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and, besides this, that system of slender pay, and de- | his grand attack upon Mr. Fox for his abuse of Sir: ficient perquisites, to which the subordinate agents of Patrick Hume; and his observations upon this point government are confined in republics, is much too! admit of a fourfold answer. Ist, Mr. Fox does not painful to be thought of for a single instant.
use the words quoted by Mr. Rose; 2dly, He makes We are afraid of becoming tedious by the enu- no mention whatever of Sir Patrick Hume in the pas. meration of blunders into which Mr. Rose has fallen, sage cted by Mr. Rose ; 3dly, Sir Patrick Hume is and which Serjeant Heywood has detected. But the attacked by nobody in that history; 4thly, If he had burthen of this sole executor's song is accuracy-his been so aitacked he would have deserved it. The own official accuracy-and the little dependence which passage from Mr. Fox is this :is to be placed on the accuracy of Mr. Fox. We will venture to assert, that, in the whole of his work, he sible for himn to touch upon what he deemed the miscon,
• In recounting the failure of his expedition, it is impos has not detected Mr. Fox in one single error. Wheth
duct of his friends; and this is the subject upon which, of er Serjeant Heywood has been inore fortunate with all others, his temper must have been most irritable. A Mr. Rose, might be determined, perhaps, with sutli- certain description of friends (the words de-cribing them cient certainty, by our previous extracts from his re- are omitted) wae all of them, without exception, his greatnot seem enough : and we must proceed in the task, his rout, and hi, veing taken, though not designedly, he marks. But for some indulgent readers, these may est enemies, both tu betray and destroy him: — and till we have settled Mr. Rose's pretensions to accura. acknowledzes, but by ignorance, cowardice, and faction. cy on a still firmer foundation. And if we be thought This sentence had scarte escaped him, when, notwithstandminutely severe, let it be remembered that Mr. Rose ing the qualitying words with which his candour has acis himself an accuser; and if there is justice upon quitted the last mentioned persons of intentional treachery, earth, every man has a right to pull stolen goods out it appeared too harsh to his gentle nature; and, declaring of the pocket of him who cries, Stop thief!'
himself displeased with the hard epithets he had used, he In the story which Mr. Rose states of the seat in desires that they may be put out of any account that is to
given of these transactions.'-Heywood, p. 365, 366. Parliament sold for five pounds (Journal of the Commons, vol. v.), he is wrong, both in the sum and the Argyle names neither the description of friends who volume. The sum is four pounds; and it is told, not were his greatest enemies, nor the iwo individuals who in the fifth volumne, but the first. Mr. Rose states, were the principal cause of the failure of his scheme. that a perpetual excise was granted to the crown, in Mr. Fox leaves the blanks as he finds them. But two lieu of the profits of the court of wards ; and adds, notes are added by the editor, which Mr. Rose might that the question in favour of the crown was carried have observed are marked with an E. In the latter of by a majority of two. The real fact is, that the half them we are told, that Mr. Fox observes, in a private only of an excise upon certain articles was granted to letter, Cochrane and Hume certainly filled up the two government in lieu of these profits; and this grant principal blanks.' But is this communication of a pri. was carried without a division. An attempt was inade vate letter any part of Mr. Fox's history? And would to grant the other half, and this was negatived by a it not have been equally fair in Mr. Rose to have com. majority of two. The Journals are open ;-Mr. Rose mented upon any private conversation of Mr. Fox, reads them;-he is officially accurate. What can the and then have called it his history? Or, if Mr. Fox meaning be of these most extraordinary mistakes? had filled up the blanks in the body of his history,
Mr. Rose says that, in 1679, the writ de hæretico does it follow that he adopts Argyle's censure because comburendo had been a dead letter for more than a he shows against whom it is levelled? Mr. Rose has century. It would have been extremely agreeable to described the charge against Sir Patrick Humne to be, Mr. Bartholomew Legate, if this had been the case ; of faction, cowardice, and treachery. Mr. Rose has for, in 1612, he was burnt at Smithfield for being an more than once altered the terms of a proposition beArian. Mr. Wightman would probably have partici- fore he has proceeded to answer it; and, in this inpated in the satisfaction of Nir. Legate; as he was stance, the charge of treachery against Sir Patrick burnt also, the same year, at Lichfield, for the same Hume is not made either in Argyle's letter, Mr. Fox's offence. With the same correctness, this scourge of text, or the editor's note, or any where bui in the im. historians makes the Duke of Lauderdale, who died agination of Mr. Rose. The sum of it all is, that Mr. in 1692, a confidential adviser of James 11. after his Rose first supposes the relation of Argyle's opinion to accession in 1629. In page 13, he quotes, as written be the expression of the relator's opinion, ihat Mr. by Mr. Fox, that which was written by Lord Holland. Fox adopis Argyle's insinuations because he explains This, however, is a familiar practice with him. Ten them ;-ihen he looks upon a quotation from a private pages afterwards, in Mr. Fox's History, he makes the letter, made by the editor, to be the same as if includ. same mistake. Mr. For added :—whereas it was ed in a work intended for publication by the author :Lord Holland that added. The same mistake again then he remembers that he is the sole executor of Sir in p. 147 of his own book; and after this, he makes Patrick's grandson, whose blank is so filled up ;-and Mr. Fox the person who selected the appendix of goes on blundering and blubbering,-grateful and inBarillon's papers; whereas it is particularly stated in accurate,-teering with false quotations and friendly the preface to the History, that this appendix was recollections to the conclusion of his book.-Multa selected by Laing.
gemens ignominiam. Mr. Rose atlirms, that compassing to levy war Mr. Rose came into possession of the Earl of March. against the king was made higli treason by the sta- mont's papers, containing, among other things, the tuie of 25 Edward the Third ; and, in support of this narrative of Sir Patrick Hume. He is very severe affirmation, he cites Coke and Blackstone. His stern upon Mr. Fox for not having been more diligent in antagonist, a professional man, is convinced he has searching for original papers; and observes, that if read neither. The former says, a compassing to lery any application had been made to him (Mr. Rose,) var is no treason, (Inst. 3., p. 9.); and Blacksone, 'a this narrative should have been at Mr. Fox's service. bare conspiracy to levy war does not amount to this We should be glad to know, if Mr. Rose saw a per. species of treason.' (Com. iv. p. 82.) This really son tumbled into a ditch, whether he would wait for does not look as if the Serjcuni had made out his a regular application till he pulled him out? Or, if assertion.
he happened to espy the lost piece of silver for which Of the bill introduced in 1685, for the preservation the good woman was diligently sweeping the house, of the person of James II., Mr. Rose observes-- Mr. would he wait for formal interrogation before he im Fox has not told us for which of our modern statutes parted his discovery, and sutler the lady to sweep on this bill was used as a model; and it will he difficult till the question had been put to him in the most for any one to show such an instance.' It might have solemn forms of politeness? The established pracbeen thought, that no prudent man would have made tice, we admit, is to apply, and to apply vigorously such a challenge, without a tolerable certainty ot the and incessantly, for sinecure places and pensions-or ground upon which it was made. Serjeant Heywood they cannot be had. This is true enough. But did answers ihe challenge by citing the 36 Geo. III. c. 7, any human being ever think of carrying this practice which is a mere copy of the act of James.
into literature, and compelling another to make inter. In the fifth section of Mr. Rose's work is contained l est for papers essential to the good conduct of his
undertaking? We are perfectly astonished at Mr. Hume? and in what class are to be placed Echard, Kennet, Rose's conduct in this particulăr; and should have Rapin, Dalrymple, or Macpherson? In this point of view thought that the ordinary exercise of his good nature the principle la.d down is too broad. A person, though would have led him to a very different way of acting. connected with party, may write an impartial history of
. On the whole, and upon the most attentive considera- sentence, Mr. Rose has not ventured to intimate that Mr. tion of every thing which has been written upon the sub- Fox has not done so. On the contrary, he has declared his ject, there does not appear to have been any intention approbation of a great portion of the work; and his atof applying torture in the case of the Earl of Argyle.' tempts to discover material errors in the remainder have (Rose, p. 182.) If this every thing had included the uniformly failed in every particular. If it might be asfollowing extract from Barilion, the above cited, and sumed that there existed in the book no faults, besides very disgraceful inaccuracy of Mr. Rose would have those which the scrutinizing eye of Mr. Rose 'has disbeen spared. • The Earl of Argyle has been executed that ever came from the press ; for not a single deviation
covered, it might be justly deemed the most perfect work at Edinburgh, and has left a full confession in writing, from the strictest duty of an bistorian has been pointed out; in which he discovers all those who have assisted him while instances of candour and impartiality present themwith money, and have aided his designs. This has selves in almost every page ; and Mr. Rose himself has saved him from the torture.' And Argyle, in his letter acknowledged and applauded many of them.'-(pp. 422–
424.) to Mrs. Smith, confesses he has made discoveries. In his very inaccurate history of torture in the south
These extracts from both hooks are sufficient to em part of this island, Mr. Rose says, that except in show the nature of Serjeant Heywood's examination of the case of Felton—in the attempt to introduce the Mr. Rose,—the boldness of this latter gentleman's as. civil law in Henry VI.'s reign,-and in some cases of sertions, and the extreme inaccuracy of the research. treason in Mary's reign, torture was never attempted es upon which these assertions are founded. If any in this country. The fact, however, is, that in the credit could be gained from such a book as Mr. Rose reign of Henry VIII., Anne Askew was tortured by Whatever the execution of his book had been, the
has published, it could be gained from accuracy alone. the chancellor himself. Simson was tortured in 1558; Francis Throgmorton in 1571; Charles Baillie, and world would have remembered the infinite disparity of Banastie, the Duke of Norfolk's servant, were tortured the two authors, and the long political opposition in in 1581 ; Campier, the Jesuit
, was put upon the rack; which they lived-if that, indeed, can be called oppo1558. So much for Mr. Rose as the historian of pun. ior was dead; and that every cowardly Grecian could and Dr. Astlow is supposed to have been racked in sition, where the thunderbolt strikes, and the clay
yields. They would have remembered also that Hec. ishments. We have seen him, a few pages before, at the stake,—where he makes quite as bad a figure as if Mr. Rose had really succeeded in exposing the inac.
now thrust his spear into the hero's body. But still, ho does now upon the rack. Precipitation and error are his foibles. If he were to write the history of curacy of Mr. Fox,-if he could have fairly shown that sieges, he would forget the siege of Troy ;-if he were
authorities were overlooked, or slightly examined, or making a list of poets, he would leave out Virgil :
wilfully perverted,-the incipient feelings to wbich Cæsar would not appear in his catalogue of generals ;
such a controversy had given birth must have yielded and Newton would be overlooked in his collection of to the evidence of facts; and Mr. Fox, however qualicminent mathematicians.
fied in other particulars, must have appeared totally In some cases, Mr. Rose is to be met only with flat defective in that laborious industry and scrupulous denial. Mr. Fox does not call the soldiers who were good faith so indispensable to every historian. But he defending James against Argyle authorized assassins
absolutely comes out of the contest not worse even in but he uses that expression against the soldiers who a single tooth or nail-unvilified even by a wrong date were murdering the peasants, and committing every late in his years and days of the month--blameless to
—without one misnomer proved upon him—iminacusort of licentious cruelty in the twelve counties given the most musty and limited pedant that ever yellowed up to military execution; and this Mr. Rose must have known, by using the most ordinary diligence in
himself amidsi rolls and records. the perusal of the text,--and would have known it in with the world as a man of labour,—and he turns out
But how fares it with his critic? He rests his credit any other history than that of Mr. Fox.
to be a careless inspector of proofs, and an historical • Mr. Rose, in his concluding paragraph, boasts of his sloven. The species of talent which he pretends to is speaking, impersonally,” and he hopes it will be allowed humble, -and he possesses it not. He has not done justly, when he makes a general observation respecting that which all men may do, and which every man the proper province of history. But the last sentence evi- ought to do, who rebukes his superiors for not doing dently shows that, though he might be speaking justly, he it. His claims, too, it should be remembered, to these was not speaking impersonally, if by that word is meant, every-day qualities, are by no means enforced with without reference to any person. His words are, But gentleness and humility. He is a braggadocio of ini. history cannot connect itself with party, without forfeiting its name; without departing from the truth, the dignity, nuteness—a swaggering chronologer; a man bristling and the usefulness of its functions." After the remarks he up with small facts--prurient with dates—wantoning has made in some of his preceding pages, and the apology in obsolete evidence-loftily dull, and haughty in his he has offered for Mr. Fox, in his last preceding paragraph, drudgery ;-and yet all this is pretence. Drawing is for having been mistaken in his view of some leading no very unusual power in animals; but he cannot points, there can be no difficulty in concluding, that this draw ;-he is not even the ox which he is so fond of general observation is meant to be applied to the historical work. The charge intended to be insinuated must be, that, being. In attempting to vilify Mr. Fox, he has only in Fox's hands, history has forfeited the name by being shown us that there was no labour from which that connected with party ; and has departed from the truth, great man shrunk, and that no object connected with the dignity, and the usefulness of its functions. It were to his history was too minute for his investigation. He be wished that Mr. Rose had explained himself more fully; has thoroughly convinced us that Mr. Fox was as infor, after assuming that the application of his obser- dustrious, and as accurate, as if these were the only vation is too obvious to be mistaken, there still remains qualities upon which he had ever rested his hope of fined to such publications as are written under the title of fortune or of fame. Such, indeed, are the customary histories, but are intended to serve the purposes of a party; results when little people sit down to debase the chara and truth is sacrificed, and facts perverted, to defend and acters of great men, and to exalt themselves upon the give currency to their tenets, we do not dispute its pro- ruins of what they have pulled down. They only propriety ; but, if that is the character which Mr. Rose would voke a spirit of inquiry, which places everything in its give to Mr. Fox's labours, he has not treated him with can- true light and magnitude,-shows those who appear dour, or even common justice. Mr. Rose has never, in little to be still less, and displays new and unexpected any one instance, intimated that Mr. Fox has wilfully departed from truth, or strayed from the proper province of excellence in others who were before known to excel. history, for the purpose of indulging his private or party These are the usual consequences of such attacks. feelings. But, if Mr. Rose intends that bis observation The fame of Mr. Fox has stood this, and will stand should be applied to all histories, the authors of which have much ruder shocks. felt strongly the influence of political connections and 'principles, what must become of most of the histories of
Non hiemes illam, non flabra neque imbres
Convellunt; immota manet, multosque per annos
MAD QUAKERS. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1814.) ity of the superintendents, that during the last year, in
which the number of patients has generally been sixty-four, Description of the Retreat, an Institution near York, for there has not been occasion to seclude, on an average, two
Insane Persons of the Society of Friends. Containing an patients at one time. I am also able to state, that although Account of its Origin and Progress, the Vodes of Treatment, it is occasionally necessary to re-train, by the waistcoat, and a Statekent of Cases. By Samuel Tuke. York, 1813. straps, or other means, several patients at one time, yet that The Quakers always seem to succeed in any institu- cluding those who are secluded.
the average number so restrained does not exceed four, intion which they undertake. The gaol at Philadelphia • The safety of those who attend upon the insane is cerwill remain a lasting monument of their skill and pa- tainly an object of great importance; but it is worthy of intience ; and, in the plan and conduct of this retreat for quiry whether it may not be attained without materially inthe insane, they have evinced the same wisdom and terfering with another object,--the recovery of the patient.
It may also deserve inquiry, whether the extensive practice perseverance.
of coercion, which obtains in some institutions, does not Toe present account is given us by Mr. Tuke, a re.
arise from erroneous views of the character of insane perspectable tea-dealer, living in York,
-and given in a
sons; from indifference to their comfort; or from having manner which we are quite sure the most opulent and rendered coercion necessary by previous unkind treatment. important of his customers could not excel.* The long * The power of judicious kindness over this unhappy class of account of the subscription, at the beginning of the society is much greater than is generally imagined. It is, perbook, is evidently made tedious for the Quaker mar. haps, not too much to apply to kind treatment the words of our ket ; 'and Mr. Tuke is a little too much addicted to great poet,
" She can unlock quoting. But, with these trifling exceptions, his book
The clasping charm, and thaw the numbing spell.”—MILTON. does him very great credit ;-it is full of good sense and hunanity, right feelings and rational views. The played, or exerted with more beneficial effects, than in those
• In no instance has this power been more strikingly disretreat for insane Quakers is situated about a mile deplorable cases in which the patient refuses to take food. from the city of York, upon an eminence commanding The kind persuasions and ingenious arts of the superintendents the adjacent country, and in the midst of a garden and have been singularly successful in overcoming this distressing fields belonging to the institution. The great princi- symptom; and very few instances now occur in which it is ple on which it appears to be conducted is that of kind- necessary to employ violent means for supplying the patient ness to the patients. It does not appear to them, be. with food,
"Some patients, who refuse to partake of the family meals, cause a man is mad upon one particular subject, that he is to be considered in a state of complete mental allowed to help themselves. Some are found willing to eat
are induced to eat by being taken into the larder, and there degradation, or insensible to the feelings of kindness when food is left with them in their rooms, or when they can and gratitude. When a madman does not know what obtain it unobserved by their attendants. Others, whose dehe is bid to do, the shortest method, to be sure, is to termination is stronger, are frequently induced, by repeated knock him down ; and straps and chains are the spe. persuasion, to take a small quantity of nutritious liquid ; and it cies of prohibition which ure the least frequently dis.
is equally true in these as in general cases, that every breach
of resolution weakens the power and disposition to resistance. regarded. But the Society of Friends seem rather to
"Sometimes, however, persuasion seems to strengthen the consult the interest of the patient than the ease of his unhappy determination. In one of these cases the attendants keeper; and to aim at the government of the insane, were completely wearied with their endeavours; and, on remoby creating in them the kindest disposition towards ving the food, one of them took a piece of the meat which had those who have the command over them. Nor can been repeatedly offered to the patient, and threw it under the anything be more wise, humane, or interesting, than firo-grate, at the same time exclaiming that she should not have the strict attention to the feelings of their patients it. The poor creature, who seemed governed by the rule of which seems to prevail in their institutions. The fol. from the ashes, and devoured it. For a short time she was indulowing specimens of their disposition upon this point ced to eat, by the attendants availing themselves of this contrary we have great pleasure in laying before our readers :- disposition ; but it was soon rendered unnecessary by the remo
val of this unhappy feature of the disorder.'-(p. 166, 167, 168, • The smallness of the court,' says Mr Tuke, would be a 169.) serious defect, if it was not generally compensated by taking such patients as are suitable into the garden ; and by fre
When it is deemed necessary to apply any mode of quent excursions into the city, or the surrounding country, coercion, such an overpowering forde is employed as and into the fields of the institution. One of these is sur- precludes all possibility of successful resistance; and rounded by a walk interspersed with trees and shrubs. most commonly, therefore, extinguishes every idea of
• The superintendent has also endeavoured to furnish a making any at all. An attendant upon a madhouse ex. source of amusement to those patients whose walks are necessarily more circumscribed, by supplying each of the poses himself to some risk-and to some he ought to courts with a number of animals, such as rabbits, sea gulls, expose himself, or he is totally unfit for his situation. hawks, and poultry. These creatures are generally very
If ihe security of the attendants were the only object, familiar with the patients; and it is believed they are not the situation of the patients would soon become truly only the means of innocent pleasure, but that the inter- desperate. The business is, not to risk nothing, but course with them sometimes tends to awaken the social feel- not to risk too much. The generosity of the Quakers, ings.'-(p. 95, 96.)
and their courage in managing mad people, are placed, Chains are never permitted at the Retreat ; nor is it This cannot be better illustrated than by the two fol.
by this institution, in a very striking point of view. left to the option of the lower attendants when they lowing
cases: are to inpose an additional degree of restraint upon the patients; and this compels them to pay attention "The superintendent was one day walking in a field adjato the feelings of the patients, and to atiempt to gain cent to the house, in company with a patient who was apt to an infiuence over them by kindness. Patients who are
be vindictive on very slight occasione. An exciting circum. not disposed to injure themselves are merely confined stance occurred. The maniac retired a few paces, and seized by the strait waistcoat, and left to walk about the throwing at his companion. The superintendent, in no degree
a large stone, which he immediately held up, as in the act of room, or lie down on the bed, at pleasure, and even in ruffled, fixed his eye upon the patient, and in a resolute tone those cases where there is a strong tendency to self- of voice, at the same time advancing, commanded him to lay destruction, as much attention is paid to the feelings down the stone. As he approached, the hand of the lunatic and ease of the patient as is consistent with his gradually sunk from its threatening position, and permitted safety.
the stone to drop to the ground. He then submitted to be
quietly led to his apartment.' • Except in cases of violent mania, which is far from being Some years ago, a man, about thirty-four years of age, of a frequent occurrence at the Retreat, coercion, when requi- almost herculean size and figure, was brought to the house. site, is considered as a necessary evil; that is, it is thought He had been afflicted several times before; and so constantly, abstractedly to have a tendency to retard the cure, by oppo- during the present attack, had he been kept chained, that his sing the influence of the moral remedies employed. It is clothes were contrived to be taken off and put on by means of therefore used very sparingly; and the superintendent has strings, without removing his manacles. They were, howeoften assured me, that he would rather run some risk than ver, taken off when he entered the Retreat, and he was ushhave recourse to restraint where it was not absolutely ne ered into the apartment where the superintendents were sup cessary, except in those cases where it was likely to have a ping. He was calm : his attention appeared to be arrested by salutary moral tendency.
his new situation. He was desired to join in the repast, during "I feel no small satisfaction in stating, upon the author-' which ho behaved with tolerable propriety. After it was con
cluded, the superintendent conducted him to his apartment, | not excluded from the institution, yet the love of es. and told him the circumstances on which his treatment would teem is considered as a still more powerful principle depend ; that it was his anxious wish to make every inhabitant in the house as comfortable as possible ; and that he sincerely hoped the patient's conduct would render it unneces- cing self-restraint in the minds of maniacs, is evident from is
* That fear is not the only motive which operates in prodosary to have recourse to coercion. The maniac was sensible being often exercised in the presence of strangers who are of the kindness of his treatment. He promised to restrain merely passing through the house ; and which, 1 presuma, can himself; and he so completely succeeded, that, during his only be accounted for from that desire of esteem which has stay, no coercive means were ever employed toward This case affords a striking example of the efficacy of mild
been stated to be a powertul motive to conduct. treatment. The patient was froquently very vociferous, and ple, that so much advantage has been found in this institution,
It is, probably, from encouraging the action of this princithreatened his attendants, who, in their defence, were very froin treating the patient as much in the inanner of a radesirous of restraining him by the jacket. The superintend- tional being as the state of his mind will possibly allow. The ent on these occasions went to his apartment: and though the superintendent is particularly attentive to this point in his first sight of him secmed rather to increase the patient's irri- conversation with the patients. He introduces such topics 2 tation, yet, after sitting some time quietly beside him, the vio- he knows, will most interest them; and which at the same time Jent excitement subsided, and he would listen with attention to allows them to display their knowledge to the greatest itdvades the persuusions and arguments of his friendly visitor. After
tage. If the patient is an agriculturist, he asks him questions such conversations the patient was generally better for some days or a week; and in about four months he was discharged, occasion in which his knowledge may be useful. I have heard
relative to his art ; and frequently consults him upon any perfectly recovered. "Can it be doubted that, in this case, the disease had been indisposition, had been a considerable grazier, give very sen
one of the worst patients in the house, who, previously to hia greatly exasperated by the mode of treatment? or that the
sible directions for the treatment of a diseased cow. subsequent kind treatment had a great tendency to promote
* These considerations are undoubtedly very material, as his recovery?'-(p. 172, 173, 146, 147.)
they regard the comfort of insane persons; but they are of far
greater importance as they relate to the cure of the disorder. And yet, in spite of this apparent contempt of dan. The patient, feeling himself of some consequence, is induced ger, for eighteen years not a single accident has hap- to support it by the exertion of his reason, and by restraining pened to the keepers.
those dispositions whichi, if indulged, would lessen the respect. In the day room the sashes are made of cast-iron, ful treatment he receives, or lower his character in the eyes of
his companions and attendants. and give to the building the security of bars, without
• They who are unacquainted with the character of insane their unpleasant appearance. With the same lauda. persons are very apt to converse with them in a childish, of, ble attention to the feelings of these poor people, the which is worse, in a domineering manner; and hence it has straps of their strait waistcoats are made of some been frequently remarked by the patients at the Retreat, that showy colour, and are not infrequently considered by a stranger who has visited them seemed to imagine they were
children. them as ornaments. No advantage whatever has been found to arise from reasoning with patients on mind of the patient, and to make him indifferent to those moral
• The natural tendency of such treatment is to degrade the their particular delusions: it is found rather to exaspe, feelings which, under judicious direction and encouragcinent, rate than convince them. Indeed, that state of mind are found capable, in no small degree, to strengthen the power of would hardly deserve the name of' insanity where ar- self-restruint, and which render the resort to coercion in many gument was sufficient for the refutation of error. cases unnecessary. Even when it is absolutely requisite to
The classification of patients according to their de-employ coercion, if the patient promises to control himself on grec of convalescence is very properly aitended to at its removal, great contidence is generally placed opon his ihe Retreat, and every assistance given to returning and moral obligation under this kind of engagement, bold for
word. I have known patients, such is their sense of honour reason by the force of example. We were particular a long time a successful struggle with the violent propensities ly pleased with the following specimens of Quaker of their disorder ; and such attempts ought to be sedulously sense and humanity :
encouraged by the attendant.
Hitherto, we have chiefly considered those modes of iodu* The female superintendent, who possesses an uncommon cing the patient to control his disordered propensities which share of benevolent activity, and who has the chief manage- arise from an application to the general powers of the mind; ment of the female patients, as well as of the domestic depart but considerable advantage may certainly be derived, in this ment, occasionally gives a general invitation to the patients to part of moral management, from an acquaintance with the prea tea-party. All who attend dress in their best clothes, and vious habits, manners, and prejudices of the individual. Nor vie with each other in politeness and propriety. The best must we forget to call to our aid, in endeavouring to promote fare is provided, and the visitors are treated with all the atten self-restraint, the mild but powerful influence of the precepts of tion of strangers. The evening generally passes in the great- our holy religiou. Where these have been strongly imbure in est harmony and enjoyment. It rarely happens that any early life, they become little less than principles of our nature: unpleasant circumstance occurs. The patients controul, in a and their restraining power is frequently felt, even under the wonderful degree, their different propensities; and the scene delirious excitement of insanity. To encourage the influence is at once curious and affectingly gratifying.
of religious principles over the mind of the insane is considered "Some of the patients occasionally pay visits to their friends of great consequence as a means of cure. For this purpose, as in the city; and female visitors are appointed every month by well as for others still more important, it is certainly right to the committee to pay visits to those of their own sex, to con promote in the patient an attention to his accustomed modes of verse with them, and to propose to the superintendents, or the paying homage to his Maker. committee, any improvements which may occur to them. Many patients attend the religious meetings of the society The visitors sometimes take tea with the patients, who are held in the city; and most of them are assembled, on a first much gratified with the attention of their friends, and mostly day afternoon, at which time the superintendent reads to them behave with propriety.
several chapters in the Bible. A profound silence generally • It will be necessary here to mention that the visits of form ensues; during which, as well as at the time of reading, it is er intimate friends have frequently been attended with dis very gratifying to observe their orderly conduct, and the deadvantage to the patients, except when convalescence had so gree in which those who are much disposed to action restrain far advanced as to afford a prospect of a specdy return to the their different propensities.'--(p. 158-161.) bosom of society. It is, however, very certain that, as soon as reason begins to return, the conversation of judicious indiffer Very little dependence is to be placed on medicine ent persons greatly increases the comfort, and is considered alone for the care of insanity. The experience, at almost essential to the recovery of many patients. On this least, of this well-governed institution is very unfavour. account the convalescents of every class are frequently intro- able to its efficacy. Where an insane person happens duced into the society of the rational parts of the family to be diseased in body as well as mind, medicine is not They are also permitted to sit up till the usual time for the family to retire to rest, and are allowed as much liberty as only of as great importance to him as to any other their state of mind will permit.'-(p. 178, 179.)
person, but much greater ; for the diseases of the body
are coinmonly found to aggravate those of the mind; To the effects of kindness in the Retreat are super. but against mere insanity, unaccompanied by bodily added those of constant employment. The female derangement, it appears to be almost powerless. patients are employed as much as possible in sewing, There is one remedy, however, which is very freknitting, and domestic affairs; and several of the con- quently employed at the Retreat, and which appears valescents assist the attendants. For the men are se to have been attended with the happiest effect, and lected those species of bodily employments most that is the warm bath,--the least recommended, and agreeable to the patient, and most opposite to the il the most important, 'of all remedies in melancholy lusions of his diseasc. Though the effect of fear is madness. Under this mode of treatment, the number
of recoreries, in cases of melancholia, has been very degree in life. After every allowance, however, unusual ; though no advantage has been found from it which can be made for the feelings of sectaries, exer. in the case of inania.
cised towards their own disciples, the Quakers, it must At the end of the work is given a table of all the be allowed, are a very charitable and hunane people. cases which have occurred in the institution from its They are always ready with their money, and, what first commencement. It appears that, from its open. is of far more importance, with their tiile and atten. ing in the year 1796 to the end of 1811, 149 patients tion, for every variety of human misiortune. have been admitted. Of this number 61 have been re. cent cases : 31 of these patients have been maniacal ;
They seem to set themselves down systematically of whom 2 died, 6 remain, 21 have been discharged before the difficulty, with the wise conviction that it perfectly recovered, 2 so much improred as not to re- is to be lessened or subdued only by great labour and quire further confinement. The remainder, 30 recent thought; and that it is always increased by indolence cases, have been those of melancholy madness; of and neglect. In this instance, they have set an example whom 5 have died, 4 remain, 19 have been discharged of courage, patience, and kindness, which cannot be eured, and 2 so much improved as not to require l'ur. too highly commended, or too widely diffused; and ther confinement. The old cases, or, as they are com. which, we are convinced, will gradually bring into remoniy termed, incurable cases, are divided into 61 pute a milder and better method of treating the insane. cases of mania, 21 of melancholia, and 6 of dementia ; For the aversion to inspect places of this sort is so affording the following tables ;
great, and the temptation to neglect and oppress the
insane is so strong, both from the love of power and • Mania.
the improbability of detection, that we have no doubt 11 died.
of the existence of great abuses in the interior of many 31 remain in the house.
madhouses. A great deal has been done for prisons; 5 have been removed by their friends improved.
but the order of benevolence has been broken through 10 have been discharged perfectly recovered.
by this preference ; for the voice of misery may soon4 so much improved as not to require further confinement.' er come up from a dungeon, than the oppression of a
madman be healed by the hand of justice.* • Melancholia. 6 died. 6 remain. 1 removed somewhat improved. 6 perfectly cured.
AMERICA. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1818.) 2 so much improved as not to require further confinement.'
1. Travels in Canada and the United States, in 1816 and 1817. · Dementia.
By Lieutenant Francis Hall, 14th Light Dragoons, H. P. 2 died.
London. Longman & Co. 1818. 2 remain.
2. Journal of Travels in the United States of North America, 2 discharged as unsuitable objects
and in Lower Canada, performed in the year 1817, c. trc.
By John Palmer, London. Sherwood, Neely & Jones. The following statement shows the ages of patients 1818 at present in the house :
3. A Narrative of a Journey of Five Thousand Miles through
the Eastern and Western States of America ; contained in * 15 to 20 inclusive 2
Eight Reports, addressed to the Thirty-nine English Fami20 to 30
lies by whom the Author was deputed, in June, 1817, to ascer30 to 40
tain whether any and that part of the United States would be 40 to 50
suitable for their Residence. With Remarks on Mr. Birkbeck's Notes' and Letters.' By Henry Bradshaw Fearon.
London. Longman & Co. 1818.
4. Travels in the Interior of America, in the Years 1809, 1810, Of 79 patients it appears that
and 1811, &c. By Joho Bradbury, F. L. S. Lond. 8vo.
London. Sherwood, Neely & Jones. 1817. -12 went mad from disappointed affections. 2 from epilepsy.
Tuese four books are all very well worth reading, to 49 from constitutional causes.
any person who feels, as we do, the importance and 8 from failure in business.
interest of the subject of which they treat. They 4 from hereditary disposition to madness.
contain a great deal of information and amusement; 2 from injury of the skull. 1 from miercury.
and will probably decide the fate, and direct the foot1 from parturition.'
steps, of many human beings, seeking a better lot than
the Old World can afford them. Mr. Hall is a clever, The following case is extremely curious; and we lively man, very much above the common race of wriwish it had been authenticated by name, place, and ters; with very liberal and reasonable opinions, which signature.
he expresses with great boldness,--and an inexhausti
ble fund of good humour. He has the elements of wit * A young woman, who was employed as a domestic servant hy
in him; but sometimes is trite and flat when he means the father of the relater, when he was a boy, became insane, and at length sunk into a state of perfect idiocy. In this condition
to be amusing. He writes verses, too, and is occashe remained for many years, when she was attacked by a ty- sionally long and metaphysical: but upon the whole, pbus fover ; and iny friend, having then practised some tine, we think highly of Mr. Hall; and deem him, if he is attended her. He was surprised to observe, as the fever ad not inore than twenty-five years of age, an extraordi. vanced, a development of the meutal powers. During that nery young man. He is not the less extraordinary for period of the tever, when others were delirious, this patient being a lieutenant of Light Dragoons--as it is certainly was entirely rational. She recognized in the face of her medical somewhat rare to meet with an original thinker, an attendant the son of her old master, whom she had kuown so many years before ; and she related many circumstances re.
indulgent judge of manners, and a man tolerant of specting his fumily, and others which had happened to herself neglect and tamiliarity, in a youth covered with tags, in her earlier days. But, alas! it was only the gleam of rea- feathers, and martial foolery. son. As the fever abated, clouds again enveloped the mind : Mr. Palmer is a plain man, of good sense and slow she suuk into her former deplorable state, and remained in it judgment. Mr. Bradbury is a botanist, who lived a until her death, which happened a few years afterwards. I good deal among the savages, but worth attending to. leave to the metaphysical reader further speculation on this, Mr. Fearon is a much abler writer than either of the certainly, very curious case.'-(p. 137.)
two last, but no lover of America,-and a little given Upon the whole, we have little doubt that this is the to exaggeration in his views of vices and prejudices. best managed asylun for the insane that has ever yet been established; and a part of the explauation no
* The Society of Friends have been entremely fortunate in doubt is, that the Quakers take more pains than other the choice of their male and female superintendents at the asyprople with their madmen. A mad Quaker belongs to
lum, Mr. and Mrs. Jephson. It is not easy to find a greater
combination of good sense and good feeling than these two a sinall and a rich sect; and is, therefore, of greater persons possess :--but then the merit of selecting them resta importance than any other mad person of the same with their employers.
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