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be, are attended with more or less increase of expense, and when put together in a great aggregate, they tend of course to swell the estimates. But I do not think that anybody will be of opinion that these augmentations of expense are not usefully incurred. We are now told that the civil departments are extravagantly conducted, and those military gentlemen who see the increase of expense, and who want to turn off the attention of the House from the fact that a great part of that increase arises from military considerations, wish to throw the whole blame upon the civil departments. They say there is a most extravagant increase in the civil departments. That is a matter which the Committee will consider when we come to those votes. If they can show that there are augmentations in the civil departments which are not required for expediting the public business, it will be for the Committee to interpose. With respect, however, to the consolidation of the military departments, I must beg leave to say that there never was a greater improvement made in the organization of any branch of the public service.” The vote for the number of men was then agreed to. On the next occasion of entering upon the estimates, some further debate took place.

Colonel Dickson entered upon.

a general criticism of the Army Estimates, complaining of their enormous amount in relation to the number of the troops, pointing out, among other items which he thought susceptible of reduction, the Medical Staff, the charges for troops in the colonies,

the Staff of the War Office and the Horse Guards, and barrackbuilding, and impressing upon the House the necessity of looking into and reducing some of the smaller items. He thought these estimates were not based upon true economy, being open to the objection of parsimony in some respects, and profuse extravagance in others. He concluded by moving that the consideration of the estimates be deferred, with a view to their revision. Mr. T. G. Baring defended the propositions of the Government. Colonel Dunn desired further information as to several items. Mr. Osborne complained of money expended at Aldershott, which had been wasted, he said, upon a gigantic job—an indifferent preparatory school for forming indifferent generals, which was at once useless and demoralizing. He complained, too, that no satisfactory account had been given of the expenditure hastily voted last year for fortifications, and called upon the House to take warning by Aldershott, and to pause before it went on with that questionable scheme. Colonel North, General Lindsay, and Colonel Gilpin bore testimony, with certain qualifications, to the utility of the camp at Aldershott. Mr. Monsell, comparing our war estimates with those of France, considered that we were incurring a vast expenditure, that would, if persevered in, cause a reaction in the country, which would force down the amount below what it ought to be. General Peel pointed out some errors into which Col. Dickson had fallen, and expressed an opinion that the Government had not taken money enough for the number of men they proposed. Lord Palmerston, after some general remarks upon the course the debate had taken, observed, with reference to Aldershott and to the remarks of Mr. Osborne, that there never was a wiser application of the public money. The object was to provide a place to learn combined movements, and he appealed to every military man whether the scheme had not been successful. The land might be sold at any time for more than its original purchase-money. Several amendments were moved by Colonel Dickson, Lord Alfred Churchill, Mr. Coningham and other Members, but the divisions upon them all resulted in favour of Government. Upon the vote for the Volunteer force being proposed, there was a more extended discussion. Lord Elcho called attention to the wants of the force, and explained the views of the majority of the Volunteer Corps as to a further assistance from Government which was considered necessary for their efficiency, and might be given, he observed, either in money or in kind. The assistance now received was equal to about 5s. per head, and he suggested an additional aid that would raise it to 20s. or 25s. In a speech of considerable length, strongly urging the claims of the Volunteers, he dwelt with much force upon the invaluable political effects of the movement, the origin of which he traced to the Wol. CIII.

warning voice and trumpet tongue of Lord Lyndhurst. Mr. H. Berkeley made a humorous attack upon the Yeomanry Cavalry, whom he accused, however, of no worse fault than the want of discipline. Sir W. Miles, as a commander of one of these corps, replied to Mr. Berkeley's criticisms. After considerable discussion upon the Volunteer force and various incidental matters, Mr. T. G. Baring, complimenting Lord Elcho for the ability and moderation of his speech, said the Government did not dispute the value of the Volunteer force, and had testified their sense of its value. The expenditure incurred on account of the force, including the 42,000l. in the Estimates, was 160,000l., and next year it would be 20,000l. more, which the Government thought by no means too much, but, on the contrary, that a further expenditure would not be improper. The real question was, how far the present payment was sufficient. Whatever further assistance was rendered, there were strong reasons why it should be in kind. The moment a money allowance was given at so much a head, not only the feeling and independence of the Volunteers might be affected, but it would lead to an inference on the part of foreign nations, that the movement was not altogether the offspring of public spirit. The Government, therefore, were of opinion, that it was not expedient to hold out any expectation of a money allowance. Something might be done, however, towards drill instruction, and assistance might be given

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in providing drill sergeants. The Government had taken that matter into consideration, and were prepared, if possible in the present year, to do something in that shape. As to the amendment of Mr. Berkeley, he need add nothing to what had been

said in opposition to it, the Government considering the Yeomanry as a very valuable force.

Mr. Berkeley withdrew the amendment which he had proposed, and the vote for the Volunteer force, amounting to 133,276l. was agreed to.

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CHAPTER V.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS—PROGRESS OF EVENTS IN ITALYThey become the subject of Discussion early in the Session in both Houses of Parliament

- In the House of Lords the Marquis of Normanby severely censures the conduct of Victor Emmanuel, and inculpates the Policy of Lord John Russell in regard to ItalyHe is answered by Lord Wodehouse The Earl of Malmesbury repeats the Charges of Inconsistency against the Foreign Policy of the Ministry- Remarks of Lord Llanover Debate in the House of Commons on Italian Affairs introduced by Mr. P. Hennessy -Speeches of Mr. Layard, Sir George Bowyer, Mr. Edvin James, Sir Robert Peel, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Maguire, Mr. Roebuck, Mr. Monsell, Mr. White, and Lord John Russell Debate in the House of Lords, on the Motion of Lord Ellenborough, upon the Situation of the Papal Government-Speeches of Lord Wodehouse, and the Earls of Clarendon and Derby.-DEATH OF Count CAVOUR—General sympathy excited by this event in England Expression given in the two Houses of Parliament to the Public Regret on the occasion-Rumoured Cession to France of the Island of Sardinia-Mr. A. W. Kinglake brings the subject under Discussion in the House of Commons- His Speech-Speeches of Lord John Russell, Sir George Bouyer, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Mr. Layard. -DISRUPTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — Various Questions addressed to the Ministers on International Relations consequent upon this Event - Proclamation of Neutrality by Her Majesty Answers of Lord John Russell on the subjects of Privateering, the Blockade of the Southern Ports, &c.The Policy of Neutrality between the contending Parties is earnestly insisted upon by the GovernmentMr. Gregory gives notice of a Motion in favour of recognizing the Southern Confederacy-Col. W. Patten objects, on grounds of public policy, to entering upon the Discussion- In deference to the general wish of the House, Mr. Gregory abstains from bringing forward his MotionMilitary Re-inforcements are sent to Canada-Sir James Ferguson, supported by Mr. Disraeli, disputes the policy of this step-It is forcibly cindicated by Lord Palmerston.-RECENT TRANSACTIONS IN ChinaEarl Grey fully enters into this subject in the House of Lords, and impugns the Measures adopted towards that Nation- Speech of Lord Wodehouse in Answer, and of Lord Ellenborough.OCCUPATION OF SYRIA UNDER THE CONVENTION WITH FRANCE — Lord Stratford de Redcliffe moves several Resolutions bearing upon the Transactions in Syria-Observations of the Marquis of Clanricarde, Earl Grey, and

Earl Granville—The Resolutions are withdrawn—The same subject introduced in the House of Commons by Sir James Ferguson—Statement of Lord John Russell in reply.—CoNortion of TURKEy—Lord Stratford de Redcliffe opens a Discussion on the State of that Empire in the House of Lords—Speeches of Lord Wodehouse and Lord Hardwick. —Poland—The Earl of Harrowby draws attention to recent events affecting the Polish Nation, and moves for Papers—Remarks of Lord Wodehouse, the Earls of Ellenborough and Malmesbury, and other Peers.--THE Ionian Islands—Mr. Maguire enters upon a Discussion of the Policy of England towards this Dependency, and the Effects of Mr. Gladstone's Mission to the Islands in 1858—Speech of the Chancellor of the Erchequer in Answer—Observations of Mr. Layard,

Mr. Whiteside, Mr. M. Milnes, Mr. Monsell, Mr. C. Fortescue, and

Lord Palmerston.

1 THE progress of the Revolu

tion in Italy called forth observations in both Houses of Parliament in the early part of the session. On the 1st of March, the Marquis of Normanby, who had distinguished himself by his firm adherence to the old régime, and to the cause of the ex-King of Naples, took occasion of a motion for papers, to enter into a detailed account of the circumstances which had taken place in Italy since the peace of Willafranca. Having charged Sir James Hudson with having been duped in the matter of Savoy and Nice, he turned to consider the present condition of affairs, and scouted the idea of an united Italy—an idea of very recent growth, and in opposition to the sentiments of the greatest authorities. Indulging in a severe criticism upon the conduct of Victor Emmanuel, for his duplicity in supporting Garibaldi in Sicily and afterwards invading Naples, he proceeded to review the policy of the Sardinian Government in the Papal States, the intrigues between the King of Sardinia and the Republican party, the atrocious cruelties of the Sardinian troops in the Abruzzi, the

proclamations of General Pinelli, and the fate of the reactionists who had dared to raise their standard for Francis II., and dwelt on all these transactions in terms of severe reprobation. In conclusion, he examined the mode by which the elections had been conducted, and observed that the universal suffrage practised in them was a sham, and that the electors had been intimidated by the presence of revolutionary armies. He declaimed against the inconsistencies of Lord John Russell, the whole of whose policy he severely attacked, and besought the House not to be led away with the idea that the Italians cared anything for English sympathy. Lord Wodehouse, having remarked upon the multiplicity of papers required by Lord Normanby, explained the position which had been taken by Admiral Mundy, vindicated the conduct of the King of Sardinia, and declared that the policy of Lord John Russell in Italy had been one of entire non-intervention. As for the cruelties committed by Sardinian troops, he was not about to defend them; he simply requested the House to remember

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