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let us be alle of one alliance, and of one accorde, and let us among ourselves reyse up the baner of St George, and let us be frendes to God, and enemyes to alle the worlde; for without we make ourselfe to be feared, we gette nothing."

"By my fayth," quod Sir William Helmon, "ye saye right well, and so let us do." They all agreed with one voyce, and so regarded among them who shulde be their capitayne. Then they advysed in the case how they coude nat have a better capitayne than Sir John Soltier. For they sulde than have good leyser to do yvell, and they thought he was more meteIyer therto than any other. Than they raised up the penon of St George, and cried, "A Soltier! a Soltier! the valyaunt bastarde! frendes to God, and enemies to all the worlde!" Froissart, vol. I. ch. 393.

Note XV. A gauntlet on a spear.—P. 122. A glove upon a lance was the emblem of faith among the ancient Borderers, who were wont, when any one broke his word, to expose this emblem, and proclaim him a faithless villain at the first Border meeting. This ceremony was much dreaded. See Lesly. v

Note XVI. We claim from thee William of Deloraine, That he may suffer march-treason pain.—P. 124. Several species of offences, peculiar to the Border, constituted what was called march-treason. Among others, was the crime of riding, or causing to ride, against the opposite country during the time of truce. This, in an indenture made at the water of Eske, beside Salom, the 25th day of March, 1334, betwixt noble lords and mighty, Sirs Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galoway, a truce is agreed upon until the 1st day of July; and it is expressly accorded, " Gif ony stellis authir on the ta part, or on the tothyr, that he shall be henget or heofdit; and gif ony cumpany stellis any gudes within the trieux beforesayd, ane of that company sail be henget or heofdit, and the remanant sail restore the gudys stolen in the dubble."—History of Westmoreland and Cumberland, Introd. p. xxxix.

Note XVII.
—— William of Deloraine
Will cleanse him, by oath, of march-treason stain.

P. 126.

In dubious cases, the innocence of Border criminals was occasionally referred to their own oath. The form of excusing bills, or indictments, by Border-oath, ran thus: "You shall swear by heaven above you, hell beneath you, by your part of Paradise, by all that God made in six days and seven nights, and by God himself, you are whart out sackless of art, part, way, witting, ridd, kenning, having, or recetting of any of the goods and cattels named in this bill. So help you God."— History of Cumberland, Introd. p. xxv.

Note XVIII. Knighthood he took of Douglas sword.—P. 126. The dignity of knighthood, according to the original institution, had this peculiarity, that it did not flow from the monarch, but could be conferred by one who himself possessed it, upon any squire who, after due probation, was found to merit the honour of chivalry. Latterly, this power was confined to generals, who were wont to create knights bannerets after or before an engagement. Even so late as the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Essex highly offended his jealous sovereign by the indiscriminate exertion of this privilege. Amongst others, he knighted the witty Sir John Harrington, whose favour at court was by no means enhanced by his new honours.—See the Nuga Antique, edited by Mr Park. But probably the latest instance of knighthood, conferred by a subject, was in the case of Thomas Ker, knighted by the Earl of Huntley, after the defeat of the Earl of Argyle in the battle of Belrinnes. The fact is attested, both by a poetical and prose account of the engagement, contained in an ancient MS. in the Advocates' Library, and lately edited by Mr Dalyell, in Godly Sangs and Ballets, Edin. 1802.

Note XIX.

When English blood swelled Ancramford.—P. 126. The batile of Ancram Moor, or Peniel-heuch, was fought A. D. 1545. The English, commanded by Sir Ralph Evers, and Sir Brian Latoun, were totally routed, and both their leaders slain in the action. The Scottish army was commanded by Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, assisted by the laird of Buccleuch and Norman Lesly.

Note XX. The blanche Hon.—P. 130. This was the cognizance of the noble house of Howard in all its branches. The crest, or bearing, of a warrior, was often used as a nornme de guerre. Thus Richard III. acquired his well-known epithet, The Boar of York. In the violent satire on Cardinal Wolsey, written by Roy, commonly, but erroneously, imputed to Dr Bull, the Duke of Buckingham is called the Beautiful Swan, and the Duke of Norfolk, or Earl of Surrey, the White Lion. As the book is extremely rare, and the whole passage relates to the emblematical interpretation of heraldry, it shall be here given at length.

The Description of the Armes.

Of the proud Cardinal this is the shelde,
Borne up betwene two angels of Sathan;
The size bloudy axes in a bare felde,
Sheweth the crueltis of the red man,
Which hath devoured the Beautiful Swan,
Mortal enemy unto the Whyte Lion,
Carter of Yorke, the vyle butcher's soune.

The size bulles heddes in a felde blackc,

Betokenetb his stordy furiousness,

Wherefore, the godly lyght to put abacke,

He bryngcth in his dyvlish darcnes;

The baudog in the meddes doth Cipresse

The mastiff curre bred in Ypswich towne,

Gnawynge with his teth a kioges crowne.

The cloubbe signifieth playue his tiranny,

Covered over with a Cardinal's hatt,

Wherein shall be fulfilled the prophecy,

Arysc up, Jacke, and put on thy salatt.

For the tyme is come of bagge and walatt.

The temporall chevalry thus thrown doune,

Wherfor, prest, take hede, and beware tby crowne.

There are two copies of this very scarce satire in the library of the late John, Duke of Roxburgh. See an account of it also in Sir Egerton Brydges' curious Miscellany, the Centura Literaria.

Note XXI.

Let Musgrave meet fierce Deloraine

In single fight. P. 130.

It may easily be supposed, that trial by single combat, so peculiar to the feudal system, was common on the Borders. In 1558, the well-known Kirkaldy of Grange fought a duel with Ralph Evre, brother to the then Lord Evre, in consequence of a dispute about a prisoner said to have been ill treated by the Lord Evre. Pitscottie gives the following account of the affair: "The Lord of Ivers his brother provoked William Kir

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