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laid the foundation of a new regulation, by means of loans or future, which is thrown open to a transfer of debts encumbering the peasants. We also entertain an estate. the firm hope that it will also “ We thus confidently rely nobly exert its ulterior efforts to upon the upright feeling of the carry out the new regulation by nation. maintaining good order, in å “When the first news of this spirit of peace and benevolence, great reform meditated by the and that each proprietor will Government became diffused complete, within the limits of his among the rural populations, property, the great civic act ac- who were scarcely prepared for complished by the whole body, by it, it gave rise, in some instances, organizing the existence of the to misunderstandings among inpeasants domiciliated on his dividuals more intent upon liestates, and of his domestics, berty than mindful of the duties under mutual advantageous con- which it imposes. But, geneditions, thereby giving to the rally, the good sense of the councountry population the example try has not been wanting. It of a faithful and conscientious has not misunderstood either the execution of the regulations of inspirations of natural reason, the State.

which says that every man who “ The numerous examples of accepts freely the benefits of sothe generous solicitude of the ciety owes it in return the fulfilproprietors for the welfare of ment of certain positive obligatheir peasants, and of the grati- tions; nor the teachings of the tude of the latter for the benevo- Christian law, which enjoins that lent solicitude of their lords, give 'every one be subject unto the us the hope that a mutual under- higher powers' (St. Paul to the standing will settle the majority Romans, xiii. 1); and to render of complications, in some cases to all their dues, and, above all, to inevitable, in the partial applica whomsoever it belongs, tribute, tion of general rules to the differ- custom, respect, and honour ent conditions under which iso- (Ibid., xiii. 7). It has understood lated estates are placed ; that in that the proprietors would not this manner the transition from be deprived of rights legally acthe ancient order of things to the quired, except for a fit and suffi. new will be facilitated ; and that cient indemnity, or by a volun. the future will strengthen defi- tary concession on their part; nitively mutual confidence, a that it would be contrary to all good understanding, and the equity to accept this enjoyment unanimous impulsion towards of the lands conceded by the public utility.

proprietors without accepting “ To render the transactions also towards them equivalent between the proprietors and the charges. peasants more easy, in virtue of “And now we hope with confi. which the latter may acquire in dence that the freed serfs, in the full property their close (home- presence of the new future which stead) and the land they occupy, is opened before them, will apthe Government will advance as preciate and recognize the consisistance, according to a special derable sacrifices which the nobility have made on their behalf. of presiding at its inauguration, They will understand that the will have to see that this work is blessing of an existence sup- accomplished with calmness and ported upon the base of guaran- regularity, taking into account teed property, as well as a greater the requirements of the seasons, liberty in the administration of in order that the cultivator may their goods, entails upon them, not be drawn away from his agriwith new duties towards society cultural labours. Let him apply and themselves, the obligation of himself with zeal to those lajustifying the protecting designs bours, that he may be able to of the law by a loyal and judi. draw from an abundant granary cious use of the rights which are the seed which he has to confide now accorded to them. For if to that land which will be given men do not labour themselves to him for permanent enjoyment, or insure their own well-being under which he has acquired for himthe shield of the laws, the best self as his own property. of those laws cannot guarantee “ And now, pious and faithful it to them.

people, make upon thy forehead “ It is only by assiduous lathe sacred sign of the cross, and bour, a rational employment of join thy prayers to ours to call their strength and their re- down the blessing of the Most sources,, a strict economy, and, High upon thy first free labours, above all, by an honest life, a life the sure pledge of thy personal constantly inspired by the fear of well-being and of the public the Lord, that they can arrive at prosperity. prosperity and insure its develop- “Given at St. Petersburg, the ment.

19th day of February (March 3), “ The authorities intrusted of the year of Grace 1861, and with the duty of preparing by the seventh of our reign. preliminary measures the execu

“ ALEXANDER.” tion of the new organization, and

CHAPTER X.

MEXICO.—Withdrawal of the British Legation from Mexico --Causes

which led to this-Sir C. Wyke sent on a Special Mission to the Mexican GovernmentDeplorable State of the Country-Convention between Great Britain, France, and Spain, for a Military Expedition to Mexico --Arrival of the Spanish Squadron at Vera Cruz, and Surrender of the Town-Despatches of Earl Russell on the subject of

the Internal Government of Mexico. CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA.-Causes which led to the Secession of the

South-Mr. Crittenden's Proposal for a CompromiseSouth Carolina declares her Independence-Seizure of the United States ArsenalsMessage of President Buchanan to Congress-Firing of the First Shot-Population according to the Census-Fort Sumpter and its Garrison-Mr. Cobb elected President of the Confederate CongressMr. Jefferson Davis elected President of the Confederate States - His Address-Inaugural Address of President Lincoln-Attack upon, and Surrender of, Fort Sumpter- Proclamations of President Lincoln and President Davis-Opposition of Maryland to the March of Federal Troops through its Territory-Message of President Davis to the Con. federate Congress-Active measures taken by the Contending Parties

-Kentucky declares for Neutrality-Resolution of the South not to allow Cotton to be Exported from the Northern Ports Proclamations of the Queen of Great Britain and Emperor of the French enforcing Neutrality-Position of the Federal Army-Question of Runaway Slaves.

A LONG series of injuries to was made the excuse for not A British subjects and property complying with the demands in Mexico, for which no redress from time to time made by the could be obtained, notwithstand- British Government to obtain ing repeated promises from the satisfaction for the wrongs of Government to that effect, led to which its subjects settled there the withdrawal of the British had to complain. The withdrawal Legation from the city of Mexico. of the Legation“ was,” to use A civil war had been raging there, the words of Earl Russell, “ forced for three years, carried on by upon Her Majesty's Government Generals Zuloaya and Miramon, by continual disregard of the against the Constitutional Go- rights of British subjects, and of vernment, at the head of which the obligations of international was President Juarez; and this engagements, which rendered it. impossible for Her Majesty's Go- present the claims of the British vernment to hold relations with Government, and he was to sigthe constituted authorities." nify that the re-establishment of In 1842, Mr. Pakenham, the diplomatic intercourse between British Minister at Mexico, con- the two countries was to depend cluded a convention with the upon the acknowledgment, by Mexican Government for the the Mexican Government, of its payment of certain recognized liability for the claims of British claims, by virtue of which a fixed subjects “ who, either in their proportion of the entire customs persons or in their property for revenue was mortgaged as a se- a long series of years, could be curity for payment. No money proved to have suffered wrong at however, was forthcoming, and, in the hands of successive Govern. November, 1852, another arrange- ments in Mexico.” ment, called a sub-convention, Sir C. Wyke was instructed to was made by Mr. Doyle with the demand, “in the first instance, Mexican Government, by which of the Government of Mexico, an additional assignment of the that in the ports of Vera Cruz custom-house revenue was set and Tampico, commissioners aside to liquidate the British shall be placed, who shall be claims. A further convention named by the British Govern. was afterwards concluded, by ment, for the purpose of approwhich it was stipulated that 25 priating to the Powers having per cent. of the customs re- conventions with Mexico the ceipts at Vera Cruz and Tampico assignments which those con. should be assigned to British ventions prescribe, which shall bondholders. Great difficulties, be paid out of the receipts of the however, arose in carrying out maritime custom-houses of the these conventions, and only a Republic; including, in the sums part of the mortgaged revenues to be paid to the British Governwas paid over by the Mexican ment, the amount of the conducta Government, while outrages of robbery and the money stolen the most flagrant kind, both to from the British Legation." person and propert.y, in the case He was also to require that the of British subjects, continued to commissioners should have the take place. Amongst other acts power of reducing by one-half, or of lawless violence, a large sum in any less proportion, the duties of money belonging to British then levied at those ports; and bondholders, which had been de- if these terms were not complied posited in the house of the British with, he was to leave Mexico Legation, was stolen, and a con- with all the members of the voy of specie, part of which was Mission. destined to the payment of our It would be tedious and unindemands, was, on its way to the teresting to detail the attempts coast, attacked and robbed. For made by Sir C. Wyke to obtain both these acts we demanded re- the redress which it was the paration. In the month of April, object of his mission to require. this year, Sir C. Lennox Wyke It will be sufficient to state that was sent by Earl Russell as a all his efforts were abortive, and special envoy to Mexico, to re- we found ourselves compelled to resort to sterner means of com. Independence, according to a pulsion. On his arrival in decree issued by them some Mexico, Sir C. Wyke addressed a time ago, anybody denouncing despatch to Earl Russell, which Church property has the right to is worth quoting in extenso, as it purchase it on the following gives a lively picture of the dis- terms;-60 per cent. of the value organized state of that country. of such houses or lands are to be He said :

paid in bonds of the Internal “ It will be very difficult, if not Debt (which bonds are in reality impossible, to give your Lord- only worth 6 per cent.), and ship a correct idea of the present the remaining 40 per cent. state of affairs in this unfortunate in 'pagarés,' or promises to' country, so utterly incomprehen- pay hard cash, at 60, and even sible is the conduct of the Go 80 months' sight. These pavernment which at present garès,' of course, were subsepresides over its destinies. quently discounted at an enor

“ Animated by a blind hatred mous sacrifice, as the Govern. towards the Church Party, the ment was pressed for money, and present Government has only willing to pay any nominal thought of destroying and dissi- value to obtain it without delay. pating the immense property In this way 27,000,000 dollars' formerly belonging to the clergy, worth of Church property has without, however, at the same been squandered in this city time taking advantage of the alone, and the Government, now wealth thus placed at their dis- without a sixpence, is endeavourposal to liquidate the many ing to raise a loan of 1,000,000 obligations which at present dollars to pay their current exweigh them down and cripple penses. their resources.

" The Church Party, although “ The Church property has beaten, are not yet subdued, and generally been supposed to be several of their chiefs are within worth between 60,000,000 and six leagues of the capital, at the 80,000,000 Spanish dollars, the head of forces varying from whole of which appears to have 4000 to 6000 men. The notoribeen frittered away without the ous Marquez is one of these, and Government having anything to he has lately defeated several show for it. A considerable bodies of Government troops amount has, doubtless, been sent against him. spent in repaying advances at “The religious feelings of a exorbitant interest, made to the fanatic population have been Liberal Party when they were shocked by the destruction of fighting their way to power ; but churches and convents all over still enough ought to have re- the country, and the disbanded mained, after satisfying their monks and friars, wandering creditors, to have left them very about amongst the people, fan well off, and in a better position the flame of discontent, which is as to their pecuniary resources kept alive by the women, who, as than that held by any other a body, are all in favour of the Government.

Church. “Since their Declaration of “Those well acquainted with

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