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tile apparent in
some retail trade. The offices of the church would dience to an act of Parliament, but the very act of then fall down to men little less coarse and ignorant Parliament, which takes away, is recommended, Iwan agricultural labourers--the clergyinan of the par. I drawn up, and signed by the person who has sworn
h wouid soon be sech in the squire's kitchen ; and all he will never take away and this little apparent this would take place in a country where poverty is consistency is not confined to the Archbishop of Caninfamous.
terbury, but is shared equally by all the bishop comIn fact, nothing can be more unjust and idle than the missioners, who have all, (unless I am grievously reasoning of many la yinen upon church matters. You mistaken), taken similar oaths for the preservation of choose to have an establishment-God forbid you their respective chapters. It would be more easy to should choose otherwise ! and you wish to have men see our way out ot' this little embarrassment, it some of decent manners, and good education, as the minis of the embarrassed had not, unfortunately, in the par ters of that establishment; all this is very right: but liamentary debates on the Catholic question, laid the are you willing to pay them as such men ought to be greatest stress upon the king's oath, applauded the paid? Are you willing to pay to each clergyman, con. sanctity of the monarch to the skies, rejected all tining himself to one spot, and giving up all his time to comments, called for the oath in its plain meaning, the care of one parisii, a salary of 5001. per annum? and attributed the safety of the English church to the To do this would require three millions lo be added to solemn vow made by ihe king at the altar to the the present revenues of the church ; and such an ex. | Archbishops of Canterbury and York. : penditure is impossible! What then remains, if you bishops. I should be very sorry if this were not will have a clergy and will not pay them equitably and placed on a clear footing, as fools will be inputing separately, than to pay them unequally and by lotte. to our church the pia et religiosa Calliditas, which ry! and yet this very inequality, which secures to you is so coinmonly brought against the Catholics. a respectable clergy upon the most economical terms, is considered by laymen as a gross abuse. It is an
Urbem quam dicunt Romam, Melibee, putavi abuse, however, which they have not the spirit to ex
Stultus ego huic nostræ similem. inguish by increased munificence to their clergy, nor! The words of Henry VIII., in endowing the cathe. justice to i onsider as the only other method by which dral of Canterbury, are thus given in the translation. all the advantages of a respectable establishment can • We, therefore, dedicating the aforesaid close, site, be procured; but they use it at the same time as a to. circle, and precinct to the honour and glory of the pic for sarcasm, and a source of economy.
Holy and undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy This, it will be said, is a mammonish view of the Spirit, have decreed that a certain Cathedral and Me. subject; it is so, but those who make this objection, tropolitan Church, with one Dean, Presbyter, and forget the iminense effect which mammon produces twelve Prebendaries Presbyters; these verily and for upon religion itself. Shall the Gospel be preached by ever to serve Almighty God shall be created, set up, men paid by the state? shall these men be taken from settled, and established; and the same aforesaid Ca. tre lower orders and be meanly paid ? shall they be thedral and Metropolitan Church, with one Dean, men of learning and education and shall there be / Presbyter, and twelve Prebendaries some inignilicent endowments to allure such men into other Ministers necessary for divine worship, by the ta church? Which of these methods is the best for tenour of these presents in reality, and plentitude of diffusing the rational doctrines of Christianity? not in force, we do create, set up, settle, and establish, and the age of the apostles, not in the abstract, timeless, do command to be etablished and to be in perpetuity, naineless, placeless land of the philosophers, but in and inviolably maintained and upheld by these prethe year 1837, in the porter-brewing, coiton-spinning, sents. And this is the church, the righis and liber. tallow-inelting kingdom of Great Britain, bursting ties of which the archbishop at his consecration with opulence, and flying from poverty as the great. swears to maintain. Nothing can be more ill-natured est of human erils. Many different answers may be among politicians, than to look back into Hansard's given to these questions, but they are questions which, Debates, to see
s, to see what has been said b articular men not ending in mammon, have a powerful bearing on upon particular occasions, and to contrast such speechrel religion, and deserve the deepest consideration es wich present opinions and therefore I forbear to from its disciples and friends. Let the comforts of introduce some inviting passages upon taking oaths in the clergy go for nothing. Consider their state only their plain and obvious sense, both in debates on the as religion is affected by it. If upon this principle Catholic question and upon that fatal and Mezentian I am forced to allot to some an opulence which my oath which binds the Irish to the English church. clever friend the Examiner would pronounce to be It is quite absurd to see how all the cathedrals are apostolical, I cannot help it; I must take this people to be trimined to an exact Procrustes patiem ;--quieta with all their follies, and prejudices, and circumstan. mouere is the motto of the commission: there is to ces, and carve out an establishment best suited for be everywhere a dean, and four residentiaries; but thiein, however unfit for early Christianity in barren St. Paul's and Lincolo have at present only three and conquered Judea.
residentiaries, and a dean, who officiates in his tum No! only will this measure of the commission bring as a canon :-a fourth must be added to each. Why?
ducated set of nobody wants prebendaries; St. Paul's and Lincoln go men, but it will have a tendency to make the clerg on very well as they are. It is not for the lack of fanatical. You will have a set of riinting, raving pas- prebendaries, it is for idleness, that the Church of tors, who will wage war against all the innocent plea. England is unpopular ; but in the lust of reforming, -ures of life, vie with each other in extravagance of the commission cut and patch property as they would zeul, and pla
vith their nonsense cut figures in pasteboard. This little piece of wanton and absurdity: cribbage must be played in caverns, change, however, gives to two of the bishops, who are and sixpenny whist take refuge in the wilderness. In commissioners as well as bishops, patronage of a this way low men doomed to hopeless poverty, and thousand a year each; and though I am willing to galled by contempt, will endeavour to force them- consider this as the cause of the recommendation, selres into station and significance.
yet I must observe it is not very common that the There is an awkward passage in the memorial of same persons should bring in the verdict and receive the church of Canterbury, which deserves some consi. the profits of the suit. No other archdeacons are paid deration from him to whom it is directed. The Arch in such a manner, and no other bishops out of the bishop of Canterbury, at his consecration, takes a so. commission have received such a bonus.* lemn oath that he will maintain the rights and liber. I must express my surprise that nothing in this ties of the church of Canterbury; as chairman, how commission of bishops, either in the bill which has ever, of the new commissiou, he seizes the patronage passed, or in the report which preceded it, is said of of that church, takes two-thirds of its revenues, and abolishes two-thirds of its members. That there is
* This extravagant pay of archdeacons is taken, rememan answer to this I am willing to believe, but I cannot ber, froin that fund for the augmentation of small livings at present find out what it is ; and this attack upon for the establislıment of which all the divisions and confisthe revenues and members of Canterbury, is not obe. Ications have been made.
the duties of bishops. A bishop is now forced by law who, in enumerating the advantages of their stations, tu be in his diocese or to attend his duty in Parlament have always sjonell of the oploriunities of providing
he may be entirely absent from both; nor are there for their families as the grealist and most importar wanting instances within these six years where such It is, I adini, lue duly of every in, und of etery has been the case. It would have been very easy body, io present de best man i at can i icind to to have placed the repairs of episcopal palaces any living oi' which he is the jatron ; but th or!! (as the concurrent leases of bishops are placed) has been neglected, it has been neglected by birtis under the superintendence of deans and chapters; quite as much as liv chatris; and no inin but though the bishops' bill wus accoinpanied by the · Clerical Guide and red ironinges on il, isso another bill, containing the strictest enactments for out sceing that the benel of birkosade lile lastiti. the residence of the clergy, and some very arbitra. sons from whom any remedy of this evil is to be exry and unjust rules for the repair of their houses, it'pected. did not appear upon the face of the law that the bish The legislature has not always taken the same view ops bad any such duties to perform ; and yet I remem- of the cousl-worthiness of bisliops and chapters as is ber the case of a bishop, dead not six years ago, who taken by the commission. Bishops' leases for years was scarcely ever seen in the House of Lords, or in are for twenty-one years, renewable every sesen, his diocese ; and I remeinber well also the indigna. When seven years are expired, if the prestüt tenant tion with which the inhabitants of the great cathe- will not renew, the bishop inay grant a concurrent dral town spoke of the conduct of another bishop lease. How does his lordship act on euch occasions? (now also deceased) who not only never entered his He generally asks two years' income for the renewal, palace, but turned his horses into the garden. When when chapurs, not having the privilege of granting I mention these instances, I am not setting mysell such concurrin
ear and a halt: up as the satirist of bishops. I think, upon the whole, and if the bishop's price is not giren, he puts a son, or they do their duty in a very exemplary manner, but a daughter, or a trustee, into the estate, and the they are not, as the late bills would have us to sup-price of the lease deferred is money sared for bis pose, impeccable. The church cominissioners should family. But unfair and exorbitant terms may be ask. not bave suffered their reports and recommendations ed by his lor and the tenant may be unfairly to paint the other branches of the church as such slip. dispossessed-therefore, the legislature enacts that all pery transgredient mortals, and to leave the world to those concurrent leases must be countersigned by the imagine that bishops may be sately trusted to their dean and chapter of the diocese, making them the own goodness without enactment or control.
safeguards against episcopal rapacity; and, as I hear This squabble about patronage is said to be dis- from others, not making them so in vain. These sorts graceful. Those who mean to be idle, and insolent, of laws do not exactly correspond with the relatise because they are at peace, may look out of the win. views taken of both parties by the ecclesiastical comdow and say,. This is a disgraceful squabble between mission. This view ot chapters is of course orerlook. bishops and chapters ;' but those who mean to be ed by a cominission of bishops, just as
just as all mention of just, should ask, Who begins ? the real disgrace of the bridles would be omitted in a meeting of horses; but squabble is in the attack, and not in the defence. If in this view, chapters might be made eminently use. any man puts his hand into my pocket to take my ful. In what profession, too, are there no gradations? property, am I disgraced it I prevent him? Church. Why is the Church of England to be nothing but a col. men are ready enough to be submissive to their supe- lection of beggars and bishops-the Ri Reverend riors; but were they to submit to a spoliation so Dives in the palace, and Lazarus in orders at the gaie, gross, accompanied with ignominy and degradation, doctored by dogs, and comforted with crumbs? and to bear all this in submissive silence ;-io be ac- But to take away the patronage of existing prebencused of nepotism by nepotists, who were praising daries is objectionable for another class of reasons.
selves indirectly by the accusation, and benefit. If it is right to take away the patronage of my cathe ing themselves directly by the confiscation founded dral and to give it to the bishop, it is at least unjust on it ;-the real disgrace would have been to have to do so with my share of it during my life. Society submitted to this : and men are to be honoured, not have a right to improve, or to do what they think an disgraced, who come forth contrary to their usual improvement, but then they have no right to do so habits, to oppose those masters whom, in common suddenly, and hastily to my prejudice! After securing seasons, they would willingly obey ; but who, in this to me certain possessions by one hundred statutes matter, have tarnished their dignity, and forgotten passed in six hundred years after having clothed me what they owe to themselves and to us.
in fine garments, and conferred upon me pem pous It is a very singular thing that the law always sus. names, they have no right to turn round upon me all pecis judges, and never suspects bishops. If there is of a sudden and to say, You are not a dean nor a any way in which the partialities of the judge may in-canon-residentiary, but a vagabond and an outcast, jure layinen, the subject is fenced round with all sorts, and a morbid excressence upon society. This would of jealousies, and enactments, and prohibitions—all not be a reform, but the grossest tyranny and oppres. partialities are guarded against, and all propensities sion. If a man cannot live under the canopy of ancient walched. Where bishops are concerned, acts of Par. law, where he is safe, how can he see his way, or lay liament are drawn up for beings who can never possi. out his plan of life? bly be polluted by pride, prejudice, passion, or inter.
Dubitant homines serere atque impendere curas.' esi. Not otherwise would be the case with judges, if they, like the heads of the church, legislated for them. You tolerated, for a century, the wicked traffic in selves.
slaves, legislated for that species of property, en. Then comes the question of patronage; can any couraged it by premiums, defended it in your courts of thing be more flagrantly unjust, than that the patro. justice-West Indians bought and sold, trusting (as nage of cathedrals should be taken away and conterred Englishmen always ought to trust) in parliaments, upon the bishops? I do not want to into a long Women went to the altar--promised that they should and tiresome history of episcopal nepotism, but it is be supported by that property, and children were bom notorious to all, that bishops confer their patronage to it, and young men were educated with it, but God upon their sons, and sons-in-law, and all their relations; touched the hearts of the English people, and they and it is really quite monstrous in the face of the world, would have no slaves. The scales fell from their eyes, who see this ever
our, to turn round and they saw the monstrous wickedness of the trattic; upon deans and chapters and to say to them: 'We are but then they said, and said magnificently, to the credibly informed, that there are instances in your West Indians, We mean to become wiser and better, chapters where preferment has not been given to the but not at your expense; the loss shall be ours, and most learned men you can find, but to the sons and we will not involve you in ruin, because we are brothers of some of the prebendaries. These things ashamed of our former cruelties, and have leamt a must not be we must take these benefices into our better lesson of humanity and wisdom. And this is own keeeping;' and this is the language of men the way in which improving nations ought to act, and swarming themselves with sons and daughters, and this is the distinction between reform and revolution.
Justice is not changed by the magnitude or minute. | THE BISHOP TO LORD ARess of the subject. The old cathedrals have enjoyed My Dear Lord. their patronage for seven hundred years, and the new! I have noticed with great pleasure the behaviour of your ones since the time ot' Henry VIII. ; which latter pe. ' lordship's second son, and am most happy to have it in my riod even gives a much longer possession than ninety. power to offer to him the living of * * *. He will find it nine out of a hundred of the legislators, who are called of considerable value ; and there is, I understand, a very upou to plunder us, can boast for their own estates. good house upon it, &c. &c. And these rights, thus sanctioned, and hallowed by This is to confer a living upon a man of real merit time, are torn from their present possessors without out of the family ; into which family, apparently sathe least waruing, or preparation, in the inidst of all crificed to the public good, the living is brought back that feverof change which has seized upon the people, by the second letter :and which frightens men to the core of their hearts; and this spoliation is made, not by low men rushing
TO THE SAME A YEAR AFTER. into the plunder of the church and state, but by men My dear Lord, of admirable and unimpeached character in all the re- ! Will yor excuse the liberty I take in soliciting promotion lations of life-not by rash men of new politics, but for my grandson ? He is an oflicer of great skill and gal
lantry, and can bring the most ample te-timonials from by the ancient conservators of ancient law-by the
some of the best inen in the profession: the Arethu a trigate archbishops and bishops of the land, high official men,
is, I understand, about to be commissioned; and if, &c. &c. invented and created, and put in palaces to curb the lawless changes, and the mutations, and the madness Now I am not saying that hundreds of prebenof mankind ; and to crown the whole, the ludicrous is diaries have not committed such enormities and stuadded to the unjust, and what they take from the pendous crimes as this (a declaration which will till other branches of the church they confer upon them the whig cabinet with horror); all that I mean to selves.
contend for is, that such is the practice of bishops Never dreaming of such sudden revolutions as these, Louite as much as it is of inferior patrous. a prebendary brings up his son to the church, and The second bishop was a decided enemy of Calvin. spends a large sum of money in his education, which, istical doctrines, and no clergyman so tainted had the perhaps, he can ill afford. His hope is (wicked slightest chance of preferment in his diocese. wretch !) that, according to the established custom of The third bishop could endure no man whose prin. the body to which he (immoral man!) belongs, the ciples were not strictly Calvinistic, and who did not chapter will (when his turn arrives), if his son be of give to the articles that kind of interpretation. Now fair attainments and good character, attend to his nehere were a great mass of clergy naturally alive to farious recommendation, and conter the living upon the emoluments of their profession, and noi knowing the young man; and in an instant all liis hopes are which way to look or stir, because they depended so destroyed, and he finds his prefefment seized upon, entirely upon the will of one person. Not otherwise under the plea of public good, by a stronger church- lis it with a very whig bishop, or a very tory bishop; man than himself. I can call this by no other name but the worst case is that of a superannuated bishop; than that of tyranny and oppression. I know very here the preferment is given away, and must be given well that this is not the theory of patronage ; but who away by wives and daughters, or by sons, or by but. does better? do individual patrons ? do colleges who lers, perhaps, and valets, and the poor dying pairon's give in succession ? and as for bishops, lives there the paralytic hand is guided to the signatures of papers, man so weak and foolish, so little observant of theihe contents ot' which he is utterly unable to comprepast, as to believe (when this teinpest of purity and hend. In all such cases as these, the superiority of perfection has blown over) that the name of Bloom. bishops as patrons will not assist that violence which field will not figure in those benefices from which the the commissioners have committed upon the patronage Dames of Copleston, Blomberg, Taite, and Smith, have of cathedrals. been so virtuously excluded! I have no desire to I never heard that cathedrals had sold the patronage make odious comparisons between the purity of one of their preferment ; such a practice, however, is not set of patrons and another, but they are forced upon quite unknown among the higher orders of the church. ne by the injustice of the commissioners. I must When the Archbishop of Canterbury consecrates an either make such comparisons or vield up, without re-l interior bishop, he marks some piece of preterment in monstrance, those rights to which I am fairly entitled. the gift of the bishop as his own. This is denomi
It may be said that the bishops will do better in nated an option ; and when the preferment falls, it is future ; that now the public eye is upon them, they will not only in the gift of the archbishop, if he is alive, be shamed into a more lofty and anti-nepotic spirit; but in the gift of his representative if he is not. It is but, if the argument of past superiority is given up, an absolute chattel, which, like any other chattel, is and the hope of future amendment resorted in, why part of the archbishop's assets ; and if he died in debt, my wernt improve as well as our masters? but the might be taken and sold for the benefit of his credi. comunission says, " These excellent men (meaning tors-and within the memory of man such options themselves) have promised to do better, and we have have been publicly sold by auction--and if the present an implicit confidence in their word: we must have Archbishop of Canterbury were to die in debt to-mor. the patronage of the cathedrals. In the mean time row, such might be the fate of his options. What se are ready to promise as well as the bishops. Archhishop Moore did with his options I do not know,
With regard to that common newspaper phrase the but the laie Archbishop Sulton very handsomely and public eye, there's nothing (as the bench well know) properly left them to the present--a bequest, bowever, more wandering and slippery than the public eye. In which would not have prevented such options from five years hence, the public eye will no more see what coming to the hammer, it Archbishop Sution had not description of men are promoted by bishops, than it cleared off, before his death, those incumbrances will see what doctors of law are promoted by the which, at one period of his life, sat so heavily upou Tur! 'sh Ullemna ; and at the end of this period, (such him. is the example set by the commission,) the public eye, What the present archbishop means to do with turard in every direction, may not be able to see any them, I am not informed. They are not alluded to in bishops at all.
the church returns, though they must be worth some In many instances, chapters are better patrons than thousand pounds. The commissioners do not seem to bishops, because their preferment is not given exclu- know of their existence at least they are profoundly sirely to one species of incumbents. I have a diocese silent on the subject; and the bill which passed now in my private eye which has undergone the fol. through Parliament in the summer for the regulation lowing changes. The first of three bishops whom I of the emoluments of bishops, does not make ihe most remember was a man of careless easy temper, and distant allusion to them. When a parallel was drawn how patronage went in those early days may be con- between two species of patrons which ended in the jectured by the following letters which are not his, confiscation of the patronage of cathedrals--when two but serve to illustrate a system:
| archbishops helped to draw the parallel, and profited by the parallel, I have a perfect right to state this for the good of the public; and with these sort of anil. corrupt and unabolished practice of their own seesma | ities, whig leaders, whose interest it is to lull the bish. practice which I never heard charged against deans lops into a reform, pretend to be satisfied ; and upon and chapters.
this intolerabie nonsense they are not ashamed to jus. I do not mean to imply, in the most remote degree, lify spoliation.* that either of the present archbishops have sold their A division is set up between public and prirate options, or ever thought of it. Purer and more high- patronage, and it is pretended that one is holden in minded gentlemen do not exist, nor men more utterly Trust for the public, the other in private property. incapable of doing any thing unworthy of their high This is mere theory a slight film thrown over conre. stition ;
the Archbishop of Can-nient injustice. Henry VIII. gave to the Duke of terburyt will imitate or exceed the munificence of his Bedford much of his patronage. Roger de Hoveden predecessor: but when twenty-four public bodies are gave to the church of St. Paul's much of his patronage to be despoiled of their patronage, we must look not before the Russells were in existence. The Duke bas only to present men, but historically, to see how it the legal power to give his preferment to whom he has been administered in times of old, and in times pleases-so Lave we. We are both under the same also recently past; and to remember, that at this mo-moral and religious restraint to administer that pa. ment, when bishops are set up as the most admirable tronage properly--the trust is precisely the same to dispensers of patronage-as the only persons fit to be both; and if the public good requires it, the power of intrusted with it--as marvels, for whom law and jus. dividing livings without the consent of patrons sbould tice and ancient possessions ought to be set aside, ihat be given in al instances, and not confined as a mark this patronage (very valuable because selected from ot' infamy to cathedrals alone. This is not the real the whole diocese of the two heads of the church is season of the difference : bishops are the active mem. liable to all the accidents of succession that it may bers of the commission-they do not choose that tbeir
a protii- Own patronage should be meddled with, and they gate son, of a weak daughter, or a rapacious creditor know that the laity would not allow for a moment that
that it may be brought to the hammer, and publicly their livings should be pulled to pieces by bisbors, bid for at an auction, like all the other chattels of the and that it such a proposal were made, there would palace; and that such have been the indignities to be more danger of the bishop being pulled to pieses which this optional patronage has been exposed, from than the living. The real distinction is, betve the earliest days of the church to this moment. Truly, weak and the strong-between those who have porn men who live in houses of glass (especially where the to resist encroachment, and those who have not. This panes are so large) ought not to fling stones; or if is the reason why we are selected for experiment, and they do, they should be specially careful at whose so it is with all the bill from beginning to end. Tbere head they are flung.
is purple and fine linen in every line of it. And then the patronage which is not seized--the Another strong objection to the dividing power of patronage which the chapter is allowed to present to the commission is this : according to the printed bill its own body--may be divided without their consent. brought forward last session, if the living is not taken Can anything be more thoroughly lawless, or unjust by some members of the body, it lapses to the bisl op. than this-that my patronage during my life shali be Suppose, then, the same person to be bishop and comdivided without my consent? How do my rights, missioner, he breaks the living into little pieces as a during my life differ from those of a lay patron, who commissioner, and after it is rejected in its imposeris tenant for life? and upon what principle of justice ished state by the chapter, he gives it away as bishop or common sense is his p
rom the of the diocese. The only answer that is given to such commissioners' dividing power to which mine is suh- objections is, the impeccability of bishops; and u n jected? That one can sell, and the other cannot sell, this principle the whole bill has been constructed, add the next presentation, would be bad reasoning is it here is the great mistake about bishops. They are, were good law ; but it is not law, for an ecclesiastical upon the whole, very good and worthy men; but iber corporation, aggregate or sole, can sell a next presen. are not (as many ancient ladies suppose) wholly er. tation as legally as a lay lite-tenant can do. They empt from human infirmities: they have their malce, have the same power of selling as laymen, but they hatred, uncharitableness, persecution, and interest The never do so; that is, they dispense their patronage other men ; and an administrat on who did not it ok
with great propriety and delicacy, which, in the estil it more magnificent to laugh at the lower clergy, t. A mute of the commissioners, seems to make their right to protect them, should suffer no ecclesiastical bilin weaker, and the reasons for taking it away more pow. pass through Parliament without seriously consider. ertu.
ing how its provisions may affect the happiness of Not only are laymen guarded by the same act poor clergymen pushed into living tombs, and piping which gives the power of dividing livings to the com.in missioners, but bishops are also guarded. The com
Vates procul atque in sola relevant missioners may divide the livings of chapters without
Pascua, post muntem oppositum, et trans fumina lata. their consent ; but before they can touch the living of a bishop, his consent must be obtained. It seeins,! There is a practice om
actice among some bishops, which may after a few of these examples, to become a little as well be mentioned here as any where else, tut clearer, and more intelligible, why the appointment which, I think, cannot be too severely reprobaird. of any other ecclesiastics than bishops was so disa-They send for
- They send for a clergyman, and insist upon his giring agreeable to the bench.
evidence respecting the character and conduct ot' bin The reasoning, then, is this : If a good living is va
Va neighbour. Does he hunt? Does he shoot? Iste cant in the patronage of a chapter, they will only in debt? Is he temperate? Does he attend to his think of conterring it on one of their body of their parish ? &c. &c. Now what is this, but to des roy for friends. If such a living talls to the gift of a bishop, all clereymen the very elements of social life to rot he will totally overlook the interests of his sons and an end to all confidence between inan and manand daughters, and divide the living into small portions
DS to disseminate among gentlemen, who are bound to
live in concord, every feeling of resentsoent, hatred. * Can any thing be more shabby in a government legis- and suspicion ? But the very essence of tyranny is to lating upon church abuses, than to pass over such scandals act, as if the finer feelings, like the finer dishes, Fere as these existing in high places? Two years have passed, delicacies on
delicacies only for the rich and great, and that live and they are unnoticed. • The options of the Archbishop of York are compara
people have no taste for them and no right to them. A tively tritling. I never heard, at any period, that they good and honest bishop (I thank God there are many have been sold; but they remain, like those of Canterbury, who deserve that character!) ought to suspect himself in the absolute possession of the archbishop's repreresenta-, and carefully to watch his own heart. He is all of 1 tives after his death. I will answer for it that the present archbishop will do every thing with them which becomes * These reasonings have had their effect, and many earts his high station and high charaeter. They ought to be acts of injustice of the commission have been subsequently abolished by act of Parliament.
sudden elevated from being a tutor, dining at an early, tronage of bishops was given upon better principles hour with his pupil, (and occasionally, it is believed, than that of chapters, which, translated into fair Eng on cold meat,) to be a spiritual lord; he is dressed in tish, is no more than this that the said witness, not a magnificent dress, decorated with a title, flattered by meaning to mislead, but himself deceived, has his chaplains, and surrounded by little people looking up own way entirely in his diocese, and can only have it for the things which he has to give away; and this partially in his chapter. often happens to a man who has had no opportunities. There is a rumour that these reasonings, with which of seeing the world, whose parents were in very hum. they were assailed from so nany quarters in the last ble life, and who has given up all his thoughts to the session of Parliament, have not been without their frogs of Aristophanes and the Targum of Onkelos. effect, and that it is the intention of the commissioners How is it possible that such a man should not loose his only to take away the patronage from the cathedrals head? that he should not swell? That he should not exactly in proportion as the number of their members be guilty of a thousand follies, and worry and tease to are reduced. Such may be the intention of the comdeath (before he recovers his common sense) an missioners ; but as that intention has not been publ hundred men as good and as wise and as able as him. notified, it depends only upon report; and the commisself?
sioners have changed their minds so often, that they The history of the division of Edmonton has, I un. may alter their intentions twenty times again before derstand, been repeatedly stated in the commission, the meeting of Parliament. The whole of my obser. and told as it has bee
been, by a decided advocate, and vations in this letter are grounded upon their bills of with no sort of evidence called for on the other side of last year--which Lord John Russell stated his intenthe question, has produced an unfair impression tion of re-introducing ai the beginning of this session. against chapters. The history is shortly this:-Be. If they have any new plans, they ought to have pubsides the mother church of Edmonton, there are two lished them three months ago-an chapels-Southgate and Winchmore Hill chapels. the clergy an ample opportunity of considering them: Winchmore Hill chapel was built by the society for but this they take the greatest care never to do. The building churches upon the same plan as the portions policy of the government and of the commissioners is of Marylebone are arranged; the clergyman was toto hurry their bills through with such rapidity, that be remanerated by the lease of the pews, and if cu- very litile time is given to those who suffer by them rates with talents for preaching had been placed there, for consideration and remonstrance, and we must be they mnight have gained £200 per annum. Though prepared for the worst beforehand. You are cashiered men of perfectly respectable and honourable character, and confiscated before you can look about you-it you they were not endowed with this sort of talent, and leave home for six weeks, in these times, you find a they gained no more than £90 to £100 per annum. commissioner in possession of your house and office. The Bishop of London applied to the cathedral of St. A report has reached my ears, that though all other Paul's, to consent to £250 per annurn in addition to cathedrals are to retain patronage exactly equal to the proceeds from the letting of the pews, or that pro. their reduced numbers, a separate measure of justice portion to the whole value of the living, should be al is to be used for St. Paul's ; that o lotted to the chapel of Winchmore; and at the same be augmented by a fifth; and our patronage reduced time we received an application from the chapel at by a third; and this immediately on the passing of Southgate, that another considerable portion, I forget the bill. That the Bishop of Exeter, for instance, is what, but believe it to have been rather less (perhaps to receive his augmentation of patronage only in pro£200) should be allotted to them, and the whole living portion as the prebendaries die off, and the prebensevered into three parishes. Now the living of Ed. diaries themselves will, as long as they live, remain monton is about £1,350 per annum, besides surplice in the same proportional state as to patronage ; and fees, but this £1,350 depends upon a corn rent of 10s. that when they are reduced to four (their stationary 3d. per bushel, present valuation, which, at the next number), they will retain one-third of all the patron. valuation, would in the opinion of eminent land surage the twelve now possess. Whether this is wise or veyors whom we consulted, be reduced to about 6s. per not, is a separate question, but at least it is just ; the bushel, so that the living, considering the reduction four who remain Cunnot with any colour of justice also ot' all voluntary offerings to the church, would be complain that they do not retain all the patronage reduced one half, and this half was to be divided into which was divided among twelve ; but at St. Paul's three, and one or two curates (two curates by the pre- not only are our numbers to be augmented by a fifth, sent bill) to be kept by the vicar of the old church; but the patronage of fifteen of our best livings is to be and thus three clerical beggars were, by the activity instantly conferred upon the Bishop of London. This of the Bishop of London, to be established in a district little episode of plunder involves three separate acts of
he extreme dearness of all provisions is the gross injustice in the first place, if only our numbers plea for making the see of London double in value to had been augmented by a filth (in itself a mere bonus that of any bishopric in the country. To this we de. to commissioners), our patronage would have been re. clined to agree ; and this, heard only on one side, with duced one-fifth in value. Secondly, one-third of the the total omission of the changing value of the benefice preferment is to be taken away immediately, and from the price of corn, has most probably been the these two added together make eight-fifteenths, or prent of the clause in question. The right cure for more than one-half of our whole patronage. So that, ilis and all similar cases would be to give the bishop when all the cathedrals are reduced to their reformed a power of allotting to such chapels as high a salary numbers, each cathedral will enjoy precisely the same as to any other curate in the diocese, taking as part of proportion of patronage as it now does, and each that salary, whatever was received from the lease of member of every other cathedral will have precisely the pews, and to this no reasonable man could or the same means of promoting men of merit or men ot would object: but this is not enough-all must bow to his own family, as is now possessed; while less than one man Chapters must be taught submission. No half of these advantages will remain to St. Paul's. pamphlets, no meeting of independent prebendaries, Thirdly, if the Bishop of London were to wait (as all to remonstrate against the proceedings of their supe. the other bishops by this arrangement must wait) till riors-no opulence and ease but mine.
the present patrons die off, the injustice would be to Some effect was produced also upon the commission, the future body; but by this scheme, every present by the evidence of a prelate, who is both dean and incumbent of St. Paul's is instantly deprived of eight. bishop.t and who gave it as his opinion that the pa. fifteenths of his patronage ; while every other member
of every other cathedral (as far as patronage is con. *Since writing this, and after declining the living for cerned) remains precisely in the saine state in which myself, I have had the pleasure of seeing it presented in an he was before. Why this blow is levelled against St. undivided state to my amiable and excellent friend Mr. Paul's I cannot conceive ; still less can I imagine why Taite, who, after a long life of moods and tenses, has acquired (as he deserved) ease and ovulence in his old age. the Bishop of London is not to wait, as all other
| This prelate stated'it as his opinion to the commission, i bishops are forced to wait, for the death of the prethat in future all prelates ought to declare that they held sent patrons. There is a reason, indeed, for not wait. their patronage in trust for the public.
ling, by which (had I to do with a person of less cle.