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of Bonaparte's imputed crimes, as well as his noto-1 of the victims? If Dr. Wittman received any such rious defeat; and inight have brought us back, not evidence, why did he not bring it forward? If he never anile conjecture, but sound evidence of events which inquired for such evidence, how is he qualified to must determine his character, who may determine write upon the subject? If he inquired for it and our tate. We should have been happy also to have could not find it, how is the fact credible? found in the travels of Dr. Wittman a full account of This author cannot make the same excuse as Sir the tactics and manæuvres of the Turkish army; and Robert Wilson, for the suppression of his evidence, as this it would not have been difficult to have obtained there could be no probability that Bonaparte would through the medium of his military companions. wreak his vengeance upon Soliman, Aga, Mustapha Such appear to us to be the subjects, from an able Cawn, Sidi Mahomet, or any given Turks, upon whose discussion of which, Dr. Wittman "might have derived positive evidence Dr. Wittman might have rested his considerable reputation, by gratifying the ardour of accusation. Two such wicked acts as the poisoning temporary curiosity, and adding to the stock of per- and the massacre, have not been committed within manent knowledge.
the memory of man ;-within the same memory, no Upon opening Dr. Wittman's book, we turned with such extraordinary person has appeared, as he who is a considerable degree of interest, to the subject of said to have committed them; and yet, though their Jaffa ; and to do justice to the doctor, we shall quote commission must have been public, no one has yet all that he has said upon the subject of Bonaparte's said, Vidi ego. The accusation still rests upon hear. conduct at this place.
say. · After a breach had been effected, the French troops storm- cusation has been over Europe, it is extraordinary that
At the same time, widely disseminated as this ac. ed and carried the place. It was probably owing to the obstipate defence made by the Turks, that the French commander- it has not been contradicted in print: and, though Sir in-chief was induced to give orders for the horrid massacre Robert Wilson's book must have been read in France, which succeeded. Four thousand of the wretched inhabitants that no officer of the division of Bon has come forward who had surrendered, and who had in vain implored the mercy in vindication of a criminal who could repay incredu. of their conquerors, were, together with a part of the late lity so well. General Andreossi, who was with the Turkish garrison of El-Arish, (amounting, it has been said, to First Consul in Syria, treats the accusations as con. five or six hundred,) dragged out in cold blood, four days after temptible falsehoods. But though we are convinced the French had obtained possession of Java, to the sand bills, he is a man of character, his evidence has certainly humanly put to death. I have seen the skeletons of these un- less weight, as he may have been speaking in the mask fortunate victims, which lie scattered over the hills; a modern of diplomacy. As to the general circulation of the reGolgotha, which remains a lasting disgrace to a nation calling port, he must think much higher of the sagacity of itself civilized. It would give pleasure to the author of this multitudes than we do, who would convert this into a work, as well as to every liberal mind, to hear these facts con- reason of belief. Whoever thinks it so easy to get at tradicted on substantial evidence. Indeed, I am sorry to add, truth in the midst of passion, should read the various that the charge of cruelty against the French general does not histories of the recent rebellion in Ireland ; or he may, rest here. It having been reported, that, previously to the re- if he chooses, believe, with thousands of worthy chief had ordered all the French sick at Jaffa to be poisoned, Frenchmen, that the infernale was planned by Mr. I was led to make the inquiry to which every one who should Pitt and Lord Melville. As for us, we will state what have visited the spot would naturally have been directed, re- appears to us to be the truth, should it even chance specting an act of such singular, and, it should seem, wanton to justify a man in whose lifetime Europe can know inhumanity. It concerns me to have to state, not only that neither happiness nor peace. such a circumstance was positively asserted to have happened, but that, while in Egypt, an individual was pointed out to us,
The story of the poisoning is given by Dr. Wittman as having been the executioner of these diabolical commands. precisely in the same desultory manner as that of the -(p. 128.)
massacre. • An individual was pointed out to us as
the executioner of these diabolical commands.' By Now, in this passage, Dr. Wittman offers no other how many persons was he pointed out as the execuevidence whatever of the massacre, than that he had tioner? by persons of what authority ? and of what seen the skeletons scattered over the hills, and that credulity? Was it asserted from personal knowledge, the fact was universally believed. But how does Dr. or merely from rumour ? Whence comes it that such Wittman know what skeletons those were which he an agent, after the flight of his employer, was not saw? An oriental camp, affected by the plague, driven away by the general indignation of the army? leaves as many skeletons behind it as a massacre. If Dr. Wittman had combined this species of informa. And though the Turks bury their dead, the doctor tion with his stories, his conduct would have been complains of the very little depth at which they are more just, and his accusations would have carried interred; so that jackals, high winds and a sandy greater weight. At present, when he, who had the soil, might, with great facility, undo the work of opportunity of telling us so much, has told us so little, Turkish sextons. Let any one read Dr. Wittman's we are rather less inclined to believe than we were account of the camp near Jaffa, where the Turks re before. We do not say these accusations are not mained so long in company with the military mission, true, but that Dr. Wittman has not proved them to and he will immediately perceive that, a year after be true. their departure, it might have been mistaken, with Dr. Wittman did not see more than two cases of great ease for the scene of a massacre. The spot plague: he has given both of them at full length. which Dr. Wittman saw might have been the spot The symptoms were, thirst, headache, vertigo, pains where a battle had been fought. In the turbulent in the limbs, bilious vomitings, and painful tumours in state of Syria, and amidst the variety of its barbarous the groins. The means of cure adopted were, to evainhabitants, can it be imagined that every bloody cuate the primæ viæ ; to give diluting and refreshing battle, with its precise limits and circumspection, is drinks; to expel the redundant bile by emetics; and accurately committed to tradition, and faithfully re- to assuage the pain in the groin by fomentations and ported to inquirers ? Besides, why scattered among anodynes; both cases proved fatal. In one of the hills? If 5000 men were marched out to a convenient cases, the friction with warm oil was tried in vain ; spot and massacred, their remains would be heaped but it was thought useful in the prevention of plague : up in a small space, a mountain of the murdered, a the immediate effect produced was, to throw the per. vast bridge of bones and rottenness. As the doctor son rubbed into a very copious perspiration. A patient has described the bone scenery, it has much more the in typhus, who was given over, recovered after this appearance of a battle and pursuit than of a massacre. discipline was administered. Alter all, this gentleman lay eight months under the The boldness and enterprise of medical men are walls of Jaffa; whence comes it he has given us no quite as striking as the courage displayed in battle. better evidence? Were 5000 men murdered in cold and evince how much the power of encountering dan. blood by a division of the French army, a year before, ger depends upon habit. Many a military veteran and did no man remain in Jaffa, who said, I saw it would tremble to feed upon pus'; to sleep in sheets done—I was present when they were marched out-running with water; or to draw up the breath of fever. I went the next day, and saw the scarcely dead bodies ish patients. Dr. White might not, perhaps, have
marched up to a battery with great alacrity ; but Dr. | distinguish between systematic energy, and the ex. White, in the year 1801, inoculated himself in the cesses of casual and capricious cruelty; the one awes arms, with recent matter taken from the bubo of a pes. them into submission, the other rouses them to reliferous patient, and rubbed the same matter upon dif. venge. ferent parts of his body. With somewhat less of cou. Dr. Wittman, in his chapter on the Turkish army, rage, and more of injustice, he wrapt his Arab servant attributes much of its degradation to the altered state in the bed of a person just dead of the plague. The of the corps of Janissaries; the original constitution doctor died: and the doctor's man (perhaps to prove of which corps was certainly both curious and wise. his master's theory, that the plague was not conta. The children of Christians
made prisoners in the pre. gious), ran away The bravery of our naval officers datory incursions of the Turks, or procured in any never produced anything superior to this therapeutic other manner, were exposed in the public inarkets of heroisin of the doctor's.
Constantinople. Any farmer or artificer was at liber. Dr. Wittman has a chapter which he calls An Histo- ty to take one into his service, contracting with gor. rical Journal of the Plague; but the information ernment to produce him again when he should be want. which it contains amounts to nothing at all. He con- ed: and in the mean time to feed and clothe him, and fesses that he has had no experience in the complaint; to educate him to such works of labour as are calcuthat he has no remedy to offer for its care, and no lated to strengthen the body. As the Janissaries theory for its cause. The treatment of the minor were killed off, the government drew upon this stock plague of Egypt, ophthalmia, was precisely the method of hardy orphans for its levies ; who, instead of hang. common in this country; and was generally attended ing upon weeping parents at their departure, caine with success, where the remedies were applied in eagerly to the camp, as the situation which they had time.
always been taught to look upon as the theatre of Nothing can be conceived more dreadful than was their future glory, and towards which all their pasthe situation of the military mission in the Turkish sions and affections had been bent, from their earliest camp; exposed to a mutinous Turkish soldiery, to in. years. Arrived at the camp, they received at first fection, famine, and a scene of the most abominable low pay, and performed menial offices for the little difilth and putrefaction ; and this they endured for a vision of Janissaries to which they were attached: year and a half, with the patience of apostles of peace, Ad Gianizaros rescriptus primo meret menstruo sti. rather than war. Their occupation was to teach dis. pendio, paulo plus minus, unius ducati cum dimidio. eased barbarians, who despised them, and thought it Id enim militi novitio, et rudi satis esse censent. Sed no small favour that they should be permitted to exist tamen ne quid victus necessitati desit, cum ea decuria, in their neighbourhood. They had to witness the cru. in cujus contuemium adscitus est, gratis cibum cupit, elties of despotism, and the passions of armed and ig. eâ conditione, ut in culinà reliqoque ministerio ei denorant multitudes ; and all this embellished with the curiæ serviat; usum armorum adeptus tyro, coedum fair probability of being swept off, in some grand en- tamen suis contubernalibus honore deque stipendio par gagement, by ihe superior tactics and activity of the unam in sola virtute, se illis æquandi, spem babet; enemy to whom the Turks were opposed. To the utpote si militiæ quæ prima se obtulerit, tale specimen filth, irregularity, and tumult of a Turkish camp, as it sui dederit, ut dignus judicetur, qui tyrocinio exemplus, appeared to the British officers in 1800, it is curious to honoris gradu et stipendii magnitudine, reliquis Gianioppose the picture of one drawn by Busbequius in the zaris par habeatur. Quà quidem spe plerique tyrones middle of the sixteenth century: Turcæ in proximis impulsi, multa præclare audent, et fortitudine cum re. campis tendebant ; cum vero in eo loco tribus mensi- teranis certant.--Busbequius, De Re Mil, cont. Turc. bus vixerim, fuit mihi facultas videndorum ipsorum Instit. Consilium.* The same author observes, that castrorum, et cognoscendæ aliqua ex parte disciplinæ; there was no rank or dignity in the Turkish army, to qua de re nisi pauca attingam, habeas tortasse quod which a common Janissary might not arrive, by his me accuses. Sumpto habitu Christianis hominibus in courage or his capacity. This last is a most powerful illis locis usitato, cum uno aut altero comite quacun- motive to exertion, and is, perhaps, one leading catre que vagabar ignotus : primum videbam summo ordine of the superiority of the French arms. Ancient gove cujusque corporis milites suis locis distributos, et, emments promote, from numberless causes, which quod vix credat, qui nostralis militiæ consuetudinum ought to have no concern with promotion : revolutionnovit, summum erat ubique silentium, summa quies, ary governments, and military despotisms, can make rixa nulla, nullum cujusquam insolens factum ; sed ne generals of persons fit to be generals : to enable them nox quidem aut vitulatio per lasciviam aut ebrietatem to be unjust in all other instances, they are forced to emissa. Ad hæc summa mundities, nulla sterquilinia, be just in this. What, in fact, are the sultans and nulla purgamenta, nihil quod oculos aut nares offende chas of Paris, but Janissaries raised from the ranks? ret. Quicquid est hujusmodi, aut defodiunt Turcæ, At present, the Janissaries are procured from the lox. aut procul à conspectu submovent. Sed nec ullas est of the people, and the spirit of the corps is erapo. compotationes aut convivia, nullum aleæ genus, mag. rated. The low'state of their armies is in some de num nostratis militiæ flagitiuin, videre erat : nulla gree imputable to this ; but the principal reason why lusoriarum chartarum, neque tesserarum damna norunt the Turks are no longer as powerful as they were is, Turcæ. ! - Augeri Busbequii, Epist. 3. p. 187. Hano- that they are no longer enthusiasts, and that the war via. 1622. There is at present, in the Turkish ar- is now become more a business of science than of permy, a curious mixture of the severest despotism in the sonal courage. commander, and the most rebellions insolence in the
The person of the greatest abilities in the Turkish soldier. When the soldier misbehaves, the vizier empire is the capitan pacha; he has disciplined some cuts his head off, and places it under his arm. When ships and regiments in the European fashion, and the soldier is dissatisfied with the vizier, he fires his would, if he were well seconded, bring about some im. ball through his tent, and admonishes him, by these portant reforms in the Turkish cmpire. But what is messengers, to a more pleasant exercise of his au- become of all the reforms of the famous Gazi Hassan? thority. That such severe punishments should not The blaze of partial talents is soon extinguished. confer a more powerful authority, and give birth to a Never was there so great a prospect of improvement better discipline, is less extraordinary, if we reflect, as that afforded by the exertions of this celebrated that we hear only that the punishments are severe, man, who, in spite of the ridicule thrown upon him by not that they are steady, and that they are just; for, Baron de Tott, was such a man as the Turks cannot if the Turkish soldiers were always punished with the expect to see again once in a century. He had the same severity when they were in fault, and never but whole power of the Turkish empire ai his diposal for then, it is noi in human nature to suppose, that the fifteen years; and, after repeated efforts to improve Turkisn army would long remain in as contemptible a state as it now is. But the government soon learn to
* This is a very spirited appeal to his countryınen on the One fact mentioned by Dr. Wittman, appears to be cu- tremendous power of the Turks ; and, with the substitution rious ;-that Constantinople was nearly free from plague, that it might be spoken in Parliament with great effect. during the interruption of its communication witb Egypt.
the army, abandoned the scheme as totally impracti- move round the sum : for if so a ship bound from Jaffa cable. The celebrated Bonneval, in his time, and De to Constantinople, instead of proceeding to the capit. Tott since, made the same attempt with the same suc. al, would be carried to London, or elsewhere. We cess. They are not to be taught; and six months after cannot end this article without confessing with great his death, every thing the present capitan pacha has pleasure the entertainment we have received from the done will be iminediately pulled to pieces. The pre. work which occasions it. It is an excellent lounging. sent grand vizier is a man of no ability. There are book, full of pleasant details, never wearing by prosome very entertaining instances of his gross igno- lixity, or offending by presumption, and is apparently rance cited in the 133d page of the Travels. Upon the the production of a respectable worthy man. So tar news being communicated to him that the earth was
we can conscientiously recommend it to the public ; round, he observed that this could not be the case ; for any thing else, for the people and the objects on the other side would in that case fall off; and that the earth could not
Non cuivis homini contingit adire, &c. &c. &c.
SPEECHES, LETTERS, ETC.
animosity between us, could not, and would not fail to
increase my regard and respect for him. & Speech at a Meeting of the Clergy of the Archdeacon I beg leave, sir, before I proceed on this subject, to
ry of the East Riding of Yorkshire, held at Beverley, state what I mean by Catholic eman cpation. I mean in that Riding, on Monday, April 11, 1825, for the eligibility of Catholics to all civil offices, with the usuPurpose of Petitioning Parliament, &c.*
al excepiions introduced into all bills-jealous safe. to differ from so many worthy and respectable clergy and, lastly, provision for the Catholic clergy. MR. ARCHDEACON,–It is very disagreeable to me guards for the preservation of the Protestant church,
and for the regulation of the intercourse with Romemen here assembled, and not only to differ from them, bul, I am afraid, to stand alone among them. I would cause it is impolitic, and because it is unjust. It is
I object, sir, to the law as it stands at present, bemuch rather vote in majorities, and join in this, or any impolitic, because it exposes this country to the greatother political chorus, than to stand unassisted and
est danger in time of war. Can you believe, sir, can alone, as I am now doing. I dislike such meetings for such purposes—I wish I could reconcile it to my con any man of the most ordinary tum for observation, be. science to stay away from them, and to my tempera: country in the quiet possession of the high station
ieve, that the monarchs of Xurope mean to leave this ment to be silent at them; but if they are called by which it at present holds ? Is it not obvious that a war others, I deem it right to attend-it I attend. I must is coming on between the governments of law and the say what I think. If it is unwise in us to meet in ta: governments of despotism?—that the weak and totter. mine, for I should never think of calling such a meet-ing race of the Bourbons will (whatever our wishes ing. If the subject is trite, no blame is imputable to may be) be compelled to gratify the wounded vanity me: it is as dull to me to handle such subjects, as it is land. Already they are pitying the Irish people, as
of the French, by plunging them into a war with Eng. to you to hear them. The customary promise on the threshold of an inn is good entertainment for man you pity the West Indian slaves-already they'are and horse. If there is any truth in any part of this will they wait for your tardy wisdom and 'reluctant
openíng colleges for the reception of Irish priests ?sentence at the Tiger, at Beverley, our horses at this liberality? Is not the present state of Ireland a premoment must certainly be in a state of much greater mium upon early invasion ? Does it not hold out the enjoyment than the masters who rode them.
most alluring invitation to your enemies to begin? And It will be some amusement, however, to this meet if the flag of any hostile power in Europe is unfurled in ing, to observe the schism which this question has 9C that unhappy country, is there one Irish peasant who casioned in my own parish of Londesborough. My will not hasten to join it?-and not only the peasantry, excellent and respectable curate, Mr. Milestones, sir; the peasantry begin these things, but the peasantry alarmed at the effect of the pope upon the East Rid do not end them--they are soon joined by an order å ing, has come here to oppose ine, and there he stands, little above them and then, after a trifling success, a breathing war and vengeance on the Vatican. We had still superior class think it worth while to try the risk: some previous conversation on this subject, and, in im
men are hurried into a rebellion, as the oxen were itation of our superiors, we agreed not to make it a
pulled into the cave of Cacus-tail foremost. The cabinet question:-Mr. Milestones, indeed, with that mob first, who have nothing to lose but their lives. ol delicacy and propriety which belong to his character, which every Irishman has nine-then comes the shop; expressed some scruples upon the propriety of voting keeper-then the parish priest—then the vicar-general against his rector, but I insisted he should come and vote against me. I assured him nothing would give if the French were to make the same blunders respect
-then Dr. Doyle, and, lastly, Daniel O'Connell. But me more pain than to think I had prevented in any ing Ireland as Napoleon committed, if wind and wea. man,
the free assertion of honest opinions. That such ther preserved Ireland for you a second time, still all conduct, on his part, instead of causing jealousy and your resources would be crippled by watching Ire.
land. The force employed for this might liberate Spain • I was left at this meeting in a minority of one. A poor and Portugal, protect India, or accomplish any great clergyman whispered to me, int he was quite of my way purpose of offence or defence. of thinking, but had nine children. I begged he would remain War, sir, seeins to be almost as natural a state to a Protestant.
mankind as peace; but if you could hope to escape
war, is there a more powerful receipt for destroying Protestants (gentlemen necd not look so much surpris the prosperity of any country, than these eternal ed to hear it,) positively meet together, sir, in the jealousies and distinctions between the two religions?. same room. They constitute what is called the reli. What man will carry his industry and his capital into gious committee for the kingdom of the Netherlands, a country where his yard measure is a sword, his and so extremely desirous are they of preserving the pounce-box a powder-flask, and his ledger a return of strictest impartiality, that they have chosen a Jew for killed and wounded? Where a cat will get, there I their secretary. Their conduct has been unimpeacha. know a cotton-spinner will penetrate; but let these gen. ble and unimpeached; the two sects are at peace with tlemen wait till a few of their factories have been burned each other; and the doctrine, that no iaith is kept with down, till one or two respectable merchants of Man. heretics, would, I assure you, be very little credited at chester have been carded and till they have seen the Amsterdam or ihe Hague, cities as essentially Protes. cravatists hanging the shanavists in cotton twist. In tant as the town of Beverley. the present fervour for spinning, ourang-outangs, sir, Wretched is our condition, and still more wretched would be employed to spin, if they could be found in the condition of Ireland, if the Catholic does not res. sufficient quantities; but miserably will those reason- pect his oath. He serves on grand and petty juries in crs be disappointed who repose upon cotton-not upon both countries; we trust our lives, our liberues, and justice-and who imagine this great question can be our properties, to his conscientous reverence of an put aside, because a few hundred Irish spinners are oath, and yet, when it suits the purposes of party to gaining a morsel of bread by the overflowing industry bring forth this argument, we say he has no respect for of the English market.
oaths. The right to a landed estate of 30001 per 80But what right have you to continue these rules, sir, num was decided last week, in York, by a jury, the these laws of exclusion? What necessity can you foreman of which was a Catholic ; does any human be. show for it? Is the reigning monarch a concealed ing harbour a thought, that this gentleman, whom we Catholic ?-Is his successor an open one ?—Is there a all know and respect, would, under any circumstances, disputed succession ?-Is there a Catholic pretender? have thought more lightly of the obligation of an oath, If some of these circumstances are said to have justi. than his Protestant brethren of the box? We all dis. fied the introduction, and others the continuation of believe these arguments of Mr. A. the Catholic, and these measures, why does not the disappearance of all of Mr. B. the Caibolic ; but we believe them of Cathothese circumstances justify the repeal of the restric. ics in general, of the abstract Catholics, of the Catho. tions? If you must be unjust--if it is a luxury you lic of the Tiger Inn, at Beverley, the formidable un. cannot live without reserve your injustice for the known Catholic, that is so apt to haunt our clerical weak, and not for the strong persecute the Unitari, meetings. ans, muzzle the Ranters, be unjust to a few thousand I observe that some gentlemen who argue this ques. sectaries, not to six millions-galvanize a frog, don't tion, are very bold about other offices, but very jealous galvanize a tiger.
lest Catholic gentlemen should become justices of the If you go into a parsonage-house in the country, Mr. peace. If this jealousy is justifiable anywhere, it is Archdeacon, you see sometimes a style and fashion of justifiable in Ireland, where some of the best and most furniture which does very well for us, but which has respectable magistrates are Catholics. had its day in London. It is seen in London po more ; It is not true that the Roman Catholic religion is it is banished to the provinces ; from the gentlemen's what it was. I meet that assertion with a plump de. houses of the provinces these pieces of furniture, as nial. The pope does not dethrone kings, nor give soon as they are discovered to be unfashionable, des- away kingdoms, does not extort money, has given up, cend to the farm-houses, then to cottages, then to the in some instances, the nomination of bishops to Cath. faggot-heap, then to the dung-hill. As it is with tur. olic princes, in some, I believe, to Protestant princes; niture, so is it with arguments. I hear at country Protestant worship is now carried on at Rome. meetings many arguments against the Catholics which the Low Countries, the seat of the Duke of Alva's are never heard in London ; their London existence is cruelties, the Catholic tolerates the Protestant, and over-they are only to be met with in the provinces, sits with him in the same Parliament—the same in and there ihey are fast hastening down, with clumsy Hungary—the same in France. The first use which chairs and ill-fashioned sofas, to another order of men. even the Spanish people made of their ephemeral lib But, sir, as they are not yet gone where I am sure they erty, was to destroy the Inquisition. It was destroyed are going, I shall endeavour to point out their defects, also by the mob at Portugal. I am so far from think. and to accelerate their descent.
ing the Catholic not to be more tolerant than he Many gentlemen now assembled at the Tiger Inn, was, that I am much afraid the English, who gave the at Beverley, believe that the Catholics do not keep first lesson of toleration to mankind, will very soon faith with heretics; these gentlemen ought to know have a great deal to learn from their pupils. that Mr. Pitt put this very question to six of the lead Some men quarrel with the Catholics, because their ing Catholic universities in Europe. He inquired of language was violent in the Association ; but a groan them whether this tenet did or did not constitute any or two, sir, after two hundred years of incessant tyranpart of the Catholic faith. The question reccived from ny, may surely be forgiven. A few warm phrases to these universities the most decided negative; they de compensate the legal massacre of a million of Irish. nied that such doctrine formed any part of the creed men are not unworthy of our pardon, All this hardly of Catholics. Such doctrine, sir, is denied upon oath, deserves the eternal incapacity of holding civil offices. in the bill now pending in Parliament, a copy of which Then they quarrel with the Bible Society; in other I hold in my hand. The denial of such a doctrine upon words, they vindicate that ancient tenet of their church, oath is the only means by which a Catholic can relieve that the Scriptures are not to be left to the unguided himself from his present incapacities. If a Catholic, judgment of the laity. The objection to Catholics is, thereforefore, sir, will not take the oath, he is not re- that they did what Čatholics ought to do and do noi lieved, and remains where you wish him to remain ; if many prelates of our church object to the Bible Sociehe does take the oath, you are safe from this peril; if ty, and contend that the Scriptures ought not to be cir. he has no scruple about oaths, of what consequence is culated without the comment of the Prayer Rook and it whether this bill passes, the very object of which is the Articles? If they are right, the Catholics are not to relieve him from oaths ? Look at the fact, sir. Do wrong; and if the Catholics are wrong, they are in the Protestant cantons of Switzerland, living under the such good company, that we ought to respect their same state with the Catholic cantons, complain that errors. no faith is kept with heretics? Do not the Catholics Why not pay their clergy? the Presbyterian clergy and Protestants in the kingdom of the Netherlands in the north of Ireland are paid by the state ; the meet in one common Parliament? Could they pursue Catholic clergy of Canada are provided for: the priests a common purpose, have common friends, and como of the Hindoos are, I believe, in some of their temples, mon enemies, 'if there was a shadow of truth in this paid by the Company. You must surely admit, that doctrine imputed to the Catholics? The religious af. ihe Catholic religion (the religion of two-thirds of Evfairs of this last kingdom are managed with the strict. rope,) is better than no religion. I do not regret that est impartiality to both sects ? ten Catholics and ten the Irish are under the dominion of the priests. I am
glad that so savage a people as the lower orders of by the union of the Irish Catholics. They saw that Irish are under the dominion of their priests ; for it is Catholic Ireland had discovered her strength, and a step gained to place such beings under any influence, stretched out her limbs, and felt manly powers, and and the clergy are always the first civilizers of man- | called for manly treatinent; and the House of Comkind. The Irish are deserted by their natural aristo mons wisely and practically yielded to the innova. cracy, and I should wish to inake their priesthood res- tions of time, and the shifting attitude of human at. peetable in their appearance, and easy in their circum- fairs.
A government provision has produced the I admit the church, sir, to be in great danger. I most important change in the opinions of the Presby: am sure the state is so also. My remedy for these terian clergy of the north of Ireland, and has changed evils is, to enter into an alliance with the Irish people them from levellers and Jacobins into reasonable men ; -lo conciliate the clergy, by giving them pensions It would not fail to improve most materially the politi- to loyalize the laity, by putting them on a footing cal opinions of the Catholic priests. This cannot, with the Protestant. My remedy is the old one, aphowever, be done, without the emancipation of the proved of from the beginning of the world, to lessen laity. No priest would dare to accept a salary from dangers, by increasing friends, and appeasing ene government, unless this preliminary was settled. I am mies. I think it mosi probable, that under this sysaware it would give to government a tremendous pow. tem of crown patronage, the clergy will be quiet. A er in that country; but I must choose the least of two Catholic layman, who finds all the honours of the evils. The great point, as the physicians say, in some state open to him, will not, I think, run into treason diseases, is to resist the tendency io death. The great and rebellion-will not live with a rope about his object of our day is to prevent the loss of Ireland, and neck, in order to turn our bishops out, and put his the consequent ruin of England; to obviate the ten own in ; he may not, too, be of opinion that the utility dency to death; we will first keep the patient alive, of his bishop will be four times as great, because his and then dispute about his diet and his medicine. income is four times as large ; but whether he is or
Suppose a law were passed, that no clergyman, who not, he will never endanger his sweet acres (large had ever held a living in the East Riding, could be measure) for such questions as these. Anti-trinitari. made a bishop. Many gentlemen here (who have no an Dissenters sit in the House of Coinmons, whom we hopes oferer being removed from their parishes) would believe to be condemned to the punishments of anofeel the restriction of the law as a considerable degra- ther world. There is no limit to the introduction of dation. We should soon be pointed at as a lower or. Dissenters into both houses-Dissenting Lords or Dis. der of clergymen. It would not be long before the senting Commons. What mischief have Dissenters common people would find some fortunate epithet for for this last century and a half plotted against the us, and it would not be long either before we should Church of England The Catholic lord and the Ca. observe in our brethren of the north and west an air of tholic gentleman (restored to their fair rights) will superiority, which would aggravate not a little the jus. never join with levellers and Iconoclasts. You will tice of the privation. Every man feels the insults find them defending you hereafter against your Prothrown upon his caste ; the insulted party falls lower, testant enemies. The crosier in any hand, the mitre erery body else becomes higher. There are heart on any head, are more tolerable in the eyes of a Ca. burnings and recollections. Peace flies from that land. tholic than doxological Barebones and tonsured Crom. The volume of parliamentary evidence I have brought well. here is loaded with the testimony of witnesses of all We preach to our congregations, sir, that a tree is ranks and occupations, stating to the House of Com- known by its fruits. By the fruits it produces I will mons the undoubted effects produced upon the lower judge your system. What has it done for Ireland? order of Catholics by these disqualifying laws, and the New Zealand is emerging-Otaheite is emerginglively interest they take in their removal. I have sev. Ireland is not emerging-she is still veiled in darkness enteen quotations, sir, from this evidence, and am rea-her children, safe under no law, live in the very shady to give any gentleman my references; but I for. dow of death. Has your system of exclusion made Ire. bear to read them, from compassion to my reverend land rich? Has is made ireland loyal? Has it made brethren, who have irotted many miles to vote against Ireland free? Has it made Ireland happy? How is the pope, and who will trot back in the dark, if I at the wealth of Ireland proved? Is it by the naked, idle, tempt to throw additional light upon the subject. suffering savages, who are slumbering on the mud floor
I have, also, sir, a high-spirited class of gentlemen of their cabins? In what does the loyalty of Ireland to deal with, who will do nothing from fear, who ad consist? Is it in the eagerness with which they would mit the danger, but think it disgraceful to act as if range themselves under the hostile banner of any inva. they feared it. There is a degree of fear, which de- der, for your destruction and for your distress? Is it stroys a man's faculties, renders him incapable of act. liberty when men breathe and move among the bayo. ing, and makes him ridiculous. There is another sort nets of English soldiers ? Is their happiness and of fear, which enables a man to foresee a coming evil, their history any thing but such a tissue of murders, to measure it, to examine his powers of resistance, to burnings, banging, famine, and disease, as never exbalance the evil of submission against the evils of op- isted before in the annals of the world? This is the position or defeat, and if he thinks he must be ulti- system which, I am sure, with very different inten. mately overpowered, leads him to find a good escape tions, and different views of its effects, you are met in a good time. I can see no possible disgrace in this this day to uphold. These are the dreadful consesort of fear, and in listening to its suggestions. But it quences, which those laws your petition prays may is mere cant to say, that men will not be actuated by be continued, have produced upon Ireland. From the fear in such questions as these. Those who pretend principles of that system, from the cruelty of those not to fear now, would be the first to fear upon the laws, I turn, and turn with the homage of 'my whole approach of danger; it is always the case with this heart, to that memorable proclamation which the distant valour. Most of the concessions which have head of our church-the present monarch of these been given to the Irish have been given to fear. realms—has lately made to his hereditary dominions Ireland would have been lost to this country, if the of Hanover-That no man should be subjected to civil British legislature had not, with all the rapidity and incapacities on account of religious opinions. Sir, there precipitation of the truest panic, passed those acts have been many memorable things done in this reign. which Ireland did not ask, but demanded in the time Hostile armies have been destroyed ; fleets have been of her armed associations. I should not think a man captured ; formidable combinations have been broken brave, but mad, who did not fear the treasons and re- to pieces—but this sentiment, in the mouth of a king, bellions of Ireland in time of war. I should think deserves more than all glories and victories the notice him not dastardly, but consummately wise, who pro- of that historian who is destined to tell to future ages vided against them in time of peace. The Catholic the deeds of the English people. I hope he will la. question has made a greater progress since the open. vish upon it every gem which glitters in the cabinet of ing of this Parliament than I ever remember it to genius, and so uphold it to the world that it will be have made, and it has made that progress from remembered when Waterloo is forgotten, and when fear alone.' The House of Commons were astonished l the fall of Paris is blotted out from the memory of