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aishing the number of subjects in which persons who provision ; and the gentleness and elegance of women are to spend their lives together take a common in is the natural consequence of that desire to please, terest.
which is productive of the greatest part of civilization One of the most agreeable consequences of know- and refinement, and which rests upon a foundation ledge is the respect and importance which it commu- too deep to be shaken by any such modifications in nicates to old age. Men rise in character often as education as we have proposed. If you educate wothey increase in years ;-they are venerable from men to attend to dignified and important subjects, you what they have acquired, and pleasing from what they are multiplying, beyond measure, the chances of can impart. If they outlive their faculties, the mere human improvement, by preparing and medicating frame itself is respected for what it once contained ; those early impressions, which always come from the but women (such is their unfortunate style of educa- mother; and which, in a great majority of instances, tion) hazard every thing upon one cast of the die ;- are quite decisive of character and genius. Nor is it when youth is gone, all is gone. No human creature only in the business of education that women would gires his admiration for nothing : either the eye must in tiuence the destiny of men. If women know more, be charmed, or the understanding gratified. A women must learn more--for ignorance would then be man must talk wisely or look well. Every human shameful and it would become the fashion to be inbeing must put up with the coldest civility, who has structed. The instruction of women improves the neither the charms of youth nor the wisdom of age. stock of national talents, and employs more minds for Neither is there the slightest commiseration for de. the instruction and amusement of the world ;-it in. cayed accomplishments ;--10 man mourns over the creases the pleasures of society, by multiplying the fragments of a dancer, or drops a tear on the relics of topics upon which the two sexes take a common intermusical skill. They are flowers destined to perish ; esi ; and makes marriage an intercourse of understand. but the decay of great talents is always the subject of ing as well as of affection, by giving dignity and solemn pity; and, even when their last memorial is importance to the female character. The education over, their ruins and vestiges are regarded with pious of women favours public morals ; it provides for every affection.
season of life, as well as for the brightest and the best'; There is no connection between the ignorance in and leaves a woman when she is stricken by the hand which women are kept, and the preservation of moral of time, not as she now is, destitute of every thing, and and religious principle; and yet certainly there is, in neglected by all; but with the full power and the the minds of some timid and respectable persons, a splendid attractions of knowledge,-diffusing the elevague, indefinite dread of knowledge, as it it were gant pleasures of polite literature, and receiving the capable of producing these effects. It might almost just homage of learned and accomplished men. be supposed, from the dread which the propagation of knowledge has excited, that there was some great secret which was to be kept in impenetrable obscurity, -that all moral rules were a species of delusion and PUBLIC SCHOOLS. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1810.) imposture, the detection of which, by the improvement of the understanding, would be attended with Remarks on the System of Education in Public Schools. 8vo.
Hatchard. London, 1809. the most fatal consequences to all, and particularly to
If we could possibly understand what these THERE is a set of well-dressed, prosperous gentle. great secrets were, we might perhaps be disposed to men who assemble daily at Mr. Hatchard's shop :concur in their preservation ; but believing that all clean, civil personages, well in with people in power, the salutary rules which are imposed on women are delighted with every existing institution—and althe result of true wisdom, and productive of the most with every existing circumstance :-and, every greatest happiness, we cannot understand how they now and then, one of these personages writes a little are to become less sensible of this truth in proportion book ;—and the rest praise that little book-expecting as their power of discovering truth in general is in- to be praised, in their turn, for their own little books: creased, and the habit of viewing questions with ac- -and of these little books, thus written by these clean, curacy and comprehension established by education. civil personages, so expecting to be praised, the There are men, indeed, who are always exclaiming pamphlet before us appears to be one. against every species of power, because it is connect The subject of it is the advantage of public schools; ed with danger: their dread of abuses is so much and the author, very creditably to himself, ridicules stronger than their admiration of uses, that they the absurd clamour, first set on foot by Dr. Rennel, would cheerfully give up the use of fire, gunpowder, of the irreligious tendency of public schools: he then and printing, to be freed from robbers, incendiaries, proceeds to an investigation of the efiects which puband libels. It is true, that every increase of know. Iic schools may produce upon the moral character; ledge may possibly render depravity more depraved, and here the subject becomes more difficult, and the as well as it may increase the strength of virtue. It pamphlet worse. is in itself only power; and its value depends on its In arguing any large or general question, it is of in. application. But, trust to the natural love of good finite importance to attend to the first feelings which where there is no temptation to be bad—it operates the mention of the topic has a tendency to excite; and nowhere more forcibly than in education. No man, the name of a public school brings with it immediately whether he be tutor, guardian, or friend, ever con- the idea of brilliant classical attainments ; but, upon tenis himself with infusing the mere ability to ac. the importance of these studies, we are not now offer. qoire ; but giving the power, he gives with it a taste ing any opinion. The only points for consideration for the wise and rational exercise of that power ; so are, whether boys are put in the way of becoming that an educated person is not only one with stronger good and wise men by these schools; and whether and better faculties than others, but with a more use they actually gather there those attainments which it ful propensity-a disposition better cultivated—and pleases mankind, for the time being, to consider as associations of a higher and more important class. valuable, and to decorate by the name of learning.
In short, and to recapitulate the main points upon By a public school, we mean any endowed place of which we have insisted :-Why the disproportion in education, of old standing, to which the sons of gen. knowledge between the two sexes should be so great, tlemen resort in considerable numbers, and where when the inequality in natural talents is so small; or they continue to reside, from eight or nine, to eighteen why the understanding of women should be lavished years of age. We do not give this as a definition upon trifles, when nature has made it capable of high- which would have satisfied Porphyry or Duns-Scotus, er and better things, we profess ourselves not able to but as one sufficiently accurate for our purpose. The understand. The affectation charged upon female characteristic features of these schools are, their an. knowledge is best cured by making that knowledge tiquity, the numbers, and the ages of the young people more general : and the economy devolved upon women who are educated at them. We beg leave, however, is best secured by the ruin, disgrace, and inconveni. to premise, that we have not the slightest intention of ence which proceeds from neglecting it. For the care insinuating any thing to the disparagement of the a children. nature has made a direct and powerful present disciplina or present rulers of these schools,
as compared with other times and other men: we conciliation towards others, and that anxiety for self hare no reason whatever to doubt that they are as improvement, which result from the natural modesty ably govemed at this as they have been at any pre of youth. Nor is this conceit very easily and speediiy ceding period. Whatever objections we may have to gouten rid of';— we have seen (if we mistake poi) pubthese institutions, they are io faults, not depending lic school importance lasting through the half or after on present administration, but upon original con- lite, strutting in lawn, swelling in erinine, and dis. struction.
playing itself, both ridiculously and offensively, in the At a public school (for such is the system estab. haunts and business of bearded men. lished by iminemorial custom), every boy is alter There is a manliness in the athletic exercises of nately tyrant and slave. The power which the elder public schools which is as seductive to the imagina. part of these communities exercises over the younger tion as it is utterly unimportant in itself. Of what is exceedingly great-very difficult to be controlled- importance is it in after life whether a boy can play and accompanied, not unfrequently, with cruelty and well or ill at cricket; or row a boat with the skill and caprice. It is the common law of the place, that the precision of a waterman? If our young lords and young should be implicitly obedient to the elder boys; esquires were hereafter to wrestle together in public, and this obedience resembles inore the submission of or the gentlemen of the Bar to exhibit Olympic games a slave to his master, or of a sailor to his captain, in Hilary Term, the glory attached to these exercises than the common and natural deference which would at public schools would be rational and important. always be shown by one boy to another a few years But of what use is the body of an athlete, when we older than himselt. Now, this system we cannot have good laws over our heads, or when a pistol, a help considering as an evil,-because it inflicts upon postchaise, or a porter, can be hired for a few shi). boys, for two or three years of their lives, many pain. Iings ? A gentleman does nothing but ride or walk; ful hardships, and much unpleasant servitude. These and yet such a ridiculous stress is laid upon the mansufferings inight perhaps be of some use in military liness of the exercises custoinary at public schoolsschools; but, to give to a boy the habit of enduring exercises in which the greatest blockheads commonly privations to which he will never again be called upon excel the most—which often render habits of idleness io submit—to inure him to pains which he will never inveterate—and cften lead to foolish expense and dis. again teel-and to subject him to the privation of com. sipation at a more advanced period of life. forts with which he will always in future abound-is One of the supposed advantages of a public school surely not a very useful and valuable severity in edu- is the greater knowledge of the world which a boy is cation. It is not the life in miniature which he is to considered to derive from those situations; but if, by lead hereafter-nor does it bear any relation to it:- a knowledge of the world, is meant a knowledge of he will never again be subjected to so much insolence the forms and manners which are found to be the most and caprice ; nor ever, in all human probability, called pleasing and useful in the world, a boy from a public upon to make so many sacrifices. The servile obedi. school is almost always extremely deficient in these ence which it teaches might be useful to a menial particulars ; and his sister, who has remained at home domestic; or the habits of enterprise which it en. at the apron-strings of her mother, is very much his courages prove of importance to a military partisan ; superior in the science of manners. It is probably but we cannot see what bearing it has upon the calm, true, that a boy at a public school has made more obregular, civil life, which the sons of gentlemen, des. servations on human character, because he has had tined to opulent idleness, or to any of the three learned more opportunities of observing than Ifave been enprofessions, are destined to lead. Such a system joyed by young persons educated either at home or at makes many boys very miserable ; and produces those private schools : but this little advance gained at a bad effects upon the temper and disposition, which public school is so soon overtaken at college or in the unjust suffering always does produce ;-but what good world, that, to have made it, is of the least possible it does we are much at a loss to conceive. Reasonable consequence, and utterly undeserving of any risk in. obedience is extremely useful in forming the disposi- curred in the acquisition. Is it any injury to a man tion. Submission to tyranny lays the toundation of of thiriy or thirty-five years of age-to a learned ser. hatred, suspicion, cunning, and a variety of odious jeant or venerable dean—that at eighteen they did not passions. We are convinced that these young people know so much of the world as some other boys of the will turn out to be the best men, who have been same standing? They have probably escaped the guarded most effectually in their childhood, from every arrogant character so often attendant upon this trifling species of useless vexation ; and experienced, in the superiority; nor is there much chance that they have greatest degree, the blessings of a wise and rational ever fallen into the common and youthful error of indulgence. But even if these effects upon future mistaking a premature initiation into vice for a know. character are not produced, still four or five years in ledge of the ways of mankind ; and, in addition to childhood make a very considerable period of human these salutary exemptions, il winter in London brings existence ; and it is by no means a trifling considera- it all to a level; and offers to every novice the ad. tion whether they are passed happily or unhappily. vantages which are supposed to be derived from this The wretchedness of school tyranny is trifling enough precocity of confidence and polish. to a man who only contemplates it in ease of body and According to the general prejudice in favour of pubtranquillity of mind, through the medium of twenty lic schools, it would be thought quite as absurd and intervening years; but it is quite as real, and quite as superflous to enumerate the illustrious characters who acute, while it lasts, as any of the sufferings of mature have been bred at our three great seminaries of this lite : and the utility of these sufferings, or the price description, as it would be to descant upon the illus. paid in compensation for them, should be clearly made trious characters who have passsed in and out of out to a conscientious parent before he consents to London over our three great bridges. Almost eveexpose his children to them.
ry conspicuous person is supposed to have been This system also gives to the elder boys an absurd educated at public schools ; and there are scarce. and perícious opinion of their own importance, which ly any means (as it is imagined) of making an actual is often with difficulty effaced by a considerable com comparison ; and yet, great as the rage is, and long merce with the world. The head of a public school is has been, for public schools, it is very remarkgenerally a very conceited young man, utterly ignorant able, that the most eminent men in every art and of his own dimensions, and losing all that habit of science have not been educated at public schools ; and
this is true, even if we include, in the term of public * A public school is thought to be the best cure for the inso schools, not only Eton, Winchester, and Westminster, lence of youthful aristocracy. This insolence, however, is not but the Charter-House, St. Paul's School, Merchant a little increased by the homage of masters, and would soon Tailors', Rugby, and every school in England, at all meet with its natural check in the world. There can be no conducted upon the plan of the three first. The great occasion to bring five hundred boys together to teach a young schools of Scotland we do not call public schools; benobleman that proper demeanor which he would learn so much better from the first English gentleman whom he might cause, in these, the mixture of domestic life gives to think proper to insult.
them a widely different character. Spenser, Pope,
Shakspeare, Butler, Rochester, Spratt, Parnell, Garth, did, and to lavish care upon those who would almost Congreve, Gay, Swift, Thompson, Slicnstone, Aken thrive without any cure at all. A public school does side, Goldsmith, Samuel Johnson, Beaumoni and this effectually; but it commonly leaves the idle Fletcher, Ben Jonson, Sir Philip Sydney, Savage, almost as idle, and the dull almost as dull, as it found Arbuthnot, and Burns, among the poets, were not them. It disdains the tedious cultivation of those edicated in the system of English schools. Sir Isaac middling talents of which only the great inass of Newton, M telaurin, Wallis, Hamstead, Saunderson, huinan beings are possessed. When a strong desire Simpson, and Napier, among men of science, were not of improvement exists, it is encouraged, but no pains educated at public schools. The three best historians are taken to inspire it. A boy is cast in among five that the English language has produced, Clarendon, or six hundred other boys, and is left to form his own Hame, and Robertson, were not educated at public character ;-if his love of knowledge survives this schools. Public schools have done little in England severe trial, it, in general, carries him very far: and, for the fine arts-as in the examples of Inigo Jones, upon the same principle, a savage, who grows up to Vanbrugh, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Garrick, &c. manhood, is, in general, well made, and free from all The great medical writer and discoverers in Great bodily defects ; not because the severities of such a Britain, Harvey, Cheselden, Hunter, Jenner, Meade, state are favourable to animal life, but because they Brown, and Cullen, were not educated at public are so much the reverse, that none but the strongest schools. Of the great writers on morals and meta can survive them.
A few boys are incorrigibly idle physics, it was not the system of public schools which and a few incorrigibly eager for knowledge ; but the produced Bacon, Shaftesbury, Hobbes, Berkeley, But- great mass are in a state of doubt and fluctuation, ler, Humne, Hartley, or Dugald Siewart. The greatest and they come to school for the express purpose, not discorerers in chemistry have not been brought up at of being left to themselves--for that could be done public schools ;-we mean Dr. Priestley, Dr. Black, any where-but that their wavering tastes and pro and Mr. Davy. The only Englislınen who have pensities should be decided by the intervention of a erinced a remarkable genius, in modern times, for the master. In a forest, or public school for oaks and art of war,-the Duke of Marlborough, Lord Peter. elms, the trees are left to themselves; the strong borough, General Wolfe, and Lord Clive, were all plants live, and the weak ones die: the towering oak trained in private schools. So were Lord Coke, Sir that remains is admired; the saplings that perish Matthew Hale, and Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, and around it are cast into the fiames and forgotten. But Chiet Justice Holt, among the lawyers. So also, it is not surely to the vegetable struggle of a forest, among statesmen, were Lord Burleigh, Walsingham, or the basty glance of a forester, that a botanist would the Earl of Stratford, Thurloe, Cromwell, Hampelen, cominit a favourite plant; he would naturally seek for Lord Clarendon, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sydney, Russel, it a situation of less hazard, and a cultivator whose Sir W. Temple, Lord Somers, Burke, Sheridan, Pitt. limited occupations would enable him to give in it a In addition to this list, we must not forget the name, reasonable share of his time and attention. The very of such eminent scholars and men of letters, as Cud- meaning of education scems to us to be, that the old worth, Chillingworth, Tillotson, Archbishop King, should teach the young, and the wise direct the weak; Selden, Conyers, Middleton, Bentley, Sir Thomas that a man who professes to instruct, should get among More, Cardinal Wolsey, Bishops Sherlock and Wil. his pupils, study their characters, gain their affections, kins, Jeremy Taylor, `Isaac Hooker, Bishops Usher, and form their inclinations and aversions. In a public Stillingfleet, and Spelman, Dr. Samuel Clarke, Bishop school, the numbers render this impossiblr ; it is im. Hoadley, and Dr. Lardner. Nor must it be forgotten, possible that sufficient time should be found for this in this examination, that none of the conspicious useful and affectionate interference. Boys, therefore, writers upon political economy which this country are left to their own crude conceptions and ill-formed has as yet produced, have been brought up in public propensities; and this neglect is called a spirited and schools. If it be urged that public schools have only manly education. assumed their present character within this last cen. In by far the greatest number of cases, we cannot tury, or half century, and that what are now called think public schools favourable to the cultivation of public schools partook, before this period, of the knowledge; and we have equally strong doubts if they nature of private schools, there must then be added to be so to the cultivation of morals, though we admit, our lists the names of Milton, Dryden, Addison, &c. that, upon this point, the most striking arguments &c.: and it will follow, that the English have done have been produced in their favour. almost all that they have done in the arts and sciences, It is contended by the friends to public schools, that without the aid of that system of education to which every person, before he comes to man's estate, must they are now so much atiached. Ample as this cata run through a certain career of dissipation ; and if logue of celebrated names already is, it would be casy that career is, hy the means of a private education, to double it; yet, as it stands, it is obviously sufficient deferred to a more advanced period of life, it will only to show that great eminence may be attained in any be begun with more eagerness, and pursued into more line of fame without the aid of public schools. Some blameable excess. The time must, of course, come more striking interences miglit perhaps be drawn when every man must be his own master; when his from it; but we content ourselves with the simple conduct can be no longer regulated by the watchful fact.
superintendence of another, but must be guided by his The most important peculiarity in the constitution own discretion. Emancipation must come at last ; of a public school is its numbers, which are so great, and we admit, that the object to be aimed at is, that that a close inspection of the master into the studies such emancipation should gradual,
nd not premaand conduct of each individual is quite impossible. ture. Upon this very invidious point of the discusWe must be allowed to doubt, whether such an ar. sion, we rather wish to avoid offering any opinion. rangement is favourable either to literature or morals. The manners of great schools vary considerably from
Upon this system, il boy is left almost entirely to time to time ; and what may have been true many himself, to impress upon his own mind, as well as he years ugo, is very possibly not true at the present can, the distant advantages of knowledge, and to with period. In this instance, every parent must be gostand, from his own innate resolution, the examples verned by his own observations and means of informaand the seductions of idleness. A firm character sur- tion. If the license which prevails at public schools vives this brave neglect; and very exalted talents may is only a fair increase of liberty, proportionate to adsometimes remedy it by subsequent diligence : but vancing age, and calculated to prevent the bad cffects schools are not made for a few youths of pre-eminent of a sudden transition from tutelary thraldom to per. talents, and strong characters; such prizes can, of fect self-government, it is certainly a good rather than course, be drawn but by a very few parents. The best an evil. If, on the contrary, there exists in these school' is that which is best accommodated to the places of education a system of premature debauchery, greatont variety of characters, and which embraces and if they only prevent men from being corrupted by the greatest number of cases. It cannot be the main the world, by corrupting them before their entry into objeci of education to render the splendid more splen- the world, they can then only be looked upon as evils
of the greatest magnitude, however they may be TOLERATION. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1811.) sanctioned by opinion, or rendered familiar to us by Hints on Toleration, in Five Essays, de. suggested for the habit. The vital and essential part of a school is the mas.
Consideration of Lord Viscount Sidmouth, and the Disseni
ers. By Philagatharches. London. 1810. ter ; but, at a public school, no boy, or, at the best, only a very few, can see enough of him to derive any If a prudent man sees a child playing with a porceconsiderable benefit from his character, manners, and lain cup of great value, he takes the vessel out of his information. It is certainly of eminent use, particu- hand, pats him on the head, tells him his mamma will larly to a young man of rank, that he should have be sorry if it is broken, and gently cheats him into the lived among boys; but it is only so when they are all use of some less precious substitute. Why will Lord moderately watched by some superior understanding. Sidmouth meddle with the Toleration Act, when there The morality of boys is generally very imperfect ; are so many other subjects in which his abilities might their notions of honour extremely mistaken; and their be so eminently useful-when enclosure bills are drawn objects of ambition frequently very absurd. The pro- up with such scandalous negligence-turnpike roads so bability then is, that the kind of discipline they exer- shamefully neglected—and public conveyances illigiti. cise over each other will produce (when left to itself) mately loaded in the face of day, and in defiance of the a great deal of mischief; and yet this is the discip-wisest legislative provisions? We confess our trepi. line to which every child at a public school is not only dation at seeing the Toleration Act in the hands of necessarily exposed, but principally confined. Our Lord Sidmouth ; and should be very glad if it were objection (we again repeat) is not to the interference fairly back in the statute book, and the sedulity of this of boys in the formation of the character of boys; well-meaning nobleman diverted into another channel. their character, we are persuaded, will be very im. The alarm and suspicion of the Dissenters upon perfectly formed without their assistance; but our these measures are wise and rational. They are right objection is to that almost exclusive agency which to consider the Toleration Act as their palladium ; and they exercise in public schools.
they may be certain that in this country there is always After having said so much in opposition to the ge. a strong party ready, not only lo prevent the further neral prejudice in favour of public schools, we may extension of tolerant principles, but to abridge (if they be expected to state what species of schooi we think dared) their present operation within the narrowest preferable to them; for if public schools, with all their limits. Whoever makes this attempt, will be sure to disadvantagas, are the best that can actually be found, make it under professions of the most earnest regard or easily attained, the objections to them are certains for mildness and toleration, and with the strongest ly made to very little purpose.
declarations of respect for King William, the Revolu. We have no hesitation, however, in saying, that tion, and the principles which seated the House of that education seems to us to be the best which Brunswick on the throne of these realms; and then mingles a domestic with a school life ; and which will follow the clauses for whipping Dissenters, im. gives to a youth the advantage which is to be derived prisoning preachers, and subjecting them to rigid from the learning of a master, and the emulation qualifications, &c. &c. &c. The infringement on the which results from the society of other boys, together militia acts is a mere pretence. The real object is to with the affectionate vigilance which he must experi diminish the number of Dissenters from the Church of ence in the house of his parents. But where this England, by abridging the liberties and privileges species of education, from peculiarity of circumstances they now possess. This is the project which we shall or situation, is not attainable, we are disposed to think examine, for we sincerely believe it to be the project in a society of twenty or thirty boys, under the guidance agitation. The mode in which it is proposed to attack of a learned man, and, above all, of a man of good the Dissenters is, first, by exacting greater qualifica. sense, to be a seminary the best adapted for the edu- tions in their teachers; next, by preventing the intercation of youth. The numbers are sufficient to excite change or itinerancy of preachers, and fixing them to a considerable degree of emulation, to give to a boy one spot. some insight into the diversities of the human cha It can never, we presume, be intended to subject racter, and to subject bim to the observation and dissenting ministers to any kind of theological examinacontrol of his superiors. It by no means follows, that tion. A teacher examined in doctrinal opinions, by a judicious man should always interfere with his au- another teacher who differs from him, is so very absurd thority and advice because he has always the means; a project, that we entirely acquit Lord Sidmouth of ne may connive at many things which he cannot ap- any intention of this sori. We rather presume his prove, and suffer some little failures to proceed to a lordship to mean, that a man who professes to teach certa in extent, which, it indulged in wider limits, his fellow creatures, should at least have made some would be attended with irretrievable mischief'; he progress in human learning; that he should not be will be aware, that his object is to fit his pupil for the wholly without education; that he should be able at world ; that constant control is a very bad prepara- least to read and write. If the test is of this very tion for complete emancipation from all control; that ordinary nature, it can scarcely exclude many teachers it is not bad policy to expose a young man, under the of religion ; and it was hardly worth while, for the eye of superior wisdom, to some of those dangers very insignificant diminution of numbers which this which will assail him hereafter in greater number, must occasion to the dissenting clergy, to have raised and in greater strength-when he has only his own all the alarm which this attack upon the Toleration resources to depend upon. A private education, con- Act has occasioned. ducted upon these principles, is not calculated to gra But without any reference to the magnitude of the tify quickly the vanity of a parent who is blest with a effects, is the principle right? or, What is the meaning child of strong character and pre-eminent abilities; of religious toleration? That 'a man should hold, to be the first scholar of an obscure master, at an ob- without pain or penalty, any religious opinions-and scure place, is no very splendid distinction'; nor does choose for his instruction, in the business of salvation, it afford that opportunity, of which so many parents any guide whom he pleases; care being taken that ite are desirous, of forming great connections for their teacher and the doctrine injure neither the policy por children: but if the object be, to induce the young to the morals of the country. We maintain that perfect love knowledge and virtue, we are inclined to suspect, religious toleration applies as much to the teacher as that, for the average of human talents and characters, to the thing taught; and that it is quite as intolerant these are the situations in which such tastes will be to make a man hear Thomas, who wants to hear John, the most effectually formed.
as it would be to make a man profess Arminian, who wished to profess Calvinistical principles. What right has any government to dictate to any man who sball guide him to heaven, any more than it has to persecute the religious tenets by which he hopes to arrive there? You believe that the heretic professes doctrines utterly incompatible with the true spirit of the gospel ; first you burnt him for this then you whipped bim-thm
you fined him—then you put him in prison. All this pid preacher popular, and a popular preacher more did no good; and for these hundred years last past, popular, but can have no possible tendency to prevent you have let him alone. The heresy is now firinly the mischief against which it is levelled. It is preprotected by law; and you know is must be preached :cisely, the old history of persecution against opinions What matiers it then, who preaches it? If the evil turned into a persecution against persons. The prisons must be communicated, the organ and instrument will be filled-the enemies of the Church made ene. through which it is communicated cannot be of much mies of the state also-and the Methodists rendered consequence. It is true, this kind of persecution ten times more actively inad than they are at present. against persons, has not been quite so much tried as This is the direct and obvious tendency of Lord Sid. the other against doctrines; but the folly and inexpe- mouth's plan. diency of it rest precisely upon the saine grounds. Nothing dies so hard and rallies so often as intole.
Would it not be a singular thing if the friends of the rance. The fires are put out, and no living nostril has Church of England were to make the most strenuous scented the nidor of a human creature roasted for efforts to render their enemies eloquent and learned ? faith ; then, after this, the prison-doors were got open, and to found places of education for dissenters? But, and the chains knocked off'; and now Lord Sidmouth ti their learning would not be a good, why is their ig: only begs that men who disagree with him in reli. norance an evil !-unless it be necessarily supposed, gious opinions may be deprived of all civil offices, and that all increase of learning must bring men over to not be allowed to hear the preachers they like best. the Church of England ; in which supposition the Scot. Chains and whips, he would not hear of'; but these tish and Catholic universities, and the college at Hack- mild gratifications of his bill every orthodox mind is ney, would hardly acquiescé. Ignorance surely ma- surely entitled to. The hardship would indeed be tures and quickens ihe progress, by insuring the dis- great if a churchman were deprived of the amusement solution ot absurdity. Rational and learned dissenters of putting a dissenting parson in prison. We are conremain : religious mobs, under some ignorant fanatic vinced Lord Sidinouth is a very amiable and well-inof the day, become foolish overmuch-dissolve, and tentioned man: his error is not the error of his heart, return to the Church. The Unitarian, who reads and but of his time, above which few men ever rise. It is writes, gets some sort of discipline, and returns no the error of some four or five hundred thousand En
glish gentlemen, of decent education and worthy cha. What connection is there (as Lord Sidmouth's plan racters, who conscientiously believe that they are assumes) between the zeal and piety required for re- punishing, and continuing incapacities, for the good of ligious instruction, and the common attainments of the state ; while they are, in fact (though without literature? But it knowledge and education are re- knowing it) only gratifying that iusolence, hatred, and quired for religious instruction, why be content with revenge, which all human beings are unfortunately so the common elements of learning ? why not require ready to feel against those who will not conform to higher attainments in dissenting candidates for orders; their own sentiments. and examine them in the languages in which the books But, instead of making the dissenting churches po. of their religion are conveyed ?
pular, why not make the English church more popular, A dissenting minister, of vulgar aspect and homely and raise the English clergy to the privileges of the appearance, declares that he entered into that holy Dissenters? In any parish of England, any layman or office because he felt a call; and a clergyman of the clergyman, by paying sixpence, can open a place of Establishment smiles at him for the declaration. But worship, provided it be not the worship of the Church it should be remembered, that no minister of the Esta- of England. If he wishes to attack the doctrines of blishment is admitted into orders, before he has been the bishop or the incumbent, he is not compelled to expressly interrogated lıy the bishop whether he feels ask the consent of any person; but if, by any evil himself called to that sacred office. The doctrine of chance, he should be persuaded of the truth of those calling, or inward feeling, is quite orthodox in the En. doctrines, and build a chapel or mount a pulpit to supglish Church; and, in arguing this subject in parlia. port them, he is instantly put in the spiritual court ; ment, it will hardly be contended, that the Episcopa. for the regular incumbent, who has a legal monopoly lian only is the judge when that call is genuine, and of this doctrine, does not suffer any interloper; when it is only imaginary.
and without his consent, it is illegal to preach the docThe attempt at making the dissenting clergy sta- trines of the church within his precincts.* Now this tionary, and persecuting their circulation, appears to appears to us a great and manifest absurdity, and a disos quite as unjust and inexpedient as the other meaadvantage against the Established Church which very sure of qualifications. It appears a gross inconsistency few establishments could bear. The persons who to say, 'I admit that what you are doing is legal-but preach and who build chapels, or for whom chayou must not do it thoroughly and effectually. I allow pels are built, among the Dissenters, are active clr. you to propagate your heresy, but I object to all means of propagating it which appear to be useful and
* It might be supposed that the general interests of th: effective. If there are any other grounds upon which Church would outweigh the particular interests of the rector; the circulation of the dissenting clergy is objected to, ship opened within his parish for the doctrines of the Estalet these grounds be stated and exainined; but to obblished Church. The fact, however, is exactly the reverse. ject to their circulation merely because it is the best It is scarcely possible to obtain permission from the estamethod of effecting the object which you allow thein blished clergyman of the parish to open a chapel there; and to effect, does appear to be rather unnatural and in- when it is granted, it is granted upon very hard and interested consistent.
conditions. The parishes of St. George--of St. James--of It is presumed, in this argument, that the only rea- rish churches, chapels of ease, and mercenary chals
Mary-le-bone-and of St. Ann's, in London-may, in the pason urged for the prevention of itinerant preachers is; tain, perhaps, one-hundredth part of their Episcopalian inha, the increase of heresy ; for if heresy is not increased bitants
. Let'the rectors, lay and clerical, meet together, and by it, it must be immaterial to the feelings of Lord give notice that any clergyman of the Church of England, Sidmouth, and of the imperial parliament, whether approved by the bishop, may preach there; and we will venMr. Shufflebottom preaches at Bungay, and Mr. Ringle. ture to say that places of worship capable of containing 20,000 tub at Ipswich; or whether an ariful vicissitude is persons would be built within ten years. But, in these cases, adopted, and the order of insane predication reversed. the interest of the rector and of the Establishment is not the But, supposing all this new interference to be just, ists of the New Jerusalem, was offered, two or three years
same. A chapel belonging to the Swedenborgians, or Methodwhat good will it do? You find a dissenting preacher, since, in London, to a clergyman of the Establishment. The whom you have prohibited, still continuing to preach, proprietor was tired of his irrational tenants, and wished for or preaching at Ealing when he ought to preach at better doctrine. The rector (since a dignitary) with every Acion: his number is taken, and the next morning he possible compliment to the fitness of the per on in question, is summoned. Is it believed that this description of positively refused the application; and the church remains in persons can be put down by fine and imprisonment? the hands of the Methodists. No particular blame is intended, His fine is paid for him, and he returns from imprison. many have done before and since; but the incumbent clergyment ten times as much sought after and as popular man ought to possess no such power. It is his interest, but u he was before. This is a receipt for making a stu- I not the interest of the Establishment