indians, and that when we should find that they were innocent of any such conspiracy, we would restore all their arms again.” Passaconaway said when he should have his son and squaw returned safe, he would go and speak with them. The squaw was so much frightened, that she ran away into the woods, and was absent ten days. It seems that Wannalancet was soon liberated, as he within a short time went to the English, “and delivered up his

These were the circumstances to which Miantunnomoh alludeil so happily afterwards.

At a court in Massachusetts in 1644, it is said, “ Passaconaway, the Merrimack sachem, came in and submitted to our government, as Pumham, &c. had done before ;” and the next year the same entry occurs again, with the addition of his son's submission also, “together with their lands and people." +

This chief is supposed to have died about the same time with Massasoit, a sachem whom in many respects he seems to have much resembled. [ He was often styled the great sachem, and, according to Mr. Hubbard, was considered a great powwow or sorcerer among his people, and his fame in this respect was very extensive; and we know not that there was any thing that they thought him not able to perform: that he could cause a green leaf to grow in winter, trees to dance, and water to burn, seein to have been feats of common notoriety in his time.

WANNALANCET, or Wonolancet, in obedience to the advice of his failier, always kept peace with the English. He resided at an ancient seat of the sagamores, upon the Merrimack, called at that time Naamkeke, but from wlience be withdrew, in the time of the war with Philip, and took up his quarters among the Pennakooks, who were also his people.

About the beginning of September, 1675, Captain Mosely, with about 100 men, was ordered to march up into the country of the Merrimack to ascertain the state of affairs under Wannalancet. These men scouted in warlike array as far as Pennakook, now Concord, N. H. They could not find an Indian, but came upon their wigwams, and burned them, and also a quantity of dried fish and other articles. Although this was a most wanton and unwarrantable, not to say unnecessary act of these whites, yet no retaliation took place on the part of the Indians. And whether to attribute their forbearance to cowardice, or to the great respect in which the dying advice of Passaconaway was

guns, &c."*

Winthrop's Journal.

+ Ibid. Among other stanzas in Farmer and Moore's Collections, the following very happily in roduces Passaconaway :

“Once did my throbbing bosom deep receive

The sketch, which one of Passaconawuy drew.
Well may the muse bis memory retrieve

From dark oblivion, and, with pencil true,
Retouch that picture strange, with lints and honors due."

280

WANNALANCET.-INDIANS SEIZED AT DOVER.

[Book IN

held, is not certain; for Wanalancet and his men had notice of the approach of Mosely, and lay concealed while he was destroying their effects; and might have cut off his company, which the young warriors advised, but Wannalancet would not permit a gun to be fired.

Having abundant reason now to fear the resentment of the Pawtuckett and Pennakook Indians, the council of Massachusetts, 7 September, 1675, ordered that Lieutenant Thomas Henchman, of Chelmsford, should send some messengers to find him, and persuade him of their friendship, and urge his return to his place of residence. With this order, a letter was sent to Wannalancet at the same time. They are as follows: “ It is ordered by the council that Lieut. Thos. Henchman do forth with endeavor to procure by hire, one or two suitabie Indians of Wamesit, to travel and seek to find out and speak with Wannalancet the sachem, and carry with them a writing from the council, being a safe conduct unto the said sachem, or any other principal men belonging to Natahook, Penagooge, or other people of those northern Indians, giving (not exceeding six persons) free liberty to come into the house of the said Henchman, where the council will appoint Capt. Gookin and Mr. Eliot to treat with them about terms of amity and peace between them and the English; and in case agreements and conclusious be not made to mutual satisfaction, then the said sachem and all others that accompany him shall have free liberty to return back again; and this offer the council are induced to make, because the said Wannalancet sachem, as they are informed, hath declared himself that the English never did any wrong to him, or his father Passaconaway, but always lived in amity, and that his father charged him so to do, and that said Wannalancet will not begin to do any wrong to the English." The following is the letter to Wannalancet :

“This our writing or safe conduct doth declare, that the governor and council of Massachusetts do give you and every of you, provided you exceed not six persons, free liberty of coming unto and returning in safety from the house of Lieut. T. Henchman at Naamkeake, and there to treat with Capt. Daniel Gookin and Mr. John Eliot, whom you know, and (whon) we will fully empower to treat and conclude with you, upon such meet terms and articles of friendship, amity and subjection, as were formerly made and concluded between the English and old Passaconaway, your father, and his sons and people; and for this end we have sent these messengers (blank in the MS.] to convey these unto you, and to bring your answer, whom we desire you to treat kindly, and speedily to despatch them back to us with your answer. Dated in Boston, 1 Oct. 1675. Signed by order of the council.

John LEVERETT, Govr. Edwl. Rawson, Secr."

The messengers who went out with this letter, to find Wannalancet, could not meet with him, but employed another to find him, and returned; and whether he ever received it is not distinctly stated. However, with a few followers, he retired into the wilderness near the source of the Connecticut, and there passed the winter. The next summer he was joined by parties of Nipmuks under Sagamore sam, One-eyed-john, and others, who, coming in with him, were in hopes of receiving pardon, but their fate has been stated.

Major Waldron of Cochecho had many Indians in his interest during the war with Philip. Some of these were employed to entice men from the enemy's ranks, and they succeeded to a great extent. And by the beginning of September, 1676, about 400 Indians, from various clans far and near, had been induced to come into Dover. Among these was Wannalancet and his company. They came without hesitation, as they had never been engaged in the war; and many who had been engaged in hostility came along with them, presuming they might be overlooked in the crowd, and so escape the vengeance of their enemies; but they were all made prisoners on the 6 Sep tember by a stratagem devised by several officers, who with their men hap pened then to be at Dover with Waldron, and somewhat more than half of the whole were sold into foreign slavery or executed at Boston: about 200 were of the former number.

The stratagem made use of to trepan those Indians was as follows: It was proposed by the English that they should join with the Indians in a training, and have sham-fights. While performing their evolutions, a movement was made by the whites, which entirely surrounded the Indians, and they were all secured without violence or bloodshed.

On the 3 May, 1676, Thomas Kimbal of Bradford was killed, and his wise and five children carried into the wilderness. From the circumstance that Wannalancet caused them to be sent home to their friends again, it would seem that they were taken by some of the enemy within his sachemdom, or by some over whom he had some control. From a manuscript written about the time,* we are able to make the following extract, which goes to show that Wannalancet was ever the friend of the English, and also his disposition to humane actions. Mr. Cobbet says, “though she [Mrs. Kimbal,] and her sucking child were twice condemned by the Indians, and the fires ready made to burn them, yet, both times, saved by the request of one of their own grandees; and afterwards by the intercession of the sachem of Pennicook, stirred up thereunto by Major Waldron, was she and her five children, together with Philip Eastman of Haverhill, taken captive when she and her children were, set at liberty, without ransom."

The 400 Indians surprised at Cochecho, by Hathorne, Frost, Sill, and Waldron, included Wannalancet with his people, who did not probably exceed 100. This chief, then, with a few of his people, being set at liberty, was persuaded to return to his former residence at Naamkeke, but he never felt reconciled here afterwards, for it had become almost as another place: some lawless whites had seized upon his Jands, and looked upon him with envious eyes, as though he had been an intruder and had no right there. He, however, continued for about a year afterwards, when, upon the 19 September, 1677, he was visited by a party of Indians from Canada, who urged him to accomjany them to their country. He finally consented, and with all of his people, except two, in number about 50, of whom not above eight were men, departcd for Canada, and was not heard of after.

It was on this very same day, viz. 19 September, that a party of Indians fell upon Hatfield, the particulars of which irruption, though in one view of the case does not strictly belong to the life of Wannalancet, we give here in the words of Mr. Hubbard. I “ About Sept. 19th, 40 or 50 River Indians § fell suddenly upon the town of Hatfield, whose inhabitants were a little too secure, and too i9ady to say the bitterness of death was past, because they had neither seen nor Leard of an enemy in those parts for half a year before. But at this ime, as a considerable number of the inhabitants of that small village were employed in raising the frame of an house without the palisadoes, that defendd their houses from any sudden incursions of the enemy, they were violenty and suddenly assaulted by 40 or 50 Indians, whom they were in no capacity lo resist or defend themselves, so as several were shot down from the top of the house which they were raising, and sundry were carried away captive, to the number of 20 or more, which was made up 24 with them they carried away the same or the next day from Deerfield, whither some of the inhabitants had unadvisedly too soon returned. One of the company escaped out of their hands two or three days after, who informed that they had passed with their poor captives two or three times over the Connecticut to prevent being pursued."

At first this attack was supposed to have been made by a party of Mohawks, according to Gookin, because it took place the next day after some of that nation had passed through the place with some Christian Indians prisoners, and a scalp, which was afterwards found to have been taken from the head of an Indian named Josiah Nouel, || near Sudbury. But one of the cap:res

* By Rev. 'T. Cobbet of Ipswich. Gookin's MS. Hist. Praying Indians.

| Hist. N. England, 636. ♡ They inhabited chiefly in New York along the Hudson ; a few in the N. W. corner of Connecticut, and a few on the Housatunnuk River. Hopkin's Memoir of the Housatunnuk Indians, p. 1.-" The Wabinga, sometimes called River Indians, sometimes Mohicanders, and who had their dwellings between the west branch of Delaware and Hudson's River, from the Kittatinney ridge down to the Rariton.” Jefferson's Notes, 308. || By his death four small children were left fatherless. Nouel and James Speen had been

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