« PreviousContinue »
Yes, we will go to Rome. Shall Throughout the whole of the Rome, politically severed from year, the Neapolitan portion of the rest of Italy, continue to be the dominions of the new King the centre of intrigue and con- of Italy was in a very unsettled spiracy-a permanent threat to and unsatisfactory state. Brithe public order? To go to gandage was rife in the mounRome is for the Italians not tainous districts, and a system of merely a right, it is an inexorable perpetual agitation was kept up necessity. But how are we to go by Bourbon and Papal emissathere? The King's Government ries, who succeeded in creating will be open and precise upon serious disturbances in several that even more than upon any places. It was necessary to use other subject. We do not wish a strong military force to preto go to Rome by insurrectional serve order; and even at the end movements-unreasonable, rash, of the year the disaffection was mad attempts—which may en- so widely spread as to cause condanger our former acquisitions siderable apprehension for the and spoil the national enterprise. future destiny of this part of the We will go to Rome hand in Kingdom of Italy. hand with France."
AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY.— Imperial Ordinance creating a new Reichs
rath-New Council of State—Promulgation of Provincial Statutes (ircular with respect to Hungary-Opening of the Reichsrath and Speech of the Emperor-Address of the Upper House - Speeches of M. Deak and Count Andrassy in the Hungarian Diet-Address of the Diet rejected by the Emperor-Second Address and Imperial Rescript — Excitement in the Hungarian Diet --Address in Answer drawn up by M. Deak-- Baron Vay resigns the Chancellorship of HungaryDissolution by the Emperor of the Diet -Resolution not to Pay Taxes
-Hungary placed under a Military Dictatorship. Russia.- Manifesto of the Emperor Alexander, declaring the Emanci
pation of Serfs.
ON the 27th of February, seve- “3. For our Kingdoms of Bo
ral Imperial decrees were hemia, Dalmatia, Galicia, and published at Vienna relative to Lodomeria, with the Grand Duchy the Constitution of the Empire. of Cracow and the Duchies of They were preceded by an ordi- Auschivitz and Zator; for our nance, signed by the Emperor and Archduchies of Upper and Lower his Ministers, which stated :- Austria, for our Duchies of Car
“1. The annexed law relative niolo and Bukovina, for our Markto the formation of the Reichs- gravate of Moravia, for our Duchy rath, which is to represent the of Upper and Lower Silesia, for Empire, we hereby sanction, and our Markgravate of Istria, with at the same time declare it to be a Gorice, Gradiska, and Trieste, State and fundamental law in and and for our Province of Voralfor all our kingdoms and lands. berg, we have issued statutes and
“ 2. In respect to the King- electoral ordinances, which we doms of Hungary, Croatia, and hereby declare to be State and Slavonia, and to the Grand Prin- fundamental laws. The law recipality of Transylvania, it is our lative to Dalmatia cannot, how. intention that their former con- ever, be carried out until the restitutions shall be restored in lations between that kingdom and accordance with our above-men- the Kingdoms of Croatia and tioned diploma, and within the Slavonia have been definitively limits of the same. The neces- settled. sary orders for such restoration "4. In order that Styria, Cawere contained in our autograph rinthia, Salzburg, and the Tyrol letters of the 20th of October, 1860. may enjoy the same privileges
as the above-mentioned provinces, we have issued new statutes for those provinces. “5. We have ordered our Minister of State to draw up a provincial constitution on a similar basis for our Lombardo-Wenetian Kingdom, and directed him to lay it before us at a fitting time. In the meanwhile the congregations of that kingdom will have a right to send the appointed number of members to the Reichsrath. “6. By these presents we make known to the world that the fundamental laws now published do form the constitution of our empire. And we do hereby promise and vow that we will, under the protection of the Almighty, inviolably follow and uphold all the laws now promulgated, and we do engage our successors inviolably to follow and uphold them, and to vow so to do in a manifesto which they shall publish on their accession to the throne. “7. We do ordain that this patent, with the fundamental laws accompanying it, shall assume the form of an Imperial diploma, which shall be deposited in the archives of our House, Court, and State.” This was followed by a “Fundamental Law for the Representation of the Empire,” of which the principal articles were the following:— “1. The Reichsrath forms the representation of the Empire. The Reichsrath is composed of a House of Peers (Herrenhaus) and a House of Deputies. “2. The Princes of the Imperial House are, when of age, members of the Upper House by right of birth. “3. The chiefs of certain arisWol. CIII.
tocratic families which have very extensive landed property will be members of the Upper House. In such families the dignity will be made hereditary by the Emperor. “4. All Archbishops and Bishops who have princely rank are members of the Upper House. “5. The Emperor reserves to himself the right of making distinguished ecclesiastics, scholars, and scientific men members of the Upper House for life. “6. The House of Deputies will be composed of 343 members; that is, 85 for Hungary, 54 for Bohemia, 20 for the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, 5 for Dalmatia, 9 for Croatia and Slavonia, 38 for Galicia, and Lodomeria, 18 for Lower Austria, 10 for Upper Austria, 3 for Salzburg, 13 for Styria, 5 for Carinthia, 6 for Carniola, 5 for the Bukovina, 26 for Transylvania, 22 for Moravia, 6 for Upper and Lower Silesia, 12 for the Tyrol and Voralberg, and 6 for Istria, Gorice, Gradiska, and Trieste. “7. The members of the Reichsrath are to be elected by the Provincial Diets. The elections to be direct. If, for any reason, the Diets should not send members to the Reichsrath, the Emperor will order the appointed number of members to be elected by the districts, towns, and corporations. “8. The Emperor will choose the President and Vice-Presidents of each Diet from among its members. All other functionaries are to be elected by the Diets. “9. The Reichsrath will be convoked annually. “10. In accordance with Article 2 of the diploma of the 20th [O]
of October, 1860, the following matters are to be within the sphere of action of the Reichsrath:—(a) Matters connected with military conscription. (b) Matters connected with the currency, public credit, coinage, banks empowered to issue notes, customs, commercial matters, post, railroads, and telegraphs. (c) All those financial matters which concern the empire at large; such as the budget, the State balance-sheet, the results of the manipulations of the finance department, the raising of new loans, the conversion of State debts, the sale, change or mortgage of the real property of the State; the augmentation of the present taxes, and the imposition of new ones. The present taxes to be levied until repealed in a constitutional way. The National Debt is under the control of the Reichsrath.” “15. The members of the House of Deputies are not to receive instructions from their constituents. “ 16. The members of the Reichsrath must give their votes 1n person. “ 17. The functions of the representatives of a province in the Reichsrath cease on the very day that a new Provincial Diet is formed, but such representatives can be re-elected. If a member dies, or becomes incapable of performing his duties as a member of the Reichsrath, a new member must be elected. “ 18. The Reichsrath can be prorogued, or the House of Deputies dissolved by the Emperor. In case of a dissolution a new Chamber must be formed in accordance with the instructions contained in paragraph 7.
“19. The Ministers, Court Chancellors, and chiefs of cemtral departments, have a right to take part in all debates, and to bring forward their propositions in person or by means of one of the deputies. They have also a right to make themselves heard on all occasions. They have also a right to vote if members of the one or the other House. “20. The sittings of both Houses are public, but they can be held in secret if the President or 10 members demand the expulsion of the public, and the House, after the public has quitted the hall, agrees to the proposition.” By an IMPERIAL PATENT the Permanent and Enlarged Reichsrath were dissolved, and a Staatsrath(Council of State)was formed, with respect to which the following were the chief provisions:– “1. The Staatsrath is to be composed of a President and several Councillors. “2. The President to have the rank of a Minister, and to be present at the Council of Ministers, but not to have a vote. “3. The Emperor will nominate the President and the Councillors. “4. The Staatsrath will be formed of distinguished men, taken from the different provinces. “5. The Staatsrath will let the Emperor and his Ministers have the benefit of its special knowledge and experience. “6. The opinion of the Staatsrath can either be taken by the Emperor or by his Ministers. “7. The President has to decide whether all the members of the Staatsrath shall examine into and report on any given
question, or whether certain coun- " In order that matters which cillors shall do so.
concern the empire at large may ** 8. Each member of the be managed in a constitutional Staatsrath has a right to express way, the Hungarian, Croatian, his opinions separately, and with and Transylvanian Diets will perfect freedom.
have to send representatives to *9. When any subject is the Reichsrath. When such under examination, the Minister matters are settled, the Hun. to whose department it belongs garian, Croatian, and Transyl. has a right to be present in the vanian deputies will return to Council of State, and to take their respective Diets, and the part in the discussion.
smaller Reichsrath will legislate " 10. The President of the for the other (German and SclaStantsrath has to forward the vic) provinces of the empire. opinions given to the Emperor, " It is the earnest wish of the or to the President of the Coun- Government that hyper-centralicil of Ministers.
zation may be avoided in the * 11. The President of the Sclavo-German provinces of the Council of Ministers can sunimon empire, and that the countries one, several, or all the members belonging to the Hungarian of the Stantsrath, to meet the Crown may benefit by the conMinisters in Council."
cessions made to them on the At the same time, what were 20th of October, 1860. In the called " The Provincial Statutes" statutes it is expressly said, 'that were published, regulating the no new taxes shall be imposed representation of the various and no new laws made without Diets of the Empire, of which the formal consent of the Reichsthere were named 17; such as rath. It is also decreed that the the Diet of l'pper Austria, the employment of the Revenue shall Diet of Lower Austria, the Diet be discussed' in the Reichsrath. of Salzbury, the Diet of Dal. In short, the Reichsrath has atmatia, the Diet of Bohemia, the tributes which give to it the Diet of Styria, &c. In the true character of a constitutowns, with a few exceptions, the tional institution. The arrange. right of suffrage was given to ment that the interests of the persons paying yearly direct nation are in future to be repreLaxes to the amount of five sented, was not made in oppo. florins, but in the rural districts sition to the former Estates, but where the elections were indirect, as a patural consequence of the the franchise was lower.
changes which things have un. The Chamber of Deputies was dergone in Austria during the to be composed of persons elected last few years." by the Diets out of districts or On the Ist of May the new circles in the various provinces, Reichsrath was formally opened so that the different nationalities at Vienna by the Emperor, in the might be properly represented; Rittersaal. He was surrounded and it was announced in a cir- by the members of the Imperial cular, which was issued by the family and great officers of State, Ministry, that
and read the following speech :