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when he offers a small reward for a full purse; the Cant words creep in and affect quarrels; the chanbankrupt of the court became the lunatic of the court; ges are rung between revolution and reform; but, first estates mouldered away, and mansions fell down; but settle whether a wise government ought to attempt the fees came in, and all was well. But in an instant i the measure whether any thing is wanted-whether the iron mace of Brougham shivered to atoms this less would do and having settled this, mere nomenhouse of fraud and of delay; and this is the man who clature becomes of very little consequence. But, af. will help to govem you; who bottoms bis reputation ter all, if it is revolution, and not reform, it will only on doing good to you; who knows, that to reform induce me to receive an old political toast in a twofold abuses is the safest basis of fame and the surest in. meaning, and with twofold pleasure. When King strument of power; who uses the highest gifts of William and the great and glorious Revolution are gireason, and the most splendid efforts of genius, to ven, I shall think not only of escape from bigotry, but rectify those abuses, which all the genius and talent exemption from corruption ; and I shall thank Provi. of the profession* have hitherto been employed to dence, which has given us a second King William for justify, and to protect. Look to Brougham, and turn the destruction of vice, as the other, of that name, you to that side where he waves his long and lean was given us for the conservation of freedom. finger; and mark well that face which nature has All formal political changes, proposed by these very marked so forcibly—which dissolves pensions-turns men, it is said, were mild and gentle, compared to jobbers into honest men-scares away the plunderer of this true, but are you on Saturday night to seize your the publis and is a terror to him who doeth evil to apothecary by the throat, and to say to him . Subtle the people. But, above all, look to the northem earl, compounder, fraudulent posologist, did not you order victím, before this honest and manly reign, of the me a dram of this medicine on Monday morning, and spitetulness of the court. You may now, for the first now you declare that nothing short of an ounce can do tíme, leam to trust in the professions of a minister; me any good?' 'True enough,' would he of the you are directed by a man who prefers character to phials reply,“ but you did not take the dram on Monplace, and who has given such unequivocal proofs of day morning-that makes all the difference, my dear honesty and patriotism, that his image ought to be sir; if you had done as I advised you at first, the amongst your household gods, and his name to be small quantity of medicine would have sufficedí and lisped by your children; two thousand years hence it instead of being in a night-gown and slippers up stairs, will be a legend like the fable of Perseus and Andro- you would have been walking vigorously in Piccadil. meda : Britannia chained to a mountain--two hundred y. Do as you please and die if you please; but rotten animals menacing her destruction, till a tall don't blame me because you despised my advice, and earl, armed with schedule A., and followed by his by your own ignorance and obstinacy have entailed page Russell, drives them into the deep, and delivers upon yourself ten-fold rhubarb, and unlimited infusion over Britannia in safety to crowds of ten-pound rent of senna.' ers, who deafen the air with their acclamations. Now see the consequences of having a manly lead. Forthwith, Latin verses upon this school exercises er, and a manly cabinet. Suppose they had come out boys whipt, and all the usual absurdities of education. with a little ill-fashioned seven months' reform ; what Don't part with an administration composed of Lord would have been the consequence? The same oppo. Grey and Lord Brougham; and not only these, but sition from the tories that would have been quite cer. look at them all—the mild wisdom of Lansdowne
the tain-and not a single reformer in England satisfied genius and extensive knowledge of Holland, in whose with the measure. You have now a real reform, and bold and honest life there is no varying nor shadow of a fair share of power delegated to the people. change—the unexpected and exemplary activity of The anti-reformers cite the increased power of the Lord Melbourne and the rising parliamentary talents press—this is the very reason why I want an increas. of Stanley. You are ignorant of your best interests, ed power in the House of Commons The Times, He. if every vote you can bestow is not given to such a rald, Advertiser, Globe, Sun, Courier, and Chronicle ministry as this.
are an heptarchy, which govern this country, and goYou will soon find an alteration of behaviour in the vern it because the people are so badly represented. upper orders when elections become real. You will I am perfectly satisfied, that with a fair and honest find that you are raised to the importance to which House of Commons the power of the press would di. you oughi to be raised. The merciless ejector, the minish- and that the greatest authority would centre rural tyrant, will be restrained within the limits of in the highest place. decency and humanity, and will improve their own Is it possible for a gentleman to get into Parliament, characiers, at the same time that they better your at present, without doing things he is utterly ashamed condition.
of-without mixing himself up with the lowest and It is not the power of aristocracy that will be de basest of mankind? Hands, accustomed to the scentstroyed by these measures, but the unfair power. !Ted lubricity of soap, are defiled with pitch, and conthe Duke of Newcastle is kind and obliging to his taminated with filth. Is there not some inherent vice neighbours, he will probably lead his neighbours; it in a govemment, which cannot be carried on but with he is a man of sense, he will lead them more certainly, such abominable wickedness, in which no gentleman and to a better purpose. All this is as it should be i can mingle without moral degradation ; and the prac. but the Duke of Newcastle, at present, by buying cer, tice of crimes, the very imputation of which, on other tain old houses, could govern his neighbours, and occasions, hé would' repel at the hazard of his legislate for them, even if he had not five grains of life? understanding, and if he were the most churlish and What signifies a small majority in the house? The brutal man under heaven. The present state of things miracle is, that the should have been any majority renders unnecessary all those important virtues, at all; that there was not an immense majority on the which rich and well born men, under a better system, other side. It was a very long period before the would exercise for the public good. The Duke of courts of justice in Jersey could put down smuggling ; Newcastle (I mention him only as an instance, Lord and why? The judges, counsel, attorneys, crier of Exeter
will do as well, but either of those noblemen, the court, grand and petty jurymen, were all smug. depending not upon walls, arches, and abutments, for glers, and the high sheriff and the constables were their power—but upon mercy, charity, forbearance, running goods every moonlight night. indulgence, and example would pay this price, and How are you to do without a government! And lead the people by their affections ; one would be the what other government, if this bill is ultimately lost, God of Stamford, and the other of Newark. This could possibly be found 1 How could any country deunion of the great with the many is the real healthy fray the ruinous expense of protecting, with troops and state of a country; such a country is strong to invin. constables, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert cibility-and this strength the borough system entirely Peel, who literally would not be able to walk from the destroys.
Horse Guards to Grosvenor Square, without two or
three regiments of foot to screen them from the mob; Lord Lyndhurst is an exception; I firmly believe he had and in these hollow squares the hero of Waterloo no wish to perpotuato the abuses of the Court of Chancery. would have to spend his political life. By the whole
exercise of his splendid military talents, by strong the Duke of Wellington), says it must be made to work batteries at Bootle's, and White's, he might, on better, or it will soon cease to work at all? It is lit. nights of great debate, reach the House of Lords; but tle short of absolute nonsense to call a government Sir Robert would probably be cut off, and nothing good, which the great mass of Englishmen would be could save Twiss and Lewis.
fore twenty years were elapsed, if reform was deniod, The great majority of persons returned by the new rise up and destroy. Of what use have all the cruel boroughs would either be men of high reputation for laws been of Perceval, Eldon, and Castlereagh, to extalents, or persons of fortune known in the neighbour. tinguish reform? Lord John Russell and his abetiors hood ; they have property and character to lose. would have been committed to jail twenty years ago Why are they to plunge into mad and revolutionary for half only of his present reform ; and now relays of projects of pillaging the public creditor? It is not the the people would drag them from London to Edininterest of any such man to do it ; he would lose more burgh ; at which latter city we are told by Mr. Dus. by the destruction of public credit than he would gain das, that there is no eagerness for reform. Five min. by a remission of what he paid for the interest of the utes before Moses struck the rock, this gentleman public debt.
And if it is not the interest of any one to would have said that there was no eagerness for act in this manner, it is not the interest of the mass. water. How many, also, of these new legislators would there There are two methods of making alterations : the be, who were not themselves creditors of the state ? one is to despise the applicants, to begin with teIs it the interest of such men to create a revolution, fusing every concession, then to relax by making con. by destroying the constitutional power of the House of cessions which are always too late; by offering in Lords, or of the king? Does there exist in persons of 1831 what is then too late, but would have been ac. that class, any disposition for such changes ? Are not cepted in 1830-gradually to O'Connellize the country, all feelings, and opinions and prejudices, on the oppo- till at last, after this process has gone on for some site side? The majority of the new members will be time, the alarm becomes too great, and every thing is landed gentleman : their genus is utterly distinct from conceded in hurry and confusion. In the mean time the revolutionary tribe ; they have molar teeth ; they fresh conspiracies have been hatched by the long de are destitute of the carnivorous and incisive jaws of lay, and no gratitude is expressed for what has been political adventurers.
extorted by fear. In this way, peace was concluded There will be mistakes at first, as there are in all with America and emancipation granted to the Caibochanges. All young ladies will imagine (as soon as lics ; and in this way the war of complexion will be this bill is carried) that they will be instantly mar. finished in the Wesi Indies. The other method is, to ried. Schoolboys believe that gerunds and supines see at a distance that the thing must be done, and to will be abolished, and that currant tarts must ultimate- do it effectually, and at once ; to take it out of the ly come down in price ; the corporal and sergeant are hands of the common people, and to carry the mea. sure of double pay ; bad poets will expect a demand sure in a manly liberal manner, so as to satisfy the for their epics ; fools will be disappointed, as they al. great majority. The merit of this belongs to the ad. ways are ; reasonable men, who know what to ox- ministration of Lord Grey. He is the only minister I pect, will find that a very serious good has been ob- know of who has begun a great mcasure in good time, tained.
conceded at the beginning of twenty years what would What good to the hewer of wood and the drawer of have been extorted at the end of it, and prevented water? How is he benefited, if old Sarum is abolish. that folly, violonce, and ignorance, which emanate ed, and Birmingham members created? But if you from a long denial and extorted concession of justice ask this question of reform, you must ask it of a great to great masses of human beings. I believe the ques. number of other measures. How is he benefited by tion of reform, or any dangerous agitation of it, is set Catholic emancipation, by the repeal of the Corpora- at rest for thirty or forty years ; and this is an eternity tion and Test Act, by the Revolution of 1688, by any in politics. great political change? by a good government? In Boroughs are not the power proceeding from wealth. ibe first place, if many are benefited, and the lower or- Many men, who have no boroughs, are infinitely rich. ders are not injured, this alone is reason enough for er than those who have—but it is the artifice of wealth the change. But the bewer of wood and the drawer in seizing hold of certain localities. The boroughof water are benefited by reform. Reform will pro- monger is like rheumatism, which owes its power not duce economy and investigation; there will be fewer not so much to the intensity of the pain as to its pecujobs, and a less lavish expenditure; wars will not be liar position ; a little higher up, or a little lower dont, persevered in for years after the people are tired of the same pain would be trifling ; but it fixes in the ihem; taxes will be taken off the poor and laid upon joints, and gets into the head quarters of motion and the rich; democratic habits will be more common in a activity. The boroughmonger knows the importance country where the rich are forced to court the poor for of arthritic positions ; he disdains muscle, gets into the political power ; cruel and oppressive punishments joints, and lords it over the whole machine by felicity (such as those for night poaching), will be abolished. of place. Other men are as rich—but those riches are If you steal a pheasant you will be punished as you not fixed in the critical spot. ought to be, but not sent away from your wife and I live a good deal with all ranks and descriptions children for seven years. Tobacco will be 2d. per lb. of people ; I am thoroughly convinced that the party cheaper. Candles will fall in price. These last re of democrats and republicans are very small and con sults of an improved government will be felt. We do temptible; that the English love their institutionsnot pretend to abolish poverty or to prevent wretched that they love not only this king, (who would not love ness; but if peace, economy, and justice, are the re- him?) but the kingly office—that they have no hatred sults of reform, a number of small benefits, or rather to the aristocracy. I am not afraid of trusting Eng. of benefits which appear small to us but not to them, lish happiness to English gentlemen. I believe that will accrue to millions of the people ; and the connec- the halt million of new voters will choose much better tion between the existence of John Russell, and the for the public than the twenty or thirty peers, to whose reduced price of bread and cheese, will be as clear as usurped power they succeed. it has been the object of his honest, wise, and useful If any man doubts the power of reform, let him life to make it.
take these two memorable proofs of its omnipotence. Don't be led away by such nonsense ; all things First, but for the declaration against it, I believe the are dearer under a bad government, and cheaper under Duke of Wellington might this day have been in of. a good one. The real question they ask you is, What fice; and, secondly, in the whole course of the debates difference can any change of government make to at county meetings and in Parliament, there are not you? They want to keep the bees from buzzing twenty men who have declared against reform. Some and stinging, in order that they may rob the hive in advance an inch, some a foot, some a yard—but nopeace.
body stands still--nobody says, We ought to remain Work well! How does it work well, when every just where we were-every body discovers that he is a human being in doors and out (with the exception of reformer, and has long been so—and appears infinitely
delighted with this new view of himself. Nobody ap Landed proprietors imagine they have a right to the pears without the cockade--bigger or less—but always votes of their tenants; and instances, in every election, the cockade.
are numerous where tenants have been dismissed for An exact and elaborate census is called for-vast in. voting contrary to the wishes of their landlords. In formation should have been laid upon the table of the the same manner strong combinations are made against House-great time should have been given for delibe. tradesmen who have chosen to think and act for them. ration. All these objections, being turned into Eng. selves in political matters, rather than yield their lish, simply mean, that the chances of another year opinions to the solicitations of their customers. There should have been given for defeating the bill. In that is a great deal of tyranny and injustice in all this. I time the Poles may be crushed, the Belgians organ- should no more think of asking what the political opinized, Louis Philip dethroned; war may rage all over ions of a shop-keeper were than of asking whether he Europe~the popular spirit may be diverted to other was tall or short, or large or small: for a difference of objects. It is certainly provoking that 'the ministry 2 1-2 per cent., I would desert the most aristocratic foresaw all these possibilities, and determined to mod butcher that ever existed, and deal with one who el the iron while it was red and glowing.
It is not enough that a political institution works • Shook the arsenal and fulmin'd over Greece.' well practically: it must be defensible ; it must be On the contrary, I would not adhere to the man who such as will bear discussion, and not excite ridicule put me in uneasy habiliments, however great his ven. and contempt. It might work well for aught I know, eration for trial by jury, or however ardent his attachif, like the savages of Onelashka, we sent out to catch ment to the liberty of the subject. A tenant I never a king : but who could defend a coronation by chase ? had; but I firmly believe that if he had gone through who can defend the payment of 40,0001. for the three certain pecuniary formalities twice a year, I should hundredth part of the power of Parliament, and the have thought it a gross act of tyranny to have interre-sale of this power to government for places to the fered either with his political or his religious opin. Lord Williams, and Lord Charles's, and others of the ions. Anglophagi? Teach a million of the common people I distinctly admit that every man has a right to do to read and such a government (work it ever so well) what he pleases with his own. I cannot, by law, premust perish in twenty years. It is impossible to per- vent any one from discharging his tenants and changsuade the mass of mankind, that there are not othering his tradesmen for political reasons; but I may and better methods of governing a country. It is so judge whether that man exercises his right to the pub. complicated, so wicked, such envy and hatred accu lic advantage. A man has a right to refuse dealing mulate against the gentlemen who have fixed them with any tradesman who is not tive feet eleven inches selves on the joints, that it cannot fail to perish, and high; but if he acts upon this rule, he is either a mad. to be driven as it is driven from the country, by a man or a fool. He has a right to lay waste his own general burst of hatred and detestation. I meant, gen. estate, and to make it utterly barren ; but I have also tlemen, to have spoken for another half-hour, but I am a right to point him out as one who exercises his right old and tired. Thank me for ending—but, gentlemen, in a manner very injurious to society. He may set up bear with me for another moment; one word before I a religious or a political test for his tradesmen; but end. I am old, but I thank God I have lived to see admitting his right, and deprecating all interference more than my observations on human nature taught of law, I must tell him he is making the aristocracy me I had any right to expect. I have lived to see an odious to the great mass, and that he is sowing the honest king, in whose word his ministers can trust; / seeds of revolution. His purse may be full, and his who disdains to deceive those men whom he has call. fields may be wide ; but the moralist will still hold ed to the public service, but makes common cause the rod of public opinion over his head, and tell the with them for the common good; and exercises the money-bloated blockhead that he is shaking those highest powers of a ruler for the dearest interests of laws of propriety which it has taken ages to extort the state. I have lived to see a king with a good from the wretchedness and rapacity of mankind ; and heart, who, surrounded by nobles, thinks of common that what he calls his own will not long be his own, if men ; who loves the great mass of English people, he tramples too heavily upon human patience. and wishes to be loved by them; who knows that his
All these practices are bad; but the facts and the real power, as he feels that his happiness, is founded
consequences are exaggerated. on their affection. I have lived to see a king, who, In the first place, the plough is not a political mawithout pretending to the pomp of superior in chine : the loom and the steam-engine are furiously tellect, has the wisdom to see, that the decayed insti- political, but the plough is not. Nineteen tenants out tutions of human policy require amendment; and who, of twenty care nothing about their votes, and pull off in spite of clamour, interest, prejudice, and fear, has their opinions as easily to their landlords as they do the manliness to carry these wide changes into imme their hâts. As far as the great majority of tenants are diate execution. Gentlemen, farewell : shout for the concerned, these histories of persecution are mere deking.
clamatory nonsense; they have no more predilection for whom they vote than the organ pipes have for
what tunes they are to play. A tenant dismissed for BALLOT.
a fair and just cause often attributes his dismissal to
political motives, and endeavours to make himself a It is possible, and perhaps not very difficult, to in martyr with the public: a man who ploughs badly, or vent a machine, by the aid of which electors may vote who pays badly, says he is dismissed for his vote. for a candidate, or for two or three candidates, out of No candidate is willing to allow that he has lost his a greater number, without its being discovered for election by his demerits; and he seizes hold of these whom they vote ; is less easy than the rabid and stories, and circulates them with the greatest avidity: foaming radical supposes; but I have no doubt it may they are stated in the House of Commons; John Rus. be accomplished. In Mr. Grote's dagger ballot box, sell and Spring Rice fall a crying: there is lamenta. which has been carried round the country by emineni tion of liberals in the land ; and many groans for the patriots, you stab the card of your favourite candidate territorial tyrants. with a dagger. I have seen another, called the mouse A standing reason against the frequency of dismis. trap ballot box, in which you poke your finger into the sal of tenants is, that it is always injurious to the pe. trap of the member you prefer, and are caught and cuniary interests of a landlord to dismiss a tenant; the detained till the trap-clerk below (who knows by property always suffers in some degree by a going off means of a wire when you are caught) marks your ienant; and it is therefore always the interest of a vote, polls the liberator, and releases you. Which landlord not to change when the tenant does his duty may be the most eligible' of these two methods I do as an agriculturalist. not pretend to determine, nor do I think my excellent To part with tenants for political reasons always friend Mr. Babbage has 'as yet made up his mind on makes a landlord unpopular. The Constitutional, the subject; but, by some means or other, I have no price 4d.; the Cato, at 31d.; and the Lucius Junius doubt the thing may be done.
Brutus at 2dh, all set upon the unhappy scutiger; and
the squire, unused to be pointed at, and thinking that | sesses the land should never speak to the man who all Europe and part of Asia are thinking of him and tills it. The intercourse between landlord and tenant his farmers, is driven to the brink of suicide and de. should be as strictly guarded as that of the sexes in spair. That such things are done is not denied; that Turkey. A funded duenna should be placed over they are scandalous when they are done is equally every landed grandee.-And then intimidation! Is true ; but these are reasons why such acts are less intimidation confined to the aristocracy? Can any frequent than they are commonly represented to be. thing be more scandalous and atrocious than the in In the same manner, there are instances of shopkeep timidation of mobs ? Did not the mob of Bristol occa ers being materially injured in their business from the sion more ruin, wretchedness, death, and alarm than votes they have given; but the facts themselves, as all the ejection of tenants, and combinations against well as the consequences, are grossly exaggerated. If shopkeepers, from the beginning of the century and shopkeepers lose tory they gain whig customers; and did not ihe Scotch philosophers tear off the clothes of it is not always the vote which does the mischief, but the tories in Mintoshire ? or at least such clothes as the low vulgar impertinence, and the unbridled scur- the customs of the country admit of being worn ?-and rility of a man who thinks that by dividing to man. did not they, without any reflection at all upon the kind their rations of butter and of cheese he has qual. customs of the country, wash the tory voters in the ified himself for legislation, and that he can hold the river? rod of empire because he has wielded the yard of men. Some sanguine advocates of the ballot eontend that suration. I detest all inquisition into political opinions, it would put an end to all canvassing: why should it but I have very rarely seen a combination against any do so! Under the ballot, I canvass (it is true) a pertradesman who modestly, quietly, and conscientiously son who may secretly deceive me. I cannot be sure took his own line in politics. But Brutus and butter. he will not do so—but I am sure it is mach less likely man, cheesemonger and Cato, do not harmonize well he will vote against me, when I have paid him all the together ; good taste is oftended, the coxcomb loses deference and attention which a representative be his friends, and general disgust is mistaken for com- stows on his constituents, than it I had totally bined oppression. Shopkeepers, too, are very apt to neglected him: to any other objections he may have cry out before they are hurt: a man who sees after an against me, at least I will not add that of personal inelection one of his customers buying a pair of gloves civility. on the opposite side of the way, roars out that his Scarcely is any great virtue practised without some honesty will make him a bankrupt, and the county pa. sacrifice ; and the admiration which virtue excites pers are filled with letters from Brutus, Publicola, seems to proceed from the contemplation of such sufHampden, and Pym.
ferings, and of the exertions by which they are enThis interference with the freedom of voting, bad as dured : a tradesman suffers some loss of trade by It is, produces no political deliberation; it does not voting for his country ; is he not to vote ? he might make the cories stronger than the whigs, nor the whigs suffer some loss of blood in fighting for his country, is than the tories, for both are equally guilty of this spe. he not to fight? Every one would be a good Samaricies of tyranný; and any particular system of meas. tan, if he was quite sure his compassion would cost ures fails or prevails, much as if no such practice ex. him nothing. We should all be heroes, if it was net isted. The practice had better not be at all, but if for blood and fractures ; all saints, if it were not for a certain quantity of the evil does exist, it is better the restrictions and privations of sanctity; all patriots, that it should be equally divided among both parties, if it were not for the losses and misrepresentations to than that it should be exercised by one for the depres which patriotism exposes us. The ballotists are a se! sion of the other. There are politicians always at a of Englishmen glowing with the love of England and white heat, who suppose that there are landed iyrants the
love of virtue, but determined to hazard the most only on one side of the question ; but human lífe has dangerous experiments in politics, rather than run the been distressingly abridged by the flood : there is no risk of losing a pery in defence of their exalted feel time to spare, it is impossible to waste it upon such ings. senseless bigotry.
An abominable tyranny exercised by the ballot is, If a man is sheltered from intimidation, is it at all that it compels those persons to conceal their votes, clear that he would vote from any better motive than who hate al concealment, and who glory in the cause intimidation? If you make so tremendous an experi- they support. If you are afraid to go ía at the front ment, are you sure of attaining your object? The door, and to say in a clear voice what you have to say, landlord has perhaps said a cross word to the tenant; go in at the back door, and say it in a whisper-but the candidate for whom the tenant votes in opposition this is not enough for you; you make me, who am to his landlord has taken his second son for a tootman, bold and honest,
sneak in at ihe back door as well as or his father knew the candidate's grandfather: how yourself: because you are afraid ot selling a dozen or many thousand votes, sheltered (as the ballotists sup- iwo of gloves less than usual, you compel me, whe pose) from intimidation, would be given from such have no gloves to sell, or who would dare or despise silly motives as these?' how many would be given the loss, if I had, to hide the best feelings of my heart, froin the mere discontent of inferiority? or from that and to lower myself down to your mean morals. It is strange simious schoolboy passion of giving pain to as if a few cowards who could only fight behind walls others, even when the author cannot be found out ?- and houses, were to prevent the whole regiment from motives as pernicious as any which could proceed from showing a bold front in the field: what right has the intimidation. So that all voters screened by ballot coward to degrade me who am uo coward, and put me would not be sereened for any public good.
in the same shameful predicament with himself? If The radicals, (I do not use this word in any offen. ballot is established, a zealous voter cannot do justice sive sense, for I know many honest and excellent men to his cause; there will be so many false Hampdens, of this way of thinking), but the radicals praise and and spurious Catos, that all men's actions and motives admit the lawful influence of wealth and power. They will be mistrusted. It is in the power of any man to are quite satisfied if a rich man of popular manners tell me that my colours are false, that I declaim with gains the votes and affections of his dependants ; but stimulated warmth, and canvass with fallacious zeal ; why is not this as bad as intimidation? 'The real ob- that I am a tory, though I call Russell for ever, or a jeci is to vote for the good politician, not for the kind- whig, in spite of my obstreperous panegyrics of Peel. hearted or agreeable man: the mischief is just the It is really a curious condition that all men must imisame to the country whether I am smiled into a cor. tate the defects of a few, in order that it may not be rupt choice, or frowned into a corrupt choice,-what known who have the natural imperfection, and who is it to me whether my landlord is the best of land put it on from conformity: In this way, in former lords, or the most agreeable of men? I must vote for days, to hide the gray hairs of the old, every body Joseph Hume, if I think Joseph more honest than the was forced to wear powder and pomatum. marquis. The more mitigated radical may pass over It must not be forgetten that,
in the ballot, concealthis, but the real camivorous variety of the animal ment must be absolutely compulsory. It would never should declaim as loudly against the fascinations as do to let one man vote openly, and another secretly. against the threats of the great. The man who pos. You may go to the edge of the box, and say,' I voie
for A.,' but who knows that your ball is not put in for | placed on the north wall, and starved for their bones. B.? There must be a clear plain opportunity for tell. iy. Judges, too, suffer for their unpopularity-Lord ing an undiscoverable lie, or the whole invention is at Kilwarden was murdered, Lord Mausfield burnt down; an end. How beautiful is the progress of man! but voters, forgetting that they are only trustees for printing has abolished ignorance--gas put an end to those who have no vote, require that they themselves darkness-steam has conquered time and distance-it should be virtuous with impunity, and that all the pen. remained for Grote and his box to remove the incum- alties of austerity and Catonism should fall upon othbrance of truth from human transactions. May we ers. I am aware that it is of the greatest consequence not look now for more little machines to abolish the to the constituent that he should be made acquainted other cardinal virtues.
with the conduct of his representative ; but I main. But if all men are suspected; if things are so con- tain, that to know, without the fear of mistake, what trived that it is impossible to know what men really the conduct of individuals has been in their fulfilment think, a serious impediment is created to the forma of the great trust of electing members of Parliament, tion of good public opinion in the multitude. There is is also of the greatest importance in the formation of a town (No. 1.) in which live two very clever and re- public opinion ; and that, when men acted in the dark, spectable men, Johnson and Pelham, small tradesmen, the power of distinguishing between the bad and the men always willing to run some risk for the public good would be at an end. good, and to be less rich, and more honest than their To institute ballot, is to apply a very dangerons in. neighbours. It is of considerable consequence to the novation to a temporary evil; for it is seldom, but in formation of opinion in this town, as an example, to very excited times, that these acts of power are comknow how Johnson and Pelham vote. It guides the plained of which the ballot is intended to remedy.“ affections, and directs the understandings, of the whole There never was an instance in this country where population, and materially affects public opinion in parties were so nearly balanced; but all this will pass this town; and in another borough, No. 2., it would be away, and, in a very few years, either Peel will swal. of the highest importance to public opinión if it were low Lord John, or Lord John will pasture upon Peel ; certain how Mr. Smith, the ironmonger, and Mr. Ro- parties will coalesce, the Duke of Wellington and Vis. gers, the London carrier, voted; because they are count Melbourne meet at the same board, and the lion both thoroughly honest men, and of excellent under lie down with the lamb. In the mean time a serious standing for their condition of life. Now, the tenden- and dangerous political change is resorted to for the cy, of ballot would be to destroy all the Pelhams, cure of a temporary evil, and we may be cursed with Johnsons, Rogers's, and Smiths, to sow a universal ballot when we do not want it, and cannot get rid of mistrust, and to exterminate the natural guides and it. leaders of the people : political influence, founded If there is ballot there can be no scrutiny, the conupon honour and ancient honesty in politics, could not trolling power of Parliament is lost, and the members grow up under such a system. No man's declaration are entirely in the hands of returning officers. could get believed. It would be easy to whisper away An election is hard run-the, returning officer lets in the character of the best men ; and to assert that, in twenty votes which he ought to have excluded, and spite of all his declarations, which are nothing but a the opposite candidate is unjustly returned. I petition, blind, the romantic Rogers has voted on the other and as the law now stands, the retum would be amend. side, and is in secret league with our enemies. ed, and I, who had the legitimate majority, should be
Who brought that mischievous profligate villain seated in Parliament. But how could justice be done into Parliament? Let us see the names of his real if the ballot obtained, and if the returning officer were supporters. Who stood out against the strong and up. careless or corrupt?' Would you put all the electors lifted arm of power? Who discovered this excellent upon their oath? Would it be advisable to accept any and hitherto unknown person? Who opposed the man oath where detection was impossible? and could any whom we all know to be one of the first men in the approximation to truth be expected under such circumcountry ?' Are these fair and useful questions to be stances, from such an inquisition? It is true, the preveiled hereafter in impenetrable mystery? Is this sort sent committees of the House of Commons are a very of publicity of no good as a restraint? Is it of no good unfair tribunal, but that tribunal may and will be as an incitement to and a reward for exertions? Is mended ; and bad as that tribunal is, nobody can be not public opinion formed by such feelings? and is it insane enough to propose that we are to take refuge in not a dark and demoralizing system to draw this veil the blunders or the corruptions of 600 returning offi. over human actions, to say to the mass, be base, and cers, 100 of whom are Irish. you will not be despised; be virtuous, and you will It is certainly in the power of a committee, when in not be honoured? Is this the way in which Mr. Grote capacity or villany of the returning officer has producwould foster the spirit of a bold and indomitable peo ed an unfair retum, to annul the whole election, and to ple? Was the liberty of that people established by proceed again de novo; but how is this just? or what fraud? Did America lie herself into independence ? satisfaction is this to me, who have unquestionably Was it treachery which enabled Holland to shake off a lawful majority, and who ask of the House of Comthe yoke of Spain? Is there any instance since the mons to examine the votes, and to place in their house beginning of the world where human liberty has been the man who has combined the greatest number of established by little systems of trumpery and trick ?- suffrages ? The answer of the House of Commons is, These are the weapons of monarchs against the peo • One of you is undoubtedly the rightsul member, but ple, not of the people against monarchs. With their we have so framed our laws of election, that it is imown right hand, and with their mighty arm, have the possible to find out which that man is'; the loss and people gotten to themselves the victory, and upon them penalties ought only to fall upon one, but they must may they ever depend ; and then comes Mr. Grote, a fall upon both; we put the well-doer and the evil-doer scholar and a gentleman, and knowing all the histo- precisely in the same situation; there shall be no elec, ries of public courage, preaches cowardice and treach. tion;' and this may happen ten times running. ery to England; tells us that the bold cannot be free, Purity of election, the fair choice of representatives, and bids us seek for liberty by clothing ourselves in must be guarded either by the coercing power of the the mask of falsehood, and trampling on the cross of House of Commons exercised upon petitions, or it must truth.
be guarded by the watchful jealousy of opposite par. If this shrinking from the performance of duties is ties at the registrations ; but if (as the radicals supto be tolerated, voters are not the only persons who pose) ballot gives a power of perfect concealment, would recur to the accommodating convenience of bal. whose interest is it to watch the registrations? If Í lot. A member of Parliament, who voles against govo despair of distinguishing my friends from my foes, ernment, can get nothing in the army, navy, or church, why should I take any trouble about registrations ?-or at the bar, for his children or himself; they are Why not leave every thing to that great primum mo.
bile of all human affairs, the barrister of six years' • Mr. Grote is a very worthy, honest, and able man; and,
standing ? if the world were a chess-board, would be an important po- l is," "What you say may be true enough in the present
The answer of the excellent Benthamites to all this litician.