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creatures into rum and tobacco ? or that the nation We strongly believe, with Mr. Bowdich, that this is which prohibits such an intercourse are not his ene- | the right road to the Niger. mies?" To have free access to Ashantee would com- Nothing in this world is created in vain : lions, mand Dagwumba. The people of Inta and Dagwum- tigers, conquerors, have their use. Ambitious mon. ba being commercial, rather than warlike, an inter. archs, who are the curse of civilized nations, are the course with them would be an intercourse with the civilizers of savage people. With a number of little interior, as far as Timbuctoo and Houssa northwards, independent hordes, civilization is impossible. They and Cassina, if not Boornoo, eastwards.'

must have a common interest before there can be After the observations of Mr. Bowdich, senior offi. peace; and be directed by one will before there can cer of the mission, follows the narrative of Mr. Hutch. be order. When mankind are prevented from daily inson, left as chargé d'affaires, upon the departure of quarrelling and fighting, they first begin to improve the other gentlemen. Mr. Hutchinson mentions some and all this, we are afraid, is only to be accomplished, white men residing at Yenné, whom he supposes to in the first instance, by some great conqueror. We bave been companions of Park; and Ali Baba, a man sympathise, therefore, with the victories of the King of good character and consideration, upon the eve of of Ashantee and feel' ourselves in love, for the first departure from these regions, assured him, that there l time, with military glory. The ex-empe

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ror of the were two Europeans then resident at Timbuctoo.-In French would, at Coomassie, Dagwumba, or Inta, be his observations on the river Gaboon, Mr. Bowdich has an eminent benefactor to the human race. the following information on the present state of the slave trade :

Three Portuguese, one French, and two large Spanish PUBLIC CHARACTERS OF 1801, 1802. (EDIN. ships, visited the river for slaves during our stay ; and the

BURGH REVIEW, 1802.) master of a Liverpool vessel assured me that he had fallen in with twenty-two between Gaboon and the Congo. Their Public Characters of 1801-1802 Richard Phillips, St Paul's grand rendezvous is Mayumba. The Portuguese of St.

1 vol. 8vo. Thomas's and Prince's Islands, send small schooner boats to Gaboon for slaves, which are kept, after they are trans- The design of this book appeared to us so extremely ported this short distance, until the coast is clear for ship- reprehensible, and so capable, even in the hands of a ping them to America. A third large Spanish ship, well blockhead, of giving pain to families and individuals, armed, entered the river the night before we quitted it, and that we considered it as a fair obiect of literary police. hurried our exit, for one of that character was committing

and had prepared for it a very severe chastisement. piracy in the neighbouring river. Having suffered from falling into their hands before, I felicitated myself on the

Upon the perusal of the book, however, we were enescape. We were afterwards chased and boarded by a tirely disarmed. It appears to be written by some Spanish armed schooner, with three hundred slaves on very innocent scribbler, who feels himself under the board ; they only desired provisions.'

vecessity of dining, and who preserves, throughout the

whole of the work, that degree of good humour which These are the most important extracts from this the terror of indictment by our lord the king is so well publication, which is certainly of considerable impor. I calculated to inspire. It is of some importance, too, tance, from the account it gives us of a people hitherto that the grown-up country gentlemen should be habi. almost entirely unknown ; and from the light which tuated to read printed books; and such may read a the very diligent and laborious inquiries of Mr. Bow. I story about their living friends, who would read nodich has thrown upon the geography of Africa, and thing else. the probability held out to us of approaching the great! We suppose the booksellers have authors at two kingdoms on the Niger, by means of an intercourse by different prices :—those who write grammatically, and no micans difficult to be established with the kingdoms those who do not; and that they have not thought fit of Inta and Dagwumba. The river Volta flows into to put any of their best hands upon this work. Whethe Gulf of Guinea, in latitude 7° north. It is navigable, lther or not there may be any improvement on this and by the natives navigated for ten days, to Odentee. point in the next volume, we request the biographer Now, from Odentee to Sallagha, the capital of the I will at least give us some means of ascertaining when kingdom of Inta, is but four days' journey; and seven he is comical, and when serious. In the life of Dr. days' journey from Sallagha, through the Inta Jam of Rennell we find this passage:Zongoo, is Yahndi, the capital of Dagwumba. Yahndi is described to be beyond comparison larger than

Dr. Rennell might well look forward to the highest dignities Coomassie, the houses much betier built and orna. in the establishment; but, if our information be right, and we

Me have no reason to question it, this is what he by no means mented. The Ashantees who had visited it, told Mr.

either expects or courts. There is a primitive simplicity in Bowdich they had frequently lost themselves in the

the this excellent man, which much resembles that of the first pre. streets. The king has been converted by the Moors,lates of the Christian church, who were with great difficulty who have settled themselves there in great numbers prevailed upon to undertake the episcopal office.' Mr. Lucas calls it the Mahometan kingdom of Degom. ba ; and it was represented to him as peculiarly weal. thy and civilized. The markets of Yahndi are descríbed as animated scenes of commerce, constantly | ACCOUNT OF NEW SOUTH WALES. (Edr. crowded with merchants from almost all the countries

BURGH REVIEW, 1803.) of the interior. It seems to us, that the best way of becoming acquainted with Africa, is not to plan such Account of the English Colony of New South Wales. By

Lieutenant-Colonel Collins, of the Royal Marines, Vo swecping expeditions as have been lately sent out by

II. 4to. Cadell and Davies, London. government, but to submit to become acquainted with it by degrees, and to acquire by little and little a To introduce un European population, and, conse. knowledge of the best methods of arranging expcdi- quently, the arts and civilization of Europe, into such tions. The kingdom of Dagwumba, for instance, is an untrodden country as New Holland, is to confer a not 200 miles from a well-known and regular water. lasting and important benefit upon the world. If man carriage, on the Volta. Perhaps it is nearer, but the be destined for perpetual activity, and if the proper distance is not greater than this. It is one of the most objects of that activity be the subjugation of physical commercial nations in Africa, and one of the most difficulties, and of his own dangerous passions, how civilized ; and yet it is utterly unknown, except by absurd are those systems which proscribe the acquisi. report, to Europeans. Then why not plan an expedi- tions of science and the restraints of tion to Dagwumba ?--the expense of which would be arrest the progress of man in the rudest and earliest very trifing, and the issue known in three or four stages of his existence! Indeed, opinions so very ex. months. The information procured from such a wise travagant in their nature, must be attributed rather to and moderate undertaking, would enable any future the wavtonness of paradox, than to sober reflection mission to proceed with much greater ease and safety and extended inqu

fety and extended inquiry. into the interior ; or prevent them from proceeding, as To suppose the savage state permanent, we must they hitherto have done, to their own destruction. I suppose the numbers of those who compose it to be

117

stationary, and the various passions by which men | benevolent Howard attacked our prisons, incarcera. have actually emerged from it to be extinct; and this tion has beeome not only healthy but elegant ; and a is to suppose man a very different being from what he county jail is precisely the place to which any pauper really is. To prove such a permanence beneficial (if | might wish to retire to gratify his taste for magnifi. it were possible), we must have recourse to matter of cence, as well as for comfort. Upon the same princi. fact, and judge of the rude state of society, not from ple, there is some risk that transportation will be the praises of tranquil literati, but from the narratives considered as one of the surest roads to honour and to of those who have seen it, through a nearer and better wealth; and that no felon will hear a verdict of inot medium than that of imagination. There is an argu guilty,' without considering himself as cut off in the ment, however, for the continuation of evil, drawn | fairest career of prosperity. It is foolishly believed, from the ignorance of good; by which it is contended, that the colony of Botany Bay unites our moral and that to teach men their situation can be better, is to commercial interests, and that we shall receive here. teach them that it is bad, and to destroy that happi. after an ample equivalent, in bales of goods, for all the Dess which always results from an ignorance that any vices we export. Unfortunately, the expense we have greater happiness is within our reach. All pains and incurred in tounding the colony will not retard the nat. pleasures are clearly by comparison; but the most de ural progress of its emancipation, or prevent the at. plorable savage enjoys a sufficient contrast of good, to tacks of other nations, who will be as desirous of know that the grosser evils from which civilization reaping the fruit, as if they had sown the seed. It is rescues him are evils. A New Hollander seldom pass- a colony, besides, begun under every possible disad. es a year without suffering from famine; the small-pox vantage : it is too distant to be long governed, or well falls upon him like a plague ; he dreads those calami. defended : it is undertaken, not by the voluntary assoties, though he does not know how to avert them ; but ciation of individuals, but by government, and by doubtless would find his happiness increased, if they means of compulsory labour. A nation must, indeed, were averted. To deny this, is to suppose that men be redundant in capital, that will expend it where the are reconciled to evils, because they are inevitable ;-) hopes of a just return as so very small. and yet hurricanes, earthquakes, bodily decay, and It may be a curious consideration, to reflect what we death, stand highest in the catalogue of human calam are to do with this colony when it comes to years of ities.

discretion. Are we to spend another hundred millions Where civilization gives birth to new comparisons of money in discovering its strength, and to humble unfavourable to savage life, with the information that ourselves again before a fresh set of Washingtons and a greater good is possible, it generally connects the Franklins? The moment after we have suffered such se-, means ot' attaining it. The savage no sooner becomes rious mischief from the escape of the old tiger, we are ashamed of his nakedness, than the loom is ready to breeding up a young cub, whom we cannot render less clothe him ; the forge prepares for him more perfect ferocious, or more secure. If we are gradually to tools, when he is disgusted with the awkwardness of manumit the colony, as it is more and more capable of his own : his weakness is strengthened, and his wants protecting itself, the degrees of emancipation, and the supplied, as soon as they are discovered ; and the use periods at which they are to take place, will be judged of the discovery is, that it enables him to derive from 1 of very differently by the two nations. But confess comparison the best reasons for present happiness. A ourselves not to be so sanguine as to suppose, that a man born blind is ignorant of the pleasures of which spirited commercial people would, in spite of the exhe is deprived. After the restoration of his sight, his ample of America, ever consent to abandon their sov. happiness will be increased from two causes ;- from reignty over an important colony, without a struggle. the delight he experiences at the novel accession of Endless blood and treasure will be exhausted to sup. power, and from the contrast he will always be enabled port a tax on kangaroos skins : faithful Commons will io make between his two situations, long after the go on voting fresh supplies to support a just and necessapleasure of novelty has ceased. For these reasons it ry war; and Newgate, then become a quarter of the is humane to restore him to sight.

world, will evince a heroism, not unworthy of the But, however beneficial to the general interests of great characters by whom she was originally peopled. mankind the civilization of barbarous countries may The experiment, however, is not less interesting in be considered to be, in this particular instance of it, I a moral, because it is objectionable in a commercial the interest of Great Britain would seem to have been point of view. It is an object of the highest curiosity, very little consulted. With fanciful schemes of uni. thus to have the growth of a nation subjected to our versal good we have no business to meddle. Why we examination ; to trace it by such faithful records, from are to erect penitentiary houses and prisons at the dis the first day of its existence ; and to gather that know. tance of half the diameter of the globe, and to incur ledge of the progress of human affairs, from actual the enormous expense of feeding and transporting their experience, which is considered to be only accessible inbabitants to, and at such a d

at such a distance, it is extremely to the conjectural reflections of enlightened minds. difficult to discover.* It certainly is not from any de Human nature, under very old governments, is so ficiency of barren islands near our own coast, nor of trimmed, and pruned, and ornamented, and led into uncultivated wastes in the interior ; and if we were such a variety of factitious shapes, that we are almost sufficiently fortunate to be wanting in such species of igno

ortunate to be wanting in such species of ignorant of the appearance it would assume, if it were accommodation, we might discover in Canada, or the left more to itself. From such an experiment as that West Indies, or on the coast of Africa, a climate ma- now before us, we shall be better able to appreciate lignant enough, or a soil sufficiently sterile, to revenge what circumstances of our situation are owing to those all the injuries which have been inflicted on society by permanent laws by which all men are influenced, and pickpockets, larcenists, and petty felons. Upon the what to the accidental positions in which we have been formdation of a new colony, and especially one peopled placed. New circumstances will throw new light upon by criminals, there is a disposition in government the effects of our religious, political, and economical (where any circumstance in the commission of the institutions, if we cause them to be adopted as models crime affords the least pretence for the commutation in our rising empire ; and if we do not, we shall esti. to convert capital punishments into transportation ; mate the effects of their presence, by observing those and by these means to hold forth a very dangerous, which are produced by their non-existence. though certainly a very unintentional, encouragement The history of the colony is at present, however, in to offences. And when the history of the colony has its least interesting state, on account of the great pre. been attentively perused in the parish of St. Giles, the ponderance of depraved inhabitants, whose crimes and ancient avocation of picking pockets will certainly not irregularities give a monotony to the narrative, which become more discreditable from the knowledge, that it cannot lose, till the respectable part of the commuit may eventually lead to the possession of a farm of a nity come to bear a greater proportion to the criminal. thousand acres on the river Hawkesbury. Since thel These Memoirs of Colonel Collins resume the history

of the colony from the period at which he concluded . The transportation committee of last year in their re- it in his former volume, September, 1796, and continue port arrive at the same conclusion, but not till after it down to August, 1801. They are written in the 1,000,0001. had been spent in the experiment.

i style of a journal, which, though not the most agreed.

ble mode of conveying information, is certainly the stitution among barbarous people ; and, when commost authentic, and contrives to banish the suspicion pared to assassination, is a prodigious victory gained (and most probably the reality) of the interference of over human passions. Whoerer kills another in the a book-maker-a species of gentlemen who are now neighbourhood of Botany Bay is compelled to appear almost become necessary to deliver naval and military at an appointed day before the friends of the deceas. authors in their literary labours, though they do not ed, and to sustain the attacks of their missile weapons. always atone, by orthography and grammar, for the If he is killed, he is deemed to have met with a de sacrifice of truth and simplicity. Mr. Collins's book served death; if not, he is considered to have expiated is written with great plainness and candour: he ap- the crime, for the commission of which he was exposed pears to be a man always meaning well ; of good, to the danger. There is, in this institution, a complain, common sense ; and composed of those well mand over present impulses, a prevention of secrecy

g materials, which adapt a person for situations in the gratification of revenge, and a wholesome cor where genius and refinement would only prove a source rection of that passion by the effects of public obser. of misery and of error.

vation, which evince such a superiority to the mere We shall proceed to lay before our readers an analy. animal passions of ordinary savages, and form such a sis of the most important matter contained in this contrast to the rest of the history of this people, that volume.

it may be considered as altogether an anomalous and The natives in the vicinity of Port Jackson stand inexplicable fact. The natives differ very much in the extremely low, in point of civilization, when compar- progress they have made in the arts of economy. ed with many other savages, with whom the disco. Those to the north of Port Jackson evince a consider. veries of

ok have made us acquainted. , able degree of ingenuity and contrivance in the struc. Their notions of religion exceed even that degree of ture of their houses, which are rendered quite imper. absurdity which we are led to expect in the creed of a vious to the weather, while the inhabitants at Port barbarous people. In politics, they appear to have Jackson have no houses at all. At Port Dalrymple, scarcely advanced beyond family government. Huts in Van Diemen's Land, there was every reason to be they have none: and in all their economical inven.lieve the na

lieve the natives were unacquainted with the use of tions, there is a rudeness and deficiency of ingenuity, canoes ; a fact extremely embarrassing to those who unpleasant, when contrasted with the instances of dex. indulge themselves in speculating on the genealogy of terity with which the descriptions and importations nations ; because it reduces them to the necessity of of our navigators have rendered us so familiar. Their supposing that the progenitors of this insular people numbers appear to us to be very small : a fact at once swam over from the mainland, or ibat they were indicative either of the ferocity of manners in any aboriginal; a species of dilemma, which effectually people, or more probably of the sterility of their bars all conjecture upon the intermixture of nations. country ; but which, in the present instance, proceeds It is painful to learn, that the natives have begun to from both these causes.

plunder and rob in so very alarming a manner, that it

has been repeatedly found necessary to fire opon Gaining every day (says Mr. Collins) some further know-l them; and many have, in consequence, fallen victims ledge of the inhuman habits and customs of these people, their

to their rashness. being so thinly scattered through the country ceased to be a matter of surprise. It was almost daily seen, that from some

The soil is found to produce coal in vast abundance, tritiing cause or other, they were continually living in a state / salt, lime, very fine iron ore, timber fit for all pur. of warfare : to this must be added, their brutal treatment of poses, excellent flax, and a tree, the bark of which is their women, who are themselves equally destructive to the admirably adapted for cordage. The discovery of measure of population, by the horrid and cruel custom of en coal (which, by the bye, we do not believe was erer deavouring to cause a miscarriage, which their female acquaint-I before discovered so near the line is probably rather ance effect by pressing the body in such a way as to destroy

troy a disadvantage than an advantage; because, as it lies the infant in the womb; which violence not upfrequently oc

extremely favourable for sea-carriage, it may prore casions the death of the unnatural mother also. To this they have recourse, to avoid the trouble of carrying the infant about to be a cheaper mer than wood, and thus operate as a when born, which, when it is very young, or at the breast, is discouragement to the clearing of lands. The soil the duty of the woman. The operation for this destructive upon the sea-coast has not been found to be very propurpose is termed Mee-bra, The burying an infant (when at ductive, though it impr

infant (when at ductive, though it improves in partial spots in the the breast) with the mother, if she should die, is another shock interior. The climate is healthy, in spite of the proing cause of the thinness of population among them. The fact, digious heat of the sunmer months : at which period that such an operation as the Mee-brâ was practised by these wretched people, was communicated by one of the natives to

the thermometer has been observed to stand in the the principal surgeon of the settlement.'-(pp. 124, 125.)

shade at 107, and the leaves of garden regetables to

fall into dust, as if they had been consumed with fire. It is remarkable, that the same paucity of numbers | But one of the most insuperable defects in New Holhas been observed in every part of New Holland land, considered as the future country of a great pecwhich has hitherto been explored ; and yet there is ple, is the want of large rivers penetrating very far not the smallest reason to conjecture that the popula- | into the interior, and navigable for small craft. The tion of it has been very recent ; nor do the people Hawkesbury, ché largest river yet discovered, is not bear any marks of descent from the inhabitants of the accessible to boats for more than twenty miles. The numerous islands by which this great continent is sur same river occasionally rises above its natural level, rounded. The force of population can only be resisted to the astonishing height of fifty feet : and has swep! by some great physical evils; and many of the causes away, more than once, the labours and the hopes of of this scarcity of human beings, which Mr. Collins the new people exiled to its banks. refers to the ferocity of the natives, are ultimately re. The laborious acquisition of any good we have long ferable to the difficulty of support. We have always enjoyed is apt to be forgotten. We walk and talk, considered this phenomenon as a symptom extremely l and run and read, without remembering the long and unfavourable to the future destinies of this country. sevcre labour dedicated to the cultivation of these It is easy to launch out into eulogiums of the fertility | powers, the forinidable obstacles opposed to our of naiure in particular spots; but the most probable gress, or the infinite satisfaction with which we oferreason why a country that has been long inhabited is came them. He who lives among a civilized people not well inhabited is, that it is not calculated to sus. may estimate the labour by which society has been port many inhabitants without great labour. It is brought into such a state, by reading in these anbals ditficult to suppose any other causes powerful enough of Botany Bay, the account of a whole nation exerting to resist the impetuous tendency of man, to obey that itself to new-floor the government-house, repair ibe mandate for increase and multiplication, which has hospital, or build a wooden receptacle for stores. certainly been better observed than any other declara. Yet the time may come, when some Botany Bay Taction of the Divine will ever revealed to us.

tus shall record the crimes of an emperor lineally There appears to be some tendency to civilization, descended from a London pickpocket, or paint the and some tolerable notions of justice, in a practice valour with which he has led his New Hollanders into very similar to our custom of duelling; for duelling, the heart of China. At that period, when the Grand though barbarous in civilized, is a highly civilized in. | Labma is sending to supplicate alliance; when the

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Spice Islands are purchasing peace with nutmegs; | by which he was enabled to fix a rate that he conceived to when enormous tributes of green tea and nankeen are be fair and equitable between the farmer and the labourer. wafted into Port Jackson, and landed on the quays of! The following prices of labour were now established

viz. Sidney; who will ever remember, that the sawing of a few planks, and the knocking together a few nails, Felling forest timber, per acre - - - - 0 9 0 were such a serious trial of the energies and resources Do. in brush ground. - do.

- . 0 10 6 of a nation ?

Burning off open ground, do.

- - - 15 The government of the colony, after enjoying some Do. brush ground, little respite from this kind of labour, has begun to Breaking up new ground, do. turn its attention to the coarsest and most necessary

Chipping fresh ground, do.

. 0 1 0 species of manufactures, for which their wool appears / Chipping in wheat,

Breaking up stubble or corn ground, 11d per rod, to be extremely well adapted. The state of stock in"

or

do. the whole settlement, in June, 1801, was about 7000 | Planting Indian corn, do.

- 0 sheep, 1300 head of cattle, 250 horses, and 5000 hogs. Hilling do.

do.

- 0 There were under cultivation at the same time be. Reaping wheat, ' do.

- 0 10 0 tween 9000 and 10,000 acres of corn. Three years and Thrashing do: per bushel, do.

- 009 a half before this, in December, 1797, the numbers

Pulling and husking Indian corn, per bushel - 0 0 6

Splitting paling of 7 feet long, per hundred were as follows :- Sheep, 2500; cattle, 350; horses, heep, 2500 ; cattle, 350; horses, Do. of 5 feet long.

do. - - - 0 1 6 100; hogs, 4300; acres of land in cultivation, 4000. Sawing plank,

do. - - .070 The temptation to salt pork, and sell it for govern. Ditching per rod, 3 feet wide and 3 feet deep - 0 0 10 ment store, is probably the reasou why the breed of Carriage of wheat, per bushel, per mile - - 0 0 2 hogs has been so much kept under. The increase of Do. Indian corn, neat - -* - - - - 0 0 3 cultivated lands between the two periods is prodigious. I Yearly wages for labour, with board - - - 10 0 0

Wages per week, with provisions, consisting of It appears (p. 319), that the whole number of convicts

4lb of salt pork, or 6lb of fresh, and 21lb. of imported between January, 1788, and June, 1801 (a

wheat with vegetables

- - 0 6 0 period of thirteen vears and a halt), has been about A day's wages with board

- - 0 1 0 5000, of whom 1157 were females. The total amount Do. without board . . .

- 0 2 6 of the population on the continent, as well as at Nor. A government-man allowed to officers or settlers folk Island, amounted, June, 1801, to 6500 persons ; of in their own time these 766 were children born at Port Jackson. In the

Price of an axe
me
.

0 2 0

New steeling do. returns from Norfolk Island, children are not discrim

-

- - - - 0 0 6 A new hoe

- - - 0 1 9 inated from adults. Let us add to the imported popu- A sickle

- 0 1 6 lation of 5000 convicts, 500 free people, which (if we Hire of a boat to carry grain, per day - - - 0 5 0 consider that a regiment of soldiers has been kept up there), is certainly a very small allowance; then, in 'Thes

The settlers were reminded, that, in order to prevent thirteen years and a halt, the imported population has any kind of dispute between the master and servant, when increased only by two-thirteenths. If we suppose that

they should have any occasion to hire a man for any length

of time, they would find it most convenient to engage him something more than a fifth of the free people were

for a quarter, half year, or year, and to make their agreewomen, this will make the total of women 1270 ; ot-I ment in writing ; on which, should any dispute arise, an whom we may fairly presume that 800 were capable appeal to the inagistrates would settle it.' of child-bearing ; and if we suppose the children of Norfolk Island to bear the same proportion to the. This is all very bad; and if the governor had cher. adults as at Port Jackson, their total number at both ished the intention of destroying the colony, he could settlements will be 913:-a state of infantine popula. have done nothing more detrimental to its interests. tion which certainly does not justify the very high eu

ich ev. The high price of labour is the very comer-stone logiums which have been made on the fertility of the on which the prosperity of a new colony depends. It female sex in the climate of New Holland.

enables the poor man to live with ease; and is the The governor, who appears on all occasions to be strongest incitement to population, by rendering chil. an extremely well-disvosed man, is not quite so con- dren rather a source of riches than of poverty. If the versant in the best writings on political economy as same difficulty of subsistence existed in new countries we could wish; and indeed, (though such knowledge as in old, it is plain that the progress of population would be extremely serviceable to the interests which would be equally slow in each. The very circumthis Romulus of the Southern Pole is superintending), I stances which cause the difference is, that in the lat. it is rather unfair to exact from a superintendant of ler, there is a competition among the labourers em.

pockets, that he should be a philosopher. In the ployed; and, in the former, a competition among the 18th page we have the following information respect.

occupiers of land to obtain labourers. In the one,

land is scarce, and men plenty ; in the other, men are ing the price of labour.

scarce, and land is plenty. To disturb this natural Some representations having been made to the governor

order of th

us at all times, must from the settlers in different parts of the colony, purporting, be particularly so, where the predominant disposition that the wages demanded by the free labouring people, whom of the colonists is an aversion to labour, produced by they had to hire, were so exorbitant as to run away with a long course of dissolute habits. In such cases, the the greatest part of the profit of their farms, it was recom

ices of labour, which the governor was so de. mended to them to appoint quarterly meetings among them

sirous of abating, bid fair not only to increase the selves, to be held in each district for the purpose of settling the rate of wages to labourers in every different kind of agricultural prosperity, but to cffect the moral reforwork ; that, to this end, a written agreement should be en-mation of the colony. We observe the same unfortutered into, and subscribed by each settler, a breach of which nate ignorance of the elementary principles of com. should be punished by a penalty, to be fixed by the general merce, in the attempts of the governor to reduce the opinion, and made recoverable in a court of civil judica- prices of the European commodities, by bulletins and ture. It was recommended to them to apply this forfeiture

authoritative interference, as if there were any other to the common benefit; and they were to transmit to the head-quarters a copy of their agreement, with the rate of

mode of lowering the price of an article (while the wages which they should from time to time establish, for the

demand continues the same) but by increasing in governor's information; holding their first meeting as early quantity. The avaricious love of gain, which is so as possible.'

feelingly deplored, appears to us a principle which, in

able hands, might be guided to the most salutary And again, at p. 24, the following arrangements on purposes. The object is to encourage the love of lathat head are enacted :

bour, which is best encouraged by the love of money. * In pursuance of the order which was issued in January the best timber on the estates as government timber.

We have very great doubts on the policy of reserving last, recommending the settlers to appoint meetings, at which they should fix the rate of wages that it might be pro

$; at Such a reservation would probably operate as a check per to pay for the different kinds of labour which their lupon the clearing of lands, without attaining the obfarms should require, the settlers had met and submitted to lject desired; for the timher, instead of being immedithe governor the several resolutions they had entered into, lately cleared, would be slowly destroyed, by the nega lect or malice of the settlers whose lands it encum. 1 by Captajn Vancouver, situate in the latitude of 359 03 sous bered. Timber is such a drug in new countries, that and longitude 118° 12' east; and it is to be hoped, that a few it is at any time to be purchased for little more than | years will disclose many others upon the coast, as well as the the labour of cutting. To secure a supply of it by i confirmation or futility of the conjecture, that a still larger

than Bass Strait dismembers New Holland.'-(pp. 192. 193.) vexatious and invidious laws is surely a work of su. pererogation and danger. The greatest evil which We learn from a note subjoined to this passage,

vernment has yet had to contend with is, the that, in order to verify or refute this conjecture. of the inordinate use of spirituous liquors; a passion which existence of other important inlets on the west coast puts the interests of agriculture at variance with those of New Holland, Captain Flinders has sailed with iro of morals; for a dram-drinker will consume as much ships under his command, and is said to be accompa. corn, in the form of alcohol, in one day, as would sup-nied by several professional men of considerable abi. ply him with bread for three ; and thus, by his vices, 1 lity. opens a market to the industry of a new settlement. Such are the most important contents of Mr. Col. The only mode, we believe, of encoumtering this evil, lins's book, the style of which we very much approre, is by deriving from it such a revenue as will not admit because it appears to be written by himself; and we of smuggling. Beyond this, it is almost invincible by must repeat again, that nothing can be more injurious authority; and is probably to be cured only by the to the opinion the public will form of the authenticity progressive refinement of manners.

of a book of this kind, than the suspicion that it has To evince the increasing commerce of the settle been tricked out and embellished by other hands. ment, a list is subjoined of one hundred and forty Such men, to be sure have existed as Julius Cæsar; ships which have arrived there since its first founda- but, in general, a correct and elegant style is hardly tion ; forty only of which were from England. The coattainable by those who have passed their lives in aclony at Norfolk Island is represented to be in a very tion; and no one has such a pedantic love of good deplorable situation, and will niost probably be aban- writing, as to prefer mendacious finery to rough and doned for one about to be formed on Van Dieman's ungrammatical truth. The events which Mr. Collins's Land, though the capital defect of the former settle. book records, we have read with great interest. There ment has been partly obviated, by a discovery of the is a charm in thus seeing villages, and churches, and harbour for small craft.

farms, rising from a wilderness, where civilized man The most important and curious information con has never set his foot since the creation of the world. tained in this volume, is the discovery of straits which The contrast between fertility and barrenness, popuseparate Van Dieman's Land (hitherto considered as lation and solitude, activity and indolence, fills the its southern extremity) from New Holland. For this mind with the pleasing images of happiness and in. discovery we are indebted to Mr. Bass, a surgeon, af.crease. Man seems to move in his proper sphere, ter whom the straits have been named, and who was while he is thus dedicating the powers of his mind led to a suspicion of their existence by a prodigious and body to reap those rewards which the bountiful swell which he observed to set in from the westward, author of all things has assigned to his industry. Nei. at the mouth of the opening which he had reached on ther is it any common enjoyment to tum for a while a voyage of discovery, prosecuted in a common whale from the memory of those distractions which have so boat. To verify this suspicion, he proceeded after recently agitated the Old World, and to reflect, that wards in a vessel of 25 tons, accompanied by Mr. its very horrors and crimes may have thus prepared & Flinders, a naval gentleman; and entering the straits long era of opulence and peace for a people yet in. between the latitudes of 39 and 40 south, actually volved in the womb of time. circumnavigated Van Dieman's Land. Mr. Bass's ideas of the importance of this discovery we shall give from his narrative, as reported by Mr. Collins.

WITTMAN'S TRAVELS. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, • The most prominent advantage which seemed likely to ac

1803.) crue to the settlement from this discovery was, the expediting of the passage from the Cape of Good Hope to Port Jackson ; Travels in Turkey, Asia Minor, and Syria, &c. and into for although a line drawn from the Cape to 44" of south lati Egypt. By William Wittman, M. D. 1803. London. Philtude, and to longitude of the South the Cape of Van Dieman's

lips. Land, would not sensibly differ from one drawn to the latitude

DR. WITTMAN was sent abroad with the military of 409, to the same longitude; yet it must be allowed, that a ship will be four degrees nearer to Port Jackson in the latter

mission to Turkey, towards the spring of 1799, and resituation than it would be in the former. But there is, perhaps,

mained attached to it during its residence in the a greater advantage to be gained by making a passage through neighbourhood of Constantinople, its march through the strait than the mere saving of four degrees of latitude the desert, and its short operations in Egypt. The along the coast. The major part of the ships that have arrived military mission, consisting of General Koehler, ind at Port Jackson have met with N. E. winds, on opening the sea some officers and privates of the artillery and engiround the South Cape and Cape Pillar, and have been so much retarded by them, that a fourteen days' passage to the port is

neers, amounting on the whole to seventy, were asreckoned to be a fair one, although the difference of latitude is

sembled at Constantinople, June 1799, which they left but ten degrees, and the most prevailing winds at the latter in the same month of the following year, joined the place are from S. E. to S. in summer, and from W.S.W. to s. grand vizier at Jaffa in July, and entered Egypt with in winter. If, by going through Bass Strait, these N. E. winds the Turks in April, 1801. After the military opera. can be avoided, which in many cases would probably be the tions were concluded there, Dr. Wittman returned case, there is no doubt but a week or more would be gained by home by Constantinople, Vienna, &c. it; and the expense, with the wear and tear of a ship for one

The travels are written in the shape of a journal, week, are objects to most owners, more especially when freighted with convicts by the run.

which begins and concludes with the events which we This strait likewise presents another advantage. From the

have just mentioned. It is obvious that the route prevalence of the N.E. and easterly winds off the South Cape, described by Dr. Wittman is not new: he could make many suppose that a passage may be made from thence to the no cursory and superficial observations upon the people westward, either to the Cape of Good Hope, or to India; but whom he saw, or the countries through which he the fear of the great unknown bight between the South Cape

passed, with which the public are not already famiof Lewen's Land, lying in about 35° south and 1130 east, has

liar. If his travels were to possess any merit at all, hitherto prevented the trial being made. Now, the strait removes a part of this danger, by presenting a certain place of

they were to derive that merit from aceurate physical retreat, should a gale oppose itself to the ship in the first part

researches, from copious information on the state of of the essay; and should the wind oome at S.W. she need not medicine, surgery, and disease in Turkey; and above fear making a good stretch to the W.N.W.; which course, if | all, perhaps, from gratifying the national curiosity made good, is within a few degrees of going clear of all. which all inquiring minds must feel upon the nature of There is, besides, King George the Third's Sound, discovered

the plague, and the indications of cure. Dr. Wittman, * It is singular that government are not more desirous of

too, was passing over the same ground trodden by pushing their settlements rather to the north, than the south of

Bonaparte in his Syrian expedition, and had an ample Port Juckson. The soil and climate would probably improve,

opportunity of inquiring its probable object, and the in the latitude nearer the equator; and settlements in that pos probable success which (but for the heroic defence of sition would be more contiguous to our Indian calonios. Acre), might have attended it; he was on the theatre

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