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There seemed to me to be forces sufficient to subdue the whole bears arms against the Amoots, under the Captain world; and I know not which most to admire, the endless Hassan Pacha; and a very animated description is g clusters of tents, the enormous piles of armour, and the rows

ven of his first combat. of threatening cannon, which I met at every step, or the troops of well mounted spahees, who, like dazzling meteors, darted I undressed the dead man completely.-When, however, by us on every side, amid clouds of suitling dust. The very the business which engaged all my attention was entirely dirt with which the nearer horsemen bespaltered our humble achieved, and that human body of which, in the eagerness for troop, was, as I thought, imposing , and everything upon its spoil, 1 had only thus far noticed the separate limbs, one by which I cast my eyes gave me a feeling of nothingness, which one, as I stripped them, all at once struck my sight in its ful! made me shrink within myself like a snail in its cell. I envied dimensions, as it lay naked before me; when I contemplated not only those who were destined to share in all the glory and that fine athletic frame, but a moment before full of life and success of the expedition, but even the meanest follower of the vigour unto its fingers'ends, now rendered an insensible corps camp, as a being of a superior order to myself; and, when sud-by the random shot of a raw youth whom in close combat its devly there arose a loud flourish of trumpets, which, ending a little finger might have crushed, I could not help feeling, mixed concert of cymbals and other warlike instruments, re-echoed with my exultation, a sort of shame, as if for a cowardly adin long peals from all the surrounding mountains, the clang vantage obtained over a superior being; and in order to inake shook every nerve in my body, thrilled me to the very soul, a kind of atonement to the shade of an Epirote-of a kinsman and infused in all my veins a species of martial ardour so re- -I exclaimed with outstretched hands, “Cursed be the paltry sistless, that it made me struggle with my fetters, and try to dust which turns the warrior's arm into a mere engine, and tear them asunder. Proud as I was by nature, I would have striking from afar an invisible blow, carries death no one knows knelt to whoever had offered to liberate my limbs, and to arm whence to no one knows whom; levels the strong with the my hands with a sword or a battle-axe.'-(1. 36, 37.)

weak, the brave with the dastardly; and enabling the feeblet

hand to wield its fatal lightning, makes the conqueror slay From his captive state, he passes into the service

e without anger, and the conquered die without glory." (1.51, of Mavroyeni, Hassan's droguemau, with whom he ingratiates himself and becomes a person of conse. quence. In the service of this person, he receives

The campaign ended, he proceeds to Constantinople from old Demo, a brother domestic, the following ad. ||

ad. , with the drogueman, where his many intrigues and mirable lecture on masters:

debaucheries end with the drogueman's turning bim

out of doors. He lives for some time at Constantino. "" Listen, young man,” said he, "whether you like it or not. (ple in great misery; and is driven, among other expe. For my own part, I have always had too much indolence, not dients, to the trade of quack-doctor. to make it my study throughout life rather to secure ease than labour for distinction. It has, therefore, been my rule to avoid 'One evening, as we were returning from the Blacquerdes, cherishing in my patron any outrageous admiration of my ca- an old woman threw herself in our way, and, taking hold of my pacity, which would have increased my dependence while it master's garment, dragged him almost by main force after her lasted, and expose me to persecution on wearing out:--but into a mean-looking habitation just by, where lay on a couch, you, I see, are of a different mettle : I therefore may point out apparently at the last gasp, a man of foreign features. "I to you the surest way to that more perilous height, short of have brought a physician," said the female to the patiel, which your ambition, I doubt, will not rest satisfied. When “who perhaps may relieve you." "Why will you"-answered you have compassed it, you may remember old Demo, if you he faintly still persist to feed idle hopes! I have lived an please.

outcast: suffer me at least to die in peace; nor disturb my last ** Know first that all masters, even the least lovable, like to moments by vain illusions. My soul pants to rejoin the Sobe loved. All wish to be served from affection rather than preme Spirit; arrest not its flight; it would only be delaying duty. It flatters their pride, and it gratifies their selfishness. my eterual bliss!" They expect from this personal motive a greater devotion to "As the stranger spoke these words which struck even Ystheir interest, and a more unlimited obedience to their com-coob sufliciently to make him suspend his professional grin e mands. A master looks upon mere fidelity in his servant as --the last beams of the setting sun darted across the casou at bis due--as a thing scarce worth his thanks: but attachment the window upon his pale yet swarthy features. Thus visited he considers as a compliment to his merit, and if at all gener he secmed for a moment to revive. "I have always," said he ous, he will reward it with liberality. Mavroyeni is more considered my fate as connected with the great luminary that open than any body to this species of flattery. Spare it not, rules the creation. I have always paid it due worship, and therefore, If he speak to you kindly, let your face brighten firmly believed I could not breathe my last while its rays bone up. If he talk to you of his own affairs, though it should only upon me. Carry, me therefore, out, that I may take my last be to dispel the tedium of conveying all day long other men's farewell of the heavenly ruler of my earthly destinies!" thoughts, listen with the greatest eagerness. A single yawn, We all rushed forward to obey the mandate; but the stain and you are undone! Yet let not curiosity appear your mo being too narrow, the woman only opened the window, and tive, but the delight only of being honoured with his confi placed the dying man before it, so as to enjoy the full view of dence. The more you appear grateful for the least kindness, the glorious orb, just in the act of dropping beneath the borithe oftener you will receive important favours. Our ostenta- zon. He remained a few momento in silent adoration; and tious drogueman will feel a pleasure in raising your astonish mechanically we all joined him in fixing our eyes on the object ment. His vanity knows no bounds. Give it scope, therefore. l of his worship. It set in all its splendour; and when its When he comes home choking with its suppressed ebullitions, 1 golden disk had entirely disappeared, we looked round at the be their ready and patient receptacle :-do more; discreetly Parsee. He too, had sunk into everlasting rest.' -(1.1, 104) help him on in venting his conceit; provide him with a cure; hint wbat you heard certain people, not knowing you to be so From the dispensation of chalk and water, he is then near, say of his capacity, his merit, and his intluence. He ushered into a Turkish jail, the description of which, wishes to persuade the world that he completely rules the and of the plague with which it is visited, are very pasha. Tell him not llatly he does, but assume it as a thing finely written; and we strongly recommend them to of ceneral notoriety. Be neither too candid in your remarks, the attention of our readers. nor too fulsome in your flattery. Too palpable deviations from fact might appear a satire on your master's understand Every day a capital, fertile in crimes, pours new offenden ing. Should some disappointment evidently ruffle his temper, unto this dread rcceptacle; and its high walls and deep recer appear not to conceive the possibility of his vanity having re ses resound every instant with imprecations and curses, uttered ceived a mortification. Preserve the exact medium between in all the various idioms of the Ottoman empire. Deep moan. too cold a respect, and too presumptuous a forwardness. How and dismal yells leave not its frightful echoes a moment's reever much Mavroveni may caress you in private, never seem pose. From morning till night and from night till morning, quite at ease with him in public. A master still likes to re- the ear is stunned with the clang of chains, which the galley. main master, or, at least, to appear so to others. Should you slaves wear while confined to their cells, and which they still get into some scrape, wait not to confess your imprudence, drag about while toiling at their tasks. Linked together two until concealment becomes impossible; nor try to excuse the and two for life, should they sink under their sufferings they offence. Rather than that you should, by so doing, appear to still continue unsevered after death; and the man doomed to make light of your guilt, exaggerate your self-upbraidings, live on, drags after him the corpse of his dead companion. In and throw yourself entirely upon the drogueman's mercy. On no direction can the eye escape the spectacle of atrocious puaall occasions take care how you appear cleverer than your ishunents and of indescribable agonies. Here perhaps, you see lord, even in the splitting of a pen; or, if you cannot avoid ex- a wretch whose stifened limbs refuse their office, stop sodcelling him in some tritle, give his own tuition all the credit of denly short in the midst of his labour, and as if already impas your proficiency. Many things he will dislike, only because sible, dety the stripes that lay open huis flesh, and wait in total they come not from himself. Vindicate not your innocence iminobility the last merciful blow that is to end his misy: when unjustly rebuked: rather submit for the moment ; and while there you view his companion foaming with rage sud trust that, though Mavroyemi never will expressly acknowledge mudness, turn against his own person his desperate hands, tear his error, he will in due time pay you for your forbearance."' his clotted hair, rend his bleeding bosom, and strike his skall, -(1.43_45.)

until it hurst, against the wall of his dungeon, l. 110, 111.) In the course of his service with Mavroyeni, he' A few survived.

I was among these scanty relice I who, indifferent to life, Lingering in the streets of Constantinople, Anasand never stooped to avoid the shafts of death, even when they | tasius hears that his mother is dead, and proceeds to flew thickest around me, had more than once laid my finger on claim that heritage which. by the Turkish law in the livid wound they intlicted, had probed it as it festered; I yet remained unhurt: for sometimes the plague is a magnani

favour of proselytes, had devolved upon him. nous enemy, and while it seldom spares the pusillanimous

| How often,' he exclaims (after seeing his father in the exvictim, whose blood, ruouing cold ere it is tainted, lacks the

tremity of old age, how often does it happen in life, that the energy necessary to repel the intection when at hand, it will

most blissful moments of our return to our long left home aro pass him by who dares its utmost fury, and advances un

only those that just precede the instant of our arrival; those daunted to meet its raised dart.'-(I. 121.)

during which the imagination still is allowed to paint in its In this miserable receptacle of guilty and unhappy

own unblended colours the promised sweets of our reception! beings, Anastasius forms and cements the strongest

How often, after this glowing picture of the phantasy, does

the reality which follows appear cold and dreary! How often friendship with a young Greek, of the name of Anag

do even those who grieved to see us depart, grieve more to seo nosti. On leaving the prison, he vows to make Us return! and how often do we ourselves encounter nothing every exertion for ihe liberation of his friend-vows but sorrow, on again beholding the onge happy, joyous prothat are forgotten as soon as he is clear from the moters of our own hilarity, now mournful, and ti prison walls. After being nearly perished with hun-appointed, and themselves needing what consolation we may ger, and after being saved by the charity of an hospi- | bring!'-(1. 239, 210.) tal,' he gets into an intrigue with a rich Jewess—is de During his visit to Chios, he traces and describes tected-pursued-and, to save his life, turns Mussul. I the dyin

the dying misery of Helena, whom he had deserted, inan. This exploit performed, he suddenly meets his

and then debauches her friend Agnes. From thence friend Anagnosti-treats him with disdain—and; in a he sails to Rhodes, the remnants ot' which produce a quarrel which ensues between them, stabs him to the

great deal of eloquence and admirable descriptionheart.

(pp. 275, 276, vol. i.) From Rhodes he sails to Egypt; ** Life," says the dying Anagnosti, "has long been bitter and chap. 16 contains a short and very well written ness : death is a welcome guest: I rejoin those that love me, | history of the origin and progress of the Mameluke and in a better place. Already, methiuks, watching my tight, government. The flight of Mourad, and the pursuit of they stretch out their arnas from heaven to their dying Anag this chief in the streets of Cairo, would be considered nosti. Thou-if there be in thy breast one spark of pity left as very fine passages in the best histories of antiquity. for him thou once namedst thy brother for him to whom a

Our liinits prevent us from quoting thein. Anastasius holy tie, a sacred vow.... Ah! sutier not the starving hounds in the street .... See a little hallowed earth thrown over my

then becomes a Mameluke; marries his master's wretched corpse.” These words were his last.'-(1. 209.)

daughter, and is made a kiashef. In the numerous

skirmishes into which he falls in his new military life, The description of the murderer's remorse is among lit falls to his lot to shoot, from an ambush, Assad, his the finest passages in the work.

inveterate eneiny. From an obscure aisle in the church I beheld the solemn | Assad, though weltering in his blood, was still alive: but service: saw on the field of death the pale stiff corpse lowered the angel of death flapped his dark wings over the traitor's into its narrow cell, and hoping to exhaust sorrow's bitter cup, brow. Hearing footsteps advance, he made an effort to raise at night, when all mankind hushed its griefs, went back to my his head, probably in liopes of approaching succour: but befriend's final resting place, lay down upon his silent grave, and holding, but recognizing only me, he felt that no hopes rewatered with my tears the fresh-raised hollow mouud.

mained, and gave a groan of despair. Life was flowing out so In vain! Nor my tears nor my sorrows could avail. No fast, that I had only to stand still-my arms folded in each offerings nor penance could purchase me repose. Wherever I other-and with a steadfast eye watch its departure. One inwent, the beginning of our friendship and its issue still alikestant I saw my vanquished foe, agitated by a convulsive trerose in view; the fatal spot of blood still danced before my mor, open his eyes and dart at me a glance of impotent rage; steps, and the reeking dagger hovered before my aching eyes. but soon he averted them again, then gnashed his teeth, In the silent darkness of the night I saw the pale phantom of clenched his fist, and expired.:-(II. 92.) my friend stalk round any watchful couch, covered with gore and dust: and even during the unavailing riots of day, I still We quote this, and such passages as these, to show beheld the spectre rise over the festive board, glare on me with the great power of description which Mr. Hope pos. piteous look, and hand me whatever I attempted to reach. sesses. The vindictive man standing with his arms But whatever it presented seemed blasted by its touch. To muy

folded, and watching the blood flowing from the wound wine it gave the taste of blood, and to my bread the rauk fla

| of his enemy, is very new and very striking. Your of death!'-(1.212, 213.)

After the death of his wife, he collects his property, We question whether there is in the English lan- quits Egypt, and visits Mekkah, and acquires the title guage a finer description than this. We request our and prerogatives of an Hadjee. After this he returns readers to look at the very beautiful and affecting to the Turkish capital, renews his acquaiutance with picture of remorse, pp. 214, 215, vol. i. .

Spiridion, the friend of his youth, who in vain labours Equally good, but in another way, is the description to reclaim him, and whom he at last drives away, dis. of the opium coffee-house.

gusted with the vices and passions of Anastasius. We

then find our oriental profligate fighting as Turkish In this tchartchee might be seen any day a numerous col-captain in Egypt, against his old friends the Mame. lection of those whom private sorrows have driven to a public llukes : and afterwards employed in Wallachia, under exhibition of insanity. There each reeling idiot might take his old triend Mavroveni, against the Russians and his neighbour by the hand, and say, "Brother, and what ailed

Austrians. In this part of the work, we strongly rethee, to seek so dire a cure?There did I, with the rest of its familiars, now take my habitual station in my solitary niche,

cominend to our readers to look at the Mussulmans like an insensible motionless idol, sitting with sightiess eyeballs in a pastry-cook's shop during the Rhamadam, vol. ji. staring on vacuity.

p. 164; the village of beggars, vol. ii. p. 266; the One day, as I lay in less entire absence than usual under death of the Hungarian officer, vol. ii. p. 327; and, in the purple vines of the porch, adıniring the gold-tipped domes I the last days of Marroveni rol in 356: not for. of the majestic Sulimanye, the appearance of an old man with

getting the walk over a field of battle, vol. ii. p. 252. a snow-white beard, reclining on the couch beside me, caught

| The character of Mavroyeni is extremely well kept my attention. Half plunged in stupor, he every now and then burst out into a wild laugh, occasioned by the grotesque phan-up through the whole of the book; and his decline and tasıns which the ample dose of madjoon he had just swallowed death are drawn in a very spirited and masterly man. was sending up to his brain. I sat contemplating him with ner. The Spiridion part of the novel we are not so much mixed curiosity and dismay, when, as if for a moment roused struck with ; we entirely approve of Spiridion, and from his torpor, he took me by the hand, and fixing on my ought to take more interest in him ; but we cannot 'countenance, his dim vacant eyes, said in an impressive tone,

She tone, disguise the melancholy truth that he is occasionally a " Young man, thy days are yet few ; take the advice of one

little long and tiresoine. The next characters as. who, alas! has counted many, Lose no time; hie thee hence, nor cust bebind one lingering look: but if thou hast not the sumed by Anastasius are, a Smyrna debauchee, a strength, why tarry even here? Thy journey is but hait robber of the desert, and a Wahabee. After serving achieved. At once go on to that large mansion before thee. some time with these sectaries, he returns to Smyrna It is thy ultimate destination : and by thus beginning where -finds his child missing whom he had left therethou must end at last, thou mayest at least save both thy time and thy money,'-(1. 215, 216.,

*P. 325, vol. i.

traces the little boy to Egypt-recovers him-then scriptions in Anastasius nothing which corrupts the loses him, by sickness and wearied of life, retires to morals by intlaming the imagination of youth ; and end his days in a cottage in Carinthia. For striking I we are quite certain that every reader ends this novel passages in this part of the novel, we refer our readers with a greater disgust at vice, and a more thorough con. to the description of the burial-places near Constanti. viction of the necessity of subjugatiog passion, ihan nople, vol. iii. 11-13; the account of Djezzar Pacha's he feels from reading either of the celebrated works retirement to his harem during the revolt-equal to we have just mentioned. The sum of our eulogium is any thing in Tacitus ; and, above all, to the landing that Mr. Hope, without being very successful in his of Anastasius with his sick child, and the death of the style, or remarkably skilful in the delineation of char. infant. It is impossible not to see that this last pic. acter, has written å novel, which all clever people of ture is faithfully drawn from a sad and cruel reality. a certain age should read, because it is full of marvel. The account of the Wahabees is very interesting, vol. lously fine things iii. 128; and nothing is more so than the story of Euphrosyne. Anastasius had gained the affections of Euphrosyne, and ruined her reputation; he then wishes to cast her off, and to remove her from his SCARLETT'S POOR BILL. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, house.


("Ah no!" now cried Euphrosyne, convulsively clasping my 1. Letter to James Scarlet, Esq., M. P., on his Bill relating knees, "be not so barbarous! Shut not your own door ugainst to the Poor-Laws. By a Surrey Magistrate. London, 1821. ber against whom you have barred every once friendly door. 2. An Address to the Imperial Parliament, upon the Practical Do not deny her whom you have dishonoured the ouly asylum Means of gradually Abolishing the Poor-Lars, and Educashe has left. If I cannot be your wife, let me be your slave, ting the Poor Systematically. Nlustrated by an Account er your drudge. No service, however mean, shall I recoil from the Colonies of Fredericks-Oord in Holland, and of the Comwhen you command. At least before you I shall not have to mon Mountain in the South of Ireland. With General Ob. blush. In your eyes I shall not be what I must seem in those servations. Third Edition. By William Herbert Saunders, of others; I shall not from you incur the contempt which I Esq. London, 1821. must expect from my former companions; and my diligence 3. On Pauperism and the Poor-Laros. With a Suppletacat. to execute the lowest offices you may require, will earn for me,

London, 1821. not only as a bare alms at your hands, that support which, however scanty. I can elsсwhere only receive as an unmerited! We are friendly to the main principle of Mr. Scar. indulgence. Since I did a few days please your eye, I may lett's bill; but are rather surprised at the unworkman. still please it a few days longer :-perhaps a few days longer, like manner in which he has set about it. therefore, I may still wish to live; and when that last blessing, To fix a maximum for the poor-rates, we should conyour love, is gone by when my cheek, faded with grief, has

gone by, when my cheek, faded with griet, hasceive to be an operation of sufficient difficulty and lost the last attraction that could arrest your favour, then movelty to any one bill. There was no need to prospeak, then tell me so, that, burthening you no longer, I may l voke more prejudice, to rouse more hostility, and cre. retire-and die!" !-(III. 64, 65.)

ate more alarm, than such a bill would naturally do. Her silent despair, and patient misery, when she But Mr. Scarletí is a very strong man; and before he finds that she has not only ruined herself with the works his battering-ram, he chooses to have the wall world, but lost his affections also have the beauty of made of a thickness worthy of his blow-capable of the deepest tragedy.

evincing, by the enormity of its ruins, the superiluity

of his vigour, and the certainty of his aim. AccordNothing but the most unremitting tenderness on my part could in some degree have revived her drooping spirity.-But

Tingly, he has introduced into his bill a number oi prowhen, after my excursion, and the act of justice on Sophia, in visions, which have no necessary, and indeed, no bear which it ended, I re-appeared before the still trembling Euphro-connection with his great and main object; but which syne, she saw too soon that that cordial of the heart must not are sure to draw upon his back all the Sir Johns and be expected. One look she cast upon my countenance, as I Sir Thomases the House of Commons. It may be sat down in silence, sufficed to inform her of my total change right, or it may be wrong, that the chargeable poor of sentiments; and the responsive look by which it was met, I should be removed; but why introduce such a contro. tore forever from her brenst the last seeds of hope and confidence. Like the wounded spail she shrunk within herself, and

Liverted point into a bill framed for a much more importhenceforth.cloaked in unceasing sadness, never more expanded tant object, and of itself calculated to produce so to the sunshine of joy. With her buoyancy of spirits she scem- much difference of opinion ! Mr. Scarlett appears to ed even to lose all her quickuess of intellect, nay, all her readi- us to have been not only indiscreet in the introduction ness of speech: so that, not only fearing to einbark with her of such heterogencous matter, but very much mista. in serious conversation, but even finding no response in her ken in the enactinents which that matter contains. mind to lighter topics, I at last began to nauseate her seeming i torpor and dulness, and to roam abroad even more frequently And be it further enacted, that from and after the passing than before a partner of my fate remained at home, to count of this act, it shall not be lawful for any justice of peace or the tedious hours of my absence; while she, poor miserable other person to remove, or cause to be removed, any poor creature, drending the sneers of an unfeeling world, passed person or persons froin any parish, township or place, to any her time under my roof in dismal and heart-breaking solitude other, by reason of such person or persons being chargeable to -Had the most patient endurance of the most intemperate such parish, township or place, or being unable to maintaia sallies been able to soothe my disappointment and to rotten ny him or themselves, or under colour of such person or persons hardness, Euphrosyne's angelic sweetness must at last have being settled in any other parish, township or place, any law conquered: but, in my jaundiced eye, her resignation only or statute to the contrary notwithstanding : Provided al rays, tended to strengthen the conviction of her shame, and I saw that nothing in this act shall in any wise be deemed to alter in her forbearance nothing but the consequence of her debase- any law now in force for the punishment of vagrants, or for ment, and the consciousness of her guilt. "Did her heart," removing poor persons to Scotland, Ireland, or the Isles of thought I, “bear witness to a purity on which my audacity Guernscy, Jersey, and Map.-Aud be it further enacted, that dared first to cast a blemish, she could not remain thus tame, in cases where any poor person, at the time of the passing of thus spiritless, under such an aggravation of my wrongs; and this act, shall be resident in any parish, township or place, either she would be the first to quit my merciless root, or, at where he is not legally settled, and shall be receiving relief least, she would not so fearfully avoid giving me even the most from the overseers, guardians, or directors of the poor of the unfounded pretence for deuying her its shelter.-Slie must place of his legal settlement, the said overseers, guardians, or merit her sufferings, to bear them so meekly!"-lence, oven directors, are hereby required to continue such relief, in the when moved to real pity by gentleness so enduring, I seldom same manner, and by the same means, as the same is now adrelented in my apparent sternuess.'-(III. 72–74.)

ministered, until one of his majesty's justices of the peace, in

or near the place o: residence of such poor person, shall, upon With this, we end our extracts from Anastasius.-- application to him, either by such poor person, or any other We consider it as a work in which great and extraord on his behalt, for the continuance thereof, or by the said oper. dinary talent is evinced. It abounds in cloquent and seers, guardiaus, or directors of the poor, paying such relies, sublime passages in sense in knowledve of histo. | for the discharge thereof, certify that the same is no longer ry,--and in knowledge of human character; but not

necessary.'-(Bill, pp. 3, 4.) in wit. It is too long; and if this novel perishes, and Now, here is a gentleman, so thoroughly and so just. is forgotten, it will be solely on that account. If it is ly sensi

ensible of the evils ot' the poor-laws, il

the introthe picture of vice, so is Clarissa Harlowe, and so is duces into the House of Commons a very plain and Tom Jones. There are no sensual and glowing de. very bold measure to restrain them; and yet in the

happen hap

very same bill, he abrogates the few impediments that one of the most extraordinary we crer remember to remain to universal mendicity. The present law says, have been introduced into any act of Parliament. Before you can turn beggar in the place of your resi.

And whereas it may happen, that in several parishes or dence, you must have been born there, or you must

townships now burdened with the maintenance of the poor have rented a farm there, or served an office ;' but Mr. settled and residing therein, the owners of lands or inhabitScarlett says, “ You may beg anywhere where you ants may, in order to remove the residence of the labouring

be. I will have no obstacles to your turn poor from such parishes or places, destroy the cottages and ing beggar; I will give every facility and every allure. habitations therein, now occupied by the labourers and their ment to the destruction of your independence.' We families: And whereas, also, it may luppen, that certain towns are quite confident that the direct tendency of Mr. and villages, maintaining their own poor, may, by the resi

dence therein of labourers employed and working in other paScarlett's enactments is to produce these effects. La

rishes or townships lying near the said towns and villages, be bourers living in one place, and settled in another, are charged with the burden of maintaining those who do not uniformly the best and inost independent characters work, and before the passing of this act were not settled in the place. Alarmed at the idea of being removed therein; For remedy thereof, be it enacted, by the authority from the situation of their choice, and knowing they aforesaid, that, in either of the above cases, it shall be lawful have nothing to depend upon but themselves, they are for the justices, at any quarter-seksjons of the peace held for alone exempted from the degrading influence of the the cou

the county in which such places shall be, upon the complaint

of the overseers of the poor of any parish, town or place, that poor-laws, and frequently arrive at independence by

by reason of either of the causes aforesaid, the rates for the reiheir exclusion from that banerul privilege which is of li

lief of the poor of such parish, town or place, have been mafered to them by the inconsistent benevolence of this terially increased, whilst those of any other parish or place bill. If some are removed, after long residence in have been diminished, to hear and fully to inquire into the parishes where they are not settled, these examples matter of such complaint; and in case they shall be satisfied only insure the beneficial effect of which we have been of the truth thereof, then to make an order upon the overseers speaking. Others see them, dread the same fate, quit of the poor of the parish or township, whose rates have been

diminished by the causes aforesaid, to pay to the complainants the mug, and grasp the flail. Our policy, as we have

such sum or sums from time to time, as the said justices shall explained in a previous article, is directly the reverse adjudge reasonable, not exceeding in any case, together wita of that of Mr. Scarlett. Considering that a poor man, the existing rates, the amount Iunited by this act, as a contrisince Mr. East's bill, if he asks no c

bution towards the relief of the poor of the parish, town, or to live where he pleases, and that a settlement is now place, whose rates have been increased by the causes aforenothing more than a beggar's ticket, we would gradu.said ; which order shall continue in force until the same shall

be discharged by some future order of sessions, upon the apally abolish all means of gaining a settlement, but those of birth, parentage, or marriage; and this me.!

plication of the overseers paying the same, and proof that the

occasion for it no longer exists: Provided always, that no thod would destroy litigation as effectually as the me

such order shall be made, without proof of notice in writing of thod proposed by Mr. Scarlett.

such intended application, and of the grounds thereof having Mr. Scarlett's plan, too, we are firmly persuaded, been served upon the overscers of the poor of the parish or would completely defeat his own intentions; and would place, upon whom such order is prayed, fourteen days at the inflict a greater injury upon the poor than this very bill. I least before the first day of the quarter-sessions, nor unless the intended to prevent their capricious removal. if this Justices making such order shall be satisfied that no money has

been improperly or unnecessarily expended by the overseers bill had passed, he could not have passed. His post.

of the poor praying for such order; and that a separate and chaise on the northern circuit would have been impe- distinci account has been kept by them of the additional burden ded by the crowds of houseless villagers, driven from which has been thrown upon their rates by the causes alleged.' their cottages by landlords rendered merciless by the (Bill, pp. 4, 5.) bill. In the mud-all in the mud (for such cases made. Now this clause, we cannot help saying, appears to and provided) would they have rolled this most excel.lus to be a receipt for universal and interminable liti. lent counsellor. Instigated by the devil and their own gation all over England--a perfect law-hurricane-a malicious purposes, his wig they would have polluted, conversion of all flesh into plaintiffs and defendants. and tossed to a thousand winds the parchment bicker. The parish A. has pulled down houses, and burthened ings of Doe and Roe. Mr. Scarlett's bill is so power the parish B.; B. has demolished to the misery of C.; ful a motive to proprietors for the

a which has again misbehaved itself in the same manner village-for preventing the poor from living where they to the oppression of other letters of the alphabet. All wish to live, -that nothing but the conviction that such run into parchment, and pant for revenge and exoner. a bill would be suffered to pass, has prevented those ation. Though the fact may be certain enough, the effects from already taking place. Landlords would causes which gave rise to it may be very uncertain ; in the contemplation of such a bill, pull down all the and assuredly will not be admitted to have been those cottages of persons not belonging to the parish, and against which the statute has denounced these penal. eject the tenants; the most vigorous measures wouldties. It will be alleged, therefore, that the houses be taken to prevent any one from remaining or com- were not pulled down to get rid of the poor, but be. ing who was not absolutely necessary to the lord of cause they were not worth repair-because they obthe soil. At present, cottages are let to any body; structed the squire's view-because rent was not paid. because, if they are burthensome to the parish, the All these motives must go before the sessions, the last tenants can be removed. But the impossibility of do- resource of legislators-the unhappy quarter-sessions ing this would cause the immediate demolition of cot. pushed to the extremity of their wit by the plump con. tages ; prevent the erection of fresh ones where they tradictions of parish perjury. are really wanted ; and chain a poor man forever to! Another of the many sources of litigation, in this the place of his birth, without the possibility of mo-clause, is as follows:-- A certain number of workmen ving. If every body who passed over Mr. Scarlett's live in a pariska M., not being settled in it, and not threshold were to gain à settlement for lite in his working in it before the passing of this act. After the house, he would take good care never to be at home. passing of this act, they become chargeable to M., We all boldly let our friends in, because we know we whose poor-rates are increased. M. is to find out the can easily get them out. So it was with the residence parishes relieved from the burthen of these men, and of the poor. Their present power of living where they to prosecute at the quarter-sessions for relief. But please, and going where they please, entirely depends suppose the burthened parish to be in Yorkshire, and upon the possibility of their removal when they be the relieved parish in Cornwall, are the quarter-sessions comc chargeable. If any mistaken friend were to take in Yorkshire to make an order of annual payment upon from them this protection, the whole power and jeal. a parish in Cornwall ? and Cornwall, in turn, upon ousy

uld be turned against their loco- | Yorkshire? How is the money to be transmitted? motive liberty; they would become adscripti glebæ, What is the easy and chcap remedy, if neglected to be no more capable of going out of the parish than a tree paid? And if all this could be eifected, what is it, af is of proceeding, with its roots and branches, to a ter all, but the present system of removal rendered neighbouring wood.

ten times more intricate, confused, and expensive ! The remedy here proposed for these evils is really Perhaps Mr. Scarlett means, that the parishes where

these men worked, and which may happen to be with. This has since been done.

Lin the jurisdiction of the justices, are to be taxed in

Lion of


aid of the parish M., in proportion to the benefit they / tious; and all the good expected from the abhave received from the labour of men whose distresses olition ot the poor-laws will begin to appear. But they do not relieve. We must have, then, a detailed! these expectations will be entirely "frustrated, account of how much a certain carpenter worked in and every advantage of Mr. Scarlett's bill de one parish, how much in another; and enter into a stroyed, by this fatal facility of eluding and repealing species of evidence absolutely interminable. We hope it. Mr. Scarlett will not be angry with us; we entertain The danger of insurrection is a circumstance worthy for his abilities and character the highest possible res. of the most serious consideration, in discussing the pect ; but great lawyers have not leisure for these propriety of a maximun. Mr. Scarlett's bill is an in. trifling details. It is very fortunate that a clause so fallible receipt for tumult and agitation, whenever erroneous in its view should be so inaccurate in its con- corn is a little dearer than common, Repeal the mai. struction. If it were easy to comprehend it, and pos- imum,' will be the clamour in every village ; and woe sible to execute it, it would be necessary to repeal it. be to those members of the village vestry who should

The shortest way, however, of mending all this, will oppose the ineasure. Whether it was really a year of be entirely to omit this part of the bill. We earnestly, scarcity, and whether it was a proper season for ex. but with very little hopes of success, exhort Mr. Scar: panding the bounty of the law, would be a question lett not to endanger the really important part of his constantly and fiercely agitaied between the farmers project, by the introduction of a measure which has and the poor. If the maximum is to be quietly subille to do with it, and which any quarter-session mitted to, its repeal must be rendered imp

impossible but country squire can do as well or beiter than himself. to the legisiature. “Burn your ships, Mr. Scarleit.The real question introduced by his bill is, whether or You are doing a wise and necessary thing; don't be not a limit shall be put to the poor-laws; and not only afraid of yourself. Respect your own nest. Don't let this, but whether their amount shall be gradually di clause A repeal clause B. Be stout. Take care that minished. To this better and higher part of the law, the rat lawyers ou the treasury bench do not take the we shall now address ourselves.

oysters out of your bill, and leave you the shell. Do In this, however, as well as in the former part of his not yield one particle of the wisdom and philosophy bill, Mr. Scarlett becomes frightened at his own enact. of your measure to the country gentlemen of the ments, and repeals hiinself. Parishes are first to re-earth.' lieve every person actually resident within them. This We object to a marimum which is not rendered a is no sooner enacted, than a provision is introduced to decreasing maximum. If definite sums were fixed for relieve them from this expense, tentold more burthen- each village, which they could not exceed, that sum some and expensive than the present system ot' remo- would, in a very few years, become a minimum, and an val. In the same manner, a maximum is very wisely established claim. If SOs. were the sum allotted ior and bravely enacted; and in the following clause is a particular hamlet, the poor would very soon come to immediately repealed.

imagine that they were entitled to that precise sum,

and the farmers that they were compelled to give it.* Provided also, and be it further enacted, that if, by reason | Any maximum established should be a decreasig, but of any unusual scarcity of provisions, epidemic disease, or any

a very slowly decreasing maximum,--perhaps it should other cause of a temporary or local nature, it shall be deemed expedient by the overseers of the poor, or other persons haviay not decrease at a greater rate than 10s. per cent, per by virtue of any local act of Parliament, the authority of

annum. overseers of the poor of any parish, township, or place, to It may be doubtful, also, whether the first bill should

for the relief of the aim at repealing more than 20 per cent. of the present poor, beyond the amount limited by this act, it shall be lawful amount of the poor-rates. This would be effected in for the said overseers, or such other persons, to give public forty years. Long before that time, the good or bad notice in the several churches, and other places of Worship, ctects of the measure would be fairly estimated; if it within the same parish, township, or place, and if there be no church or chapel within such place, then in the parish church

is wise that it should proceed, let posterity do the rest. or chapel next adjoining the same, of the place and time of a ye. It is by no means necessary to destrov, in one mo. neral meeting of the inhabitants paying to the relief of the ment, upon paper, a payment which cannot, withoot poor within such parish, township, or place, for the purpose violating every principle of justice, and every consideof considering the occasion and the amount of the proposed ration ot safety and humanity, be extinguished in less addition : and, if it shall appedr to the majority of the per-than two centuries. sons assembled at such meeting, that such addition shall be ne- It is important for Mr. Scarlett to consider whether cessary, then it shall be lawful to the overseers, or other per

ber- he will make the operation of his bill immediate, or sons having power to make assessments, to increase the assess. ment by the additional sum proposed and allowed, at such interpose two or three years between its enactment meeting, and for the justices, by whom such rate is to be allow

and first ope tion. ed, upon due proof upon oath to be made before them, of the We entirely object to the following clause: the resolution of such meeting, and that the same was held after whole of which ought to be expunged :sufficient public notice to allow such rate with the proposed addition, specifying the exact amount thereof, with the rea

And be it further enacted that it shall not be lawful for any sons for allowing the same, upon the face of the rate.' - church-warden, overseer, or guardian of the poor, or any (Bill, p. 2).

other person having authority to administer relief to the poor,

to allow or give, or for any justice of the peace to order, any It would really seem, from these and other qualify- relief to any person whatsoever, who shall be married after the ing provisions, as if Mr. Scarlett had never reflected passing of this act, for himself, herself, or any part of his or upon the consequences of his leading enactments till her family, unless such poor person shall be actually, at the he had penned them; and that he then set about find. time of asking such relief, by reason of age, sickness, of ing how he could prevent himself from doing what he

bodily infirmity, unable to obtain a livelihood, and to supmeant to do.

port his or her family by work: Provided always, that noTo what purpose enact a maximum, if I thing in this clause contained shall be construed so as to that maximum may at any time be repealed by the authorize the granting relief, or making any order for remajority of the parishioners? How will the compas. I liet, in cases where the same was not lawful before the pas sion and charity which the poor laws have set to sleep sing of this act. be awakened, when such a remedy is at hand as the Nothing in the whole bill will occasion so much repeal of the maximum by a vote of the parish? Will abuse and misrepresentation as this clause, It is ardent and amiable men form theinselves into volun- upon this that the radicals will first fasten. It will, tary associations to meet any sudden exigency of fa- of course, be explained into a prohibition of marriage mine and epidemic disease, when this sleepy and to the poor ; and will, in fact, create a marked dis. sluggish method of overcoining the evil can be had re- tinction between two classes of paupers, and become course to ? As soon as it becomes really impossible a rallying point for insurrection. In fact, it is wholly to increase the poor fund by law-when there is but unnecessary. As the funds for the reliet' of pauperism little, and there can be no more, that little will be ad-decrease, under the operation of a diminishing maxiministered with the utmost caution ; claims will be mum, the first to whom relief is refused will be the minutely inspected ; idle manhood will not receive the young and the strong; in other words, the most absurd scraps and crumbs which belong to failing old age; and extravagant consequences of the present poor. distress will make the poor provident and cau-l laws will be the first cured.

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