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ver persons, with considerable talents for that kind which they will meet the regulations of Lord Sid. of employment. These talents have, with them, mouth, we will lay before our readers the sentiments their free and unbounded scope; while in the Eng. / of Philagatharches-a stern subacid Dissenter. lish Church they are wholly extinguished and destroyed. Till this evil is corrected, the church con.
I shall not enter into a comprehensive discussion of the tends with fearful odds against its opponents. On the
nature of a call to the ministerial office; but deduce my pro
position from a sentiment adinitted equally by contormists one side, any man who can command the attention of
and non-conformists. It is essential to the nature of a call to a congregation—to whom nature has given the animal
preach “that a man be moved by the Iloly Ghost to enter you intellectual qualifications of a preacher-such a the work of the ministry:" and if the Spirit of God act pow. man is the member ot every corporation ;-all impedi-erfully upon his heart to constrain him to appear ss a polc ments are remured:-there is not a
sition in teacher of religion, who shall command him to desist! We Great Britain which he may not take, provided he is have seen that the sanction of the magistrate can give to hostile to the Established Church. In the other case,
authority to preach the gospel; and if he were to forbid our
exertions, we must persist in the work: we dare not relinquish it'the English Church were to breed up a Massillon or
a task that God has required us to perform; we cannot keep a Bourdaloue, he finds every place occupied ; and eve- our consciences in peace, it' our lips are closed in silence, while ry where a regular and respectable clergyman ready the Holy Ghost is moving our hearty to proclaim the tidings of to put him in the spiritual court, if he attracts within salvation: “Yes, woe is unto me," saith St. Paul, "if I preach his precincts, any atiention to the doctrines and wor not the gospel." Thus, when the Jewish priests had takes ship of the Established Church.
Peter and John into custody, and after examining them cunThe necessity of having the Bishop's consent would
cerning their doctrine, "commanded then not to speak at all,
nor to teach in the name of Jest," thoxe apostolical champions preveut any iinproper person from preaching. That
of the cross undatedly replied, "Whether it be right in the consent should be withheld, not capriciously, but for
sight of God to hearhea wito you more than unto God, judge good and lawful cause to be assigned
ye; for we camot but speak the things which we have seen The profits of an incumbent proceed from fixed or and heard." Tlius, also, in our day, when the Holy Ghost voluntary contributions. The fixed could not be affect excites a man to preach the gospel to his fellow sinners, his ed; and the voluntary ought to vary according to the message is sanctioned by an authority which is far above all exertions of the incumbent and the good will of the
principality and power; and consequently, neither feeds the
approbation or subordinate rulers, por admits of revocation by purishioners ; but, if this is wrong, pecuniary compen.
their countermanding edicis, sation might be made (at the discretion of the ordina
3dly. He who receives a license should not expect to derive ry, from the supernumerary to the regular clergymnan.* from it a testimony of qualitration to preach. Such a plan, it is true, would make the Church of Eng “It would be grossly absurd to seek a testimony of this deland more popular in its nature; and it ought to be scription from any single individual, even though he were in mide more popular, or it will not endure for another experienced veteran in the service of Christ; for all are fallible; bruit century. There are two methods; the Church
and under som Catavourable prepossession, even the *184 st or
the best of mou might give on erroneous decision upon the inust be made more popular or the Dissenters less so.
case. But thuis observation will gain additional force who we To effect the latter object by force and restriction is
suppose the power of judging transferred to the person gi the unjust and impossible. The only remedy seems to be, magistrate. We cannot presume that a civil ruler understan la to grant to the church the same privileges which are as much of theology as a minister of the gospel. His necessary enjoyed by the Dissenters, and to excite in one party, duties prevent him from critically investigating questions ujia that competition of talent which is of such palpable
divinity; and contine his attention to that particular deportadvantage to the other.
ment which society has deputed him to occupy; and heuce to
expect at his hands a testimony of qualification to preach A remedy suggested by some well-wishers to the
would be almost as ludicrous as to require an obscure country Church, is the appointment of men to benefices who
curate to fill the office of Lord Chancilor. have talents for advancing the interests of religion ; But agan-admitting that a magistrate who is nominated but till each particular patron can be persuaded to care by the sovereign to is-ue fortli licenses to visenting ministers, inore for the general ů of the Church than for the is competent to the task of judging of their natural and acquired particular good of the person whom he patronizes, ab
abilities, it must still remain in doubtful question whether they little expectation of improvement can be derived from
are moved to preach by the influences of the Holy Ghost: for
it is the prerogative of God alone to "search the leart and try this quarter.
the reins" of the children of men. Consequently, after every The competition between the Established clergy, to effort of the ruling powers to aume to tlieinzelves the right of which this inethod would give birth, would throw the judging whether a man be or be not qualified to preach, the incumbent in the back.ground only when he was unfit most essential property of the call must remain to be deterto stand forward,-iminoral, negligent, or stupid. His mined by the conscience of the individual. income would still remain ; and if his influence were
'It is further worthy of observation that the talents of a superseded by a man of better qualities and attain.
preacher may be acceptable to many persons, if not to him who
issues the license. The taste of a person thus high in office ments, the general good of the Establishment would
may be too retined to derive gratitication from any but the most be consulted by the change. The beneficed clergyman
learned, intelligent, and accomplished preachers, Yel, as the would always come to the contest with great advan gospel is sent to the poor as well as to the rich, perhaps huntages; and his deficiencies must be very great indeed, dreds of preachers may be higlily acceptable, inuch extermed, it he lost the esteem of his parishioners. But the con and cmiuently uscful in their respective circles, who would be test would rarely or ever take place, where the friends despised
despised as mou of mean attainments by one whose mind is
well stored with literature, and cultivated by science. From of the Establishinent were not numerous enough for all. |
these remarks I inter, that a man's own judgment must be the At present, the selfish incumbent, who cannot accom.
criterion, in determining what liue of conduct to pursue before modate the firtieth part of his parishioners, is deter
he begins to preach: and the opinion of the people to uliom be mieu that no one else shall do it for him. It is in ministers must determine whether it be desirable that he should such situations that the benefit to the establishment continue to fill their pulpit.'-(168-173.) would be greatest, and the injury to the appointed
The sentiments of Philagatharches are expressed minister none at all.
Aunt hominemotii.. still more strongly in a subsequent passage. We beg of men of sense to reflect, that the question is still more str not whether they wish the English Church to stand as Here a question may arise what line of conduct consciit powis, but whether the English Church can stand entious ministers ought to pursue, if laws were to be enacted. as it now is ; and whether the moderate activity here forbidding either all dissenting ministere to preach, or only lay recominented is not the minimum of exertion necessary | preachers; or forbidding to preach in an unlicensed place; af
the sanie time forbidding to licence persons and places, except for its preservation. At the same time we hope no
under such security as the property of the parties would not body will rate our sagacity so very low as to imagine
meet, or under limitations to which their consciences would we have much hope that any measure of the kind will not accede. What has been advanced ought to outweit ever be adopted. All establishments die of dignity. every consideration of teinporal interest; and if the prilgenius They are too proud to think themselves ill, and to of persecution were to appear again, I pray God that we inig). take a little physic.
all be faithful to Him who has called us to preach the posiel. To show that we have not misstated the obstinacy
Under such circumstances, let us continue to preach: jffined, or the conscience of sectaries, and the spirit with
let us pay the penalty, and persevere in preaching; and when unable to pay the fine, or deeming it impolitic so to do, let us
submit to go quietly to prison, but with the resolution still to * All this has been placed on a better footing.
preach on the first opportunity, and, if possible, to collect
church even within the precincts of the gaol. He, who by eternally exposed to the attacks of this discerning, these zealous exertions, becomes the honoured instrument of dauntless, and most powerful speaker. Folly and converting one singer unto God, will tind that single seal to l corruption never had a more terrible enemy in the his ministerial labours an ample compensation for all his suf- English House of Commons-one whom it was so im. ferings. In this manner the venerable apostle of the Gentiles both avowed and proved his sincere attachment to the cause in
possible to bribe, so hopeless to elude, and so difficult which he had embarked:-"The Holy Ghost witnesseth in to answer. Now it so happened, that, during the every city, that bonds and afflictions abide me. But none of whole of this period, the historical critic of Mr. Fox these things move ine, neither count I my life dear unto myself, was employed in subordinate offices of government ;80 tbai I might tinish my course with joy, and the ministry that the detail of taxes passed through his hands; which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel that he amassed a large tortune by those occupations ; of the grace of God."
and that both in the measures which he supported, In the early ages of Christianity martyrdom was considered an emineut honour; and inany of the primitive Christians
and in the friends from whose patronage he received thrust themselves upon the notice of their heathen persecutors,
his emoluments, he was c that they might be brought to suffer in the cause of that Re-opposed to Mr. Fox. deenar whoin they ardeutly loved. In the present day Chris. Again, it must be remembered, that very great peo. tians in general incline to estimate such rash ardour as a spe-ple have very long memories for the injuries which cies of enthusiasm, and feel no disposition to court the horrors they receive, or which they think they receive. No of persecution; yet if such dark and tremendous days were to
speculation was so good, therefore, as to vilify the return in this age of the world, ministers should retain their stations; they should be true to their charge; they should
id memory of Mr. Fox-nothing so delicious as to lower continue their ministrations, each man in his sphere, shining him in the public estimation--no service so likely to with ail the lustre of genuine godliness, to dispel the gloom in be well rewarded-so eminently grateful to those of which the nation would then be enveloped. If this line of whose favour Mr. Rose had so often tasted the sweets, conduct were to be adopted, and acted upon with decision, the and of the value of whose patronage he must, from cause of piety, of non-conformity, and of itinerant preaching, I long experience, have been so thoroughly aware. must eventually triumph. All the gaols in the country would
We are almost inclined to think that we might at speedily be filled: those houses of correction which were erected for the chastiseient of the vicious in the community,
one time have worked ourselves up to suspect Mr. would be replenished with thousands of the most pious, active, Rose of being actuated by some of these motives: and useful men in the kingdom, whose characters are held in not because we have any reason to think worse of geueral esteem. But the ultimate result of such despotic pro- that gentleman than of most of his political associates, ceedingy is beyond the ken of human prescience: probably, but merely because it seemed to us so very probable appeals to the public and to the legislature would teem from that he should have been so iniluenced. Our suspi. the press, and, under such circumstances, might diffuse acions, however, were entirely removed by the fre. revolutionary spirit throughout the country.'-(239—243.)
quency and violence of his own protestations. He We quote these opinions at length, not because vows so solemnly that he has no bad motive in writing they are the opinions of Philagatharches, but because his critique, that we find it impossible to withhold we are confident that they are the opinions of' ten our beliet in his purity. But Mr. Rose does not trust thousand hot-headed fanatics, and that they would to his protestations alone. He is not satisfied with firmly and conscientiously be acted upon.
| assurances that he did not write his book from any Pailagatharches is an instance (not uncommon, we bad motive, but he informs us that his motive was ex. are sorry to say, even among the most rational of the cellent, and is even obliging enough to tell us what Protestant Dissenters) of a love of toleration com. that motive was. The Earl of Marchmont, it seems, bined with a love of persecution. He is a Dissenter, was Mr. Rose's friend. To Mr. Rose he left his and earnestly demands religious liberty for that body manuscripts; and among these manuscripts was of men ; but as for the Catholics, he would not only narrative written by Sir Patrick Hume, an ancestor of continue their present disabilities, but load them with the Earl of Marchmont, and one of the leaders in every new one that could be conceived. He expressly Argyle's rebellion. Of Sir Patrick Hume, Mr. Rose says that an Atheist or a Deist may be allowed to conceives (a little erroneously to be sure, but he as. propagate their doctrines, but not a Catholic ; and sures us he does conceive) Mr. Fox to have spoken ihen proceeds with all the customary trash against disrespectfully; and the case comes out, therefore, as that sect which nine schoolboys out of ten now know clearly as possible, as follows. how to refute. So it is with Philagatharches ,--so it Sir Patrick was the progenitor, and Mr. Rose was
reak men in every sect. It has ever been our the friend and sole executor, of the Earl of March. object, and (in spite of misrepresentation and abuse) mont; and therefore, says Mr. Rose, I consider it as ever shall be our object, to put down this spirit—to a sacred duty to vindicate the character of Sir Patrick, protect the true interests, and to diffuse the true spi. and, for that purpose, to publish a long and elaborate rii, of toleration. To a well-supported national Estab-critique upon all the doctrines and statements contain
ant. et actually discharging its duties, we are ed in Mr. Fox's history ! This appears to us about very sincere friends. If any man, after he has paid as satisfactory an explanation of Mr. Rose's author. his contribution to this great security for the existence ship, as the exclamation of the traveller was of the of relig on in any shape, chooses to adopt a religion name of Stony Stratford. of his own, that min should be permitted to do so! Before Mr. Rose gave way to this intense value for without let, molestation, or disqualification for any of Sir Patrick, and resolved to write a book, he should the offices of life. We apologize to men of sense for have inquired what accurate men there were about in sentiments so trite ; and patiently endure the anger society: and if he had once received the slightest nowhich they will excite among those with whom they tice of the existence of Mr.Samuel Heywood, serjeant. will pass for original.
at-law, we are convinced he would have transtused into his own will and testament the feelings he deri. ved from that of Lord Marchmont, and devolved upon
another executor the sacred and dangerous duty of CHARLES FOX. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1811.) vindicating Sir Patrick Hume.
| The life of Mr. Rose has been principally employed A Vindication of Mr. For's History of the Early Part of t
he in the painful, yet perhaps necessary, duty of increa. Reign of James the Second. By Samuel Heywood, Serjeant
sing the burdens of his fellow creatures. It has bern at-Law, London. Johnson & Co. 1811.
a life of detail, onerous to the subject-onerous and THOUGH Mr. Fox's history was of course, as much lucrative to himself. It would be unfair to expect open to animadversion and rebuke as any other book, from one thus occupied any great depth of thought, the task, we think, would have become any other per. or any remarkable graces of composition; but we hará son better than Mr. Rose. The whole of Mr. Fox's a fair right to look for habits of patient research and life was spent in oppposing the profligacy and expo. scrupulous accuracy. We might naturally expect in sing the ignorance of his own court. In the first half dustry in collecting facts, and fidelity in quoting them of his political career, while Lord North was losing and hope, in the absence of commanding genius, to America, and in the latter half, while Mr. Pitt was receive a compensation from the more humble and ruining Europe, the creatures of the government were ordinary qualities of the mind. How far this is the
case, our subsequent remarks will enable the reader to Mr. Fox said, in the House of Common 'Ue pre. judge. We shall not extend them to any great length, sence of Mr. Rose, as we have before treated on the same subject in our ! review of Mr. Rose's work. Our grea
I pre. The proceedings with respect to the royal family of France,
lat present is to abridge the observations of Sergeant Hev. are so far from being magnaniinity, justice, or mercy, that they wood. For Serjeant Heywood, though a most respect.
are directly the reverse; they are injustice, cruelty, and pusil.
lanimity.' And afterwards declared his wish for an address to able, honest, and enlightened man, really does require
his majesty, to which he would add an xpression of our aban abridger. He has not the talent of saying what he horrence of the proceedings against the royal family of France, has to say quickly ; nor is he aware that brevity is in in which, I have no doubt, we shall be supported by the w bole writing what charity is to all other virtues. Right-country. If there can be any means suggested that will be eousness is worth nothing without the one, nor author. better adapted to produce the unanimous concurrence of this ship without the other. But whoever will forgive House, and of all the country, with respect to the measure now this little defect will find in all his productions great
under consideration in Paris, I should be olled to any per
son for his better suggestion upon the subject' Then, after learning, immaculate honesty, and the most scrupulous
stating that such addres, especially if the Lords joined in it accuracy. Whatever detections of Mr. Rose's inac- must have a decisive influence in France, he added, I bave curacies are made in this Review are to be entirely said thus much in order to contradict one of the most cruel given to him; and we contess ourselves quite aston- misrepresentations of what I have before said in our late deished at their number and extent.
bates; and that my language may not be interpreted from this
manner in which other gentlemen have chosen to answer it. I Among the modes of destroying persons (says Mr. Fox,
have spoken the genuine sentiments of my heart, and I 2017p. 14.) in such a situation (i. e. monarchis deposed), there can
iously wish the House to come to some resolution upon the subbe little doubt but that adopted by Cromwell and his adhe
ject.' And on the following day, when a copy of instructions rents is the least dishonourable. Edward II., Richard II., 1.0
I sent to Earl Gower, signifying that he should leave Paris, kas Henry IV., Edward V., had none of them survived their de
I laid before the House of Commons, Mr. Fox said, he had beard posal; but this was the first instance, in our history at least,
it said, that the proceedings against the King of France are when of such an act it could be truly said it was not done in
unnecessary. He would go a great deal farther, and sav, he a corner.'
believed them to be highly unjust; and not only repugnant to
all the common feelings of mankind, but also contrary to all the What Mr. Rose can find in this sentiment to quar- / fundamental principles of law.!-(p. 20, 21.) rel with, we are ulterly at a loss to conceive. If a On Monday the 28th January, he said, human being is to be put to death unjustly, is it no mitigation of such a lot that the death shouid be pub.
"With regard to that part of the communication from his lic? Is any thing better calculated to prevent secret
majesty, which related to the late detestable scene exhibited torture and cruelty? And would Mr. Rose, in mercy
in a neighbouring country, he could not suppose there were
two opinions in that Ilouse; he knew they were all ready to to Charles, have preferred that red-hot iron should declare their abhorrence of that abominable proceeding.'have been secretly thrust into his entrails?-or that (p. 21.) he should have disappeared as Pichegru and Toussaint Two days afterwards, in the debate on the message, have disappeared in our times? The periods of the Me. For pronounced the condemnation and execution Edwards and Henrys were, it is true, barbarous pe-of the king to be riods : but this is the very argument Mr. Fox uses. All these murders, he contends, were immoral and an act as disgraceful as any that history recorded: and bad; but that where the manner was the least obiec. whatever opinions he might at any timne have expressed in pritionable, was the murder of Charles the First_bevate conversation, he had expressed none certainly in that
House on the justice of bringing kings to trial : revenge being cause it was public. And can any human being doubt,
unjustifiable, and punishment useless, where it could not oper. in the first place, that these crimes would be marked ate either by way of prevention or example; he did not view by less intense cruelty if they were public, and, se- with less detestation the injustice and ivhumanity that bad condly, that they would become less frequent. where been committed towards that unhappy monarch. Not only the perpetrators incurred responsibility, than if they were the rules of criminal justice-rules that more than any were committed by an uncertain hand' in secrecy and other ought to be strictly observed-violated with respect to concealment? There never was, in short, not only a
him: not only was he tried and condemned without existing
law, to which he was personally amenable, and even contrary more innocent, but a more obvious sentiment; and to
to laws that did actually exist, but the degrading circumstan to it in the manner which Mr. Rose has done, Ices of his imprisonment, the unnecessary and insulting asperity is si
v to love Sir Patrick Hume too much,-if there with which he had been treated, the total want of republican can be any excess in so very commendable
magnanimity in the whole transaction, (for even in that House in the breast of a sole executor.
it could be uo offence to say, that there might be such a thing Mr. Fox proceeds to observe that he who has dis, as magnanimity in a republic,) added every aggravation to the cussed this subiect with foreigners, must have observ. inumanity and mjustice.' ed, that the act of the execution of Charles, even in That Mr. Fox had held this language in the House the minds of those who condemn it, excites more ad. of Commons, Mr. Rose knew perfectly well, when he miration than disgust. If the sentiment is bad, let accused that gentleman of approving the murder of the those who feel it answer for it. Mr. Fox only asserts King of France. Whatever be the faults imputed to the fact, and explains, without justifying it. The only Mr. Fox, duplicity and hypocrisy were never among question (as concerns Mr. Fox) is, whether such is, the number; and no human being ever doubted but or is not, the feeling of foreigners ; and whether that that Mr. Fox, in this instance, spoke his real senti. ieening (
i t exists) is rightly explained! We have ments: but the love of Sir Patrick Hume is an orerno doubt either of the fact or of the explanation. The whelming passion ; and no man who gives way to it, conduct of Cromwell and his associates, was not to be can ever say into what excesses he may be hurried. excused in the main act; but, in the manner, it was magnanimous. And among the servile nations of the
Non simul cuiquam conceditur, amare et sapere. Continent, it must naturally excite a feeling of joy and The next point upon which Sergeant Heywood at. wonder, that the power of the people had för once tacks Mr. Rose, is that of General Monk. Mr. Fox been felt, and so memorable a lesson read to those says of Monk, 'that he acquiesced in the insult so whom they must naturally consider as the great op- meanly put upon the illustrious corpse of Blake, under pressors of mankind.
whose auspices and command he had performed the The most unjustifiable point of Mr. Rose's accusa- most creditable services of his life. This story, Mr. tion, however, is still to come. "If such high praise,' Rose says, rests upon the authority of Neale, in his says that gentleman, was, in the judgment of Mr. History of the Puritans. This is the first of many Fox, due to Cromwell for the publicity of the proceed. blunders made by Mr. Rose upon this particular topic: ings against the king, how would he have found lan- for Anthony Wood, in his Fasti Oxonienses, enumera. guage sufficiently conimendatory to express his adini. ting Blake among the bachelors, says, ' Iis body tas ration of the magnanimity of those who brought Lewis taken up, and, with others, buried in a pit in St. Mar. the Sixteenth to an open trial? Mr. Rose accuses garet's church-yard adjoining, near to the back door on Mr. Fox, then, of approving the execution of Lewis one of the prebendaries of Westininster, in u hich place the Sixteenth: but, on the 20th of December, 1792, it nou remaineth, enjoying no other monument but what it reared by its valour, which time itself can curacies in a man, not only so much greater than himhardly efface. But the difficulty is to find how the self in his general nature, but a man who, as it turns denial of Mr. Rose affects Mr. Fox's assertion. Mr. out, excels Mr. Rose in his own little art of looking, those admits that Blake's body was dug up by an order searching, and comparing and is as much his supe. of the king; and does not deny that it was done with rior in the retail qualities which small people arrogate the acquiescence of Monk. But it this be the case, to themselves, as he was in every commanding faculty Mr. Fox's position that Blake was insulted, and that to the rest of his fellow creatures? Nonk acquiesced in the insult, is clearly made out. Mr. Rose searches Thurloe's State Papers ; but SerNor has Mr. Rose the shadow of an authority for say-jeant Heywood searches them after Mr. Rose: and, ing that the corpse of Blake was reinterred with great by a series of the plainest references, proves the probdecorum. Kennet is silent upon thes
e have ability there is that Argvle did receive letters which already given Sergeant Heywood's quotation from might materially have affected his life. Anthony Wood ; and this statement, for the present, To Monk's duplicity of conduct may be principally rests entirely upon the assertion of Mr. Rose; and attributed the destruction of his friends, who were upou that basis will remain to all eternity.
prevented, by their confidence in him, from taking Mr. Rose, who, we must say, on all occasions, measures to secure themselves. He selected those through the whole of this book, makes the greatest among them whoin he thought fit for trial-sat as a parade of his accuracy, states that the bodies of commissioner upon their trial-and interfered not to Cromwell, Ireton, and Blake, were taken up at the save the lives even of those with whom he had lived same time; whereas the fact is, that those of Crom- in the habits of the greatest kindness. well and Ireton were taken up on the 26th of January,
I cannot,' says a witness of the most unquestionable autho. and that of Blake on the 10th of September, nearly
rity, I cannot forget one passage that I sai. Monk and his nine months afterwards. It may appear involous to wife, before they were moved to the Tower, while they were notice such errors as these; but they lead to very vet prisoners at Lambeth House, come one evening to the strong suspicions in a critic of history and of histori. garden, and caused them to be brought down, only to stare at ans. They show that those habits ot' punctuality, on them; which was such a barbarisin, for that man who betrayed the faith of which he demands implicit contidence so many poor men to death and misery, that never hurt him, from his readers. really do not exist they prove that but had honoured him, and trusted their lives and interests with
him, to glut his bloody eyes with beholding them in their bonsuch a writer will be exact only when he thinks the occasion of importance; and as he himself is the only Hutchinson's Mimoirs, 378.
dage, as no story can parallel the inhumanity of:'-(p. 83.) judge of that importance, it is necessary to examine his proofs in every instance, and impossible to trust This, however, is the man whom Mr. Fox, at the him anywhere.
distance of a century and a halt, may not mark with Mr. Rose remarks that, in the weekly paper entitled intamy, without incurring, from the candour of Mr Mercurius Rusticus, Number 4, where an account is Rose, the imputation of republican principles ;-as if given of the disinterment of Cromwell and Ireton, not attachment to monarchy could have justified, in Monk, a syilable is said respecting the corpse of Blake. This the coldness, cruelty, and treachery of his character, is very true; but the reason (which does not seem to -as if the historian became the advocate, or the ene. have occurred to Mr. Rose) is, that Blake's corpse my of any form of government, by praising the good, was not touched till sir months afterwards. This is or blaming the bad men which it might produce. Ser. really a little too much. That Mr. Rose should quit jeant Heywood sums up the whole article as follows: his usual pursuits, erect himself into an historical eritic, perch upon the body of the dead lion, impugn
Having examined and commented upon the evidence pro
duced by Mr. Rose, than which "it is hardly possible," he the accuracy of one of the greatest, as well as most
says, “to conceive that stronger could be formed in any case accurate men of his time--and himselt' be guilty of
to establish a negative," we now sately assert that Mr. Fox had such gross and unpardonable negligence, looks so very i fully informed himself upon the subject before he wrote, and much like an insensibility to shame, that we should be was amply justified in the condemnation of Monk, and the loth to characterize his conduct by the severe epithets
ets consequent severe ceasures upon him. It has been already which it appears to merit, and which, we are quite demonstrated that the character of Monk had been truly gicertain. Sir Patrick, the defendee. would have been ven, when of him he said, “the army had fallen into the hands
of one than whom a baser could not be found in its lowest the first to bestow upon it.
ranks." The transactions between him and Argyle for a cerThe next passage in Mr. Fox's work objected to, is
tain period of time were such as must naturally, if not necesthat which charges Monk, at the trial of Argyle, with sarily, have led them into an epistolary correspondence; and having produced letters of friendship and confidence it was in exact conformity with Monk's character and conduct to take away the life of a nobleman, in the zeal and to the regicides, that he should betray the letters written to cordiality of whose co-operation with him, proved by him, in order to destroy a man whom he had, in the latter such documents. was the chief ground of his execu. part of his command in Scotland, both feared and hated. If
the fact of the production of these letters had stood merely on tion. This accusation, says Mr. Rose, rests upon the
Bishop Burnet, we bave seen that nothing has been produced sole authority of Bishop Burnet; and vet no sooner PUMP
by Mr. Rose and Dr. Campbell to impeach it; on the contrabas he said this, than he tells us, Mr. Laing considers ry, an inquiry into the authorities and documents they have the bishop's authority to be confirmed by Cunningham cited, strongly confirm it. But, as before observed, it is a surand Billie, both contemporary writers. Into Cun. prising instance of Mr. Rose's indolence, that he sliould state ningham or Baillie Mr. Rose never looks to see whe, the question to depend now, as it did in Dr. Campbell's time, ther or not they do really confirm the authority of the on the bishop's authority solely. But that authority is, in
itself, no light one. Burnet was alınost eighteen years of aga bishop; and so gross is his negligence, that the very
at the time of Argyle's trial; he was never an unobserving misprint from Mr. Laing's work is copied, and page
spectator of public events; he was probably at Edinburgh, 431 of Baillie is cited instead of 451. If Mr. Rose had
aud, for some years afterwards, remained in Scotland, with really taken the trouble of referring to these books, ample means of information respecting events which had all doubt of the meanness and guilt of Monk must taken place so recently. Baillie seems also to have been upon have been instantly removed. Monk was moved,' the spot, and expressly confirins the testimony of Burnet. To says Baillie, to send doun four or five of Argule's let. there must be added Cunningham, who, writing as a person ters to himself and others. promising his full compliance perfectly acquainted with the circumstances of the transacwith them, that the king should not reprieve him.' Bail
tion, says it was owing to the interference of Monk, who had
been his grent friend in Oliver's time, that he was sent back to lie's Letters, p. 451. He endeavoured to make his
Scotland, and brought to trial; and that he was condemned defence,' says Cunningham; but chiefly by the discore. chiefly by his discoveries. We may now ask, where is the ries of Monk was condemned of high treason, and lost improbability of this story, when related of such a man ? and his head.'-Cunningham's History, i. p. 13.
what ground there is for not giving credit to a fact attested by Would it have been more than common decency re. three witnesses of veracity, each writing at a distance, and quired. if Mr. Rose. who had been apprised of the ex. separate from each other? In this instance Bishop Burnet is
so confirmed, that no reasonable being who will attend to the istence of these authorities, had had recourse to them, subiect, can doubt of the fact he relates being true; and we before he impugned the authority of Mr. Fox? Or is shall hereafter prove that the general imputation against his it possible to read, without some portion of contempt, accuracy made by Mr. Rose is totally without foundation. If this slovenly and indolent corrector of supposed inac. 'facts so proved are pot to be credited, historians may lay
aside their pens, and every man must content himself with the Speaking of the early part of James's reign, Mr. Fox scanty pittance of knowledge he may be able to collect for says, it is by no means certain that he had yet thoughts himself in the very limited sphere of his own immediate obser- l of obtaining for his religion any thing inore than a vation. (p. 86–88.)
complete toleration ; and if Mr. Rose had understood This, we think, is conclusive enough : but we are the meaning of the French word établissement, one of happy to be enabled, out of our own store, to set this his many incorrect corrections of Mr. Fox might have part of the question finally to rest, by an authority been spared. A system of religion is said to be estab. which Mr. Rose himself will probably adınit to be de- lished when it is enacted and endowed by Parliament; cisive. Sir George Mackenzie, the great tory lawyer but a toleration (as Serjeant Heywood observes) is of Scotland in that day, and Lord Advocate to Charles established when it is recognized and protected by the II., through the greater part of his reign, was the lead. supreme puwer. And in the letters of Barillon, to ing counsel for Argyle on the trial alluded to. In which Mr. Rose refers for the justification of his at. 1678, this learned person, who was then Lord Advo: tack upon Mr. Fox, it is quite manifest that it is in this cate to Charles, published an elaborate treatise on the latter sense that the word cablissement is used ; and criminal law of Scotland ; in which, when treating of that the object in view was, not the substitution of the probation, or evidence, he observes, that missive let. Catholic religion for the Established Church, but mere. tors, not written, but only signed by the party, shouldly its toleration. In the first letter cited by Mr. Rose, not be received in evidence; and immediately adds, James says, that he knew well he should never be in "And yet the Marquis of Argyle was convict of treason safety unless liberty of conscience for them should be UPON LETTERS WRITTEN BY HIM TO GENERAL MONK ; fully established in England. The letter of the 24th these letters being only subscribed by him, and pot of April is quoted by Mr. Rose, as if the French king holograph, and the subscription being proved per com. | had written, the establishment of the Catholic religion ; parationem literarum, which were very hard in other whereas the real words are, the establishment of the free cases,' &c.--- Mackenzie's Criminals, first edit. p. 524, erercise of the Catholic religion. The world are so inPart II. tit. 25. 63. Now this, we conceive, is neither | veterately resolved to believe, that a man who has no more nor less than a solemn professional report of the brilliant talents must be accurate, that Mr. Rose, in case,--and leaves just as little room for doubt as to referring to authorities, has a great and decided ad. the fact, as if the original record of the trial had been vantage. He is, however, in point of fact, as las and recovered.
incorrect as a poet; and it is absolutely necessary, in Mr. Rose next objects to Mr. Fox's assertion, that spite of every parade of line, and page, and number, "the king kept from his cabal ministry the real state of to follow him in the most minute particular. The ser. his connection with France and from some of them jeant like a bloodhound of the old breed, is always the secret ot what he was pleased to call his religion ;' upon his track ; and always looks if there are any such and Mr. Fox doubts whether to attribute this conduct passages in the page quoted, and if the passages are to the habitual treachery of Charles, or to an appre.
arles, or to an appre. accurately quoted or accurately translated. Nor will hension that his ministers might demand for them. he by any means be content with official accuracy, nor selves some share of the French money ; which he was submit to be treated, in historical questions, as if he unwilling to give them. In answer to this conjecture, were hearing financial statements in the House of Mr. Rose quotes Barillon's Letters to Lewis XIV. tó Commons show that Charles's ministers were fully apprised of Barillon writes, in another letter to Lewis XIVhis money transactions with France. The letters so l What your majesty has most besides at heart, that quoted were, however, written seven years after the is to say, for the establishment of the free exercise of cabal ministry were in pover-for Barillon did not come the Caiholic religion. On the 9th of May, Leuis to England as Ambassador till 1677-and these letters writes to Barillon, that he is persuaded Charles will were not written till after that period. Poor Sir Pat. employ all his authority to establish the free encercise rick-It was for thee and thy defence this book was of the Catholic religion : he mentions also, in the written !!!!
same letter, the Parliament consenting to the free el. Mr. Fox has said, that from some of the ministers ercise of our religion. On the lòth of June, he will's of the cabal the secret of Charles's religion was con. to Barillon There now remains cealed. It was known to Arlington, admitted by Mr. peal of the penal lau's in favour of the Catholics, and the Rose to be a concealed Catholic, it was known to free exercise of our religion in all his states. ImmediClifford, an avowed Catholic: Mr. Rose admits it not ately after Monmouth's execution, when his views of to have been known to Buckingham, though he ex. success must have been as lofty as they ever could plains the reserve, in respe
him, in a different I have been, Lewis writes- It will be easy to the King way. He has not, however, attempted to prove that of England, and as useful for the security of his reign Lauderdale or Ashley were consulted ;-on the con. as for the repose of his conscience, to re-establish the trary, in Colbert's letter of the 25th August, 1670, ci exercise of the Catholic religion. In a letter of Baril. ted by Mr. Rose, it is stated that Charles had proposed lon, July 16th, Sunderland is made to say, that the the traité simule, which should be a repetition of the king would always be exposed to the indiscreet zeal former one in all things, except the article relative to of those who would inflame the people against the the king's declaring himself a Catholic, and that the Catholic religion, so long as it should not be inore fully Protestant ministers, Buckingham, Ashley, Cooper, and established. The French expression is, tant qu'elle ne Lauderdale, should be brought to be parties to it:- sera pas plus epleinement tablie ; and this Mr. Rose has Can there be a stronger proof (asks Serieant Hey had the inodesty to translate, till it shall be completely wood), that they were ignorant of the same treaiy established, and to mark the passage with italics, as made the year before, and remaining then in force? of the greatest importance to his argument. These Historical research is certainly not the peculiar talent false quotations and translations being detected, and of Mr. Rose ; and as for the official accuracy of which those passages of early writers, from which Mr. Fox he is so apt to boast, we would have Mr. Rose to re- had made up his opinion, brought to lighi, it is not member, that the term official accuracy has of late possible to doubt, but that the object of James, before days become one of very ambiguous import. Mr. Monmouth's defeat, was not the destruction of the Rose, we can see, would imply by it the highest pos- | Protestant, but the toleration of the Catholic religion ; sible accuracy-as we see office pens advertised in the land after the execution of Monno window of a shop, by way of excellence. The public mits, that he became more bold and sanguine upon the reports of those, however, who have been appointed subject of religion. to look into the manner in which public otfices are We do not consider those observations of Serjeant conducted, by no means justify this usage of the Heywood to be the most fortunate in his book, where term ;-and we are not without apprehensions, that he attempts to show the republican tendency of Mr. Dutch politeness, Carthaginian faith, Baotian genius, Rose's principles. Of any disposition to principles of and official accuracy, may be terms equally current in this nature, we most heartily acquit that right honour. the world; and that Mr. Rose may, without intending able gentleman. He has too much knowledge of manit, have contributed to make this valuable addition to kind to believe their happiness can be promoted in the the inass of our ironical phraseology
stormy and tempestuous regions of republicanisız